Ethics: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

Current Affairs & Hindu Analysis: Daily, Weekly & Monthly

Current Affairs : Ethics: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
82	 																																																																									
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	INTERNATIONAL	ETHICS	
Introduction  
The outbreak of COVID-19 has suddenly altered the global realities regarding availability of resources and 
interaction among states. The shock created by the pandemic brought to the fore several international ethical 
dilemmas to the fore, such as national vs. global debate on access to vaccines or the idea of rights and 
responsibilities of developed nations towards other nations.  
What is international ethics?  
As the term suggests, international ethics refers to the ethics of interaction among nations. This interaction 
could be direct, like in the 
form of trade, capital flow 
and flow of people or even 
war. They can also interact 
indirectly as a participant 
of global affairs. For 
instance, India may not 
directly interact with many 
South American countries 
but they indirectly interact 
with them through 
international bodies like 
UN.  
As a corollary, 
International ethics offers 
insights into how nations 
and other entities treat 
other nations and its 
people. It provides us with 
insights to assess the good 
and harms, the rights and 
wrongs, which can occur in 
the international space. 
International ethics takes 
care of "justice in global 
affairs, legitimacy and 
influence in international 
politics. 
For a nation, International 
ethics enables one to participate more actively in shaping and building good international community. Ukraine 
crisis, the refugee crisis engulfing Europe, the civil war in Syria, the unresolved maritime territorial disputes in 
the South China Sea; all these disputes could be framed fundamentally as ethical and normative challenges. 
What role do international ethics play in global affairs?  
• Rising globalization: It is resulting in interdependence and greater shared responsibilities, thereby calling on 
nations and other multinational organizations to act jointly. 
o Because of the growing power of non-state actors (especially multinational corporations), in terms of 
their economic, political, and social reach. It is necessary to ask questions relating to their moral choices. 
• Resolution of international conflicts: UN has been promoting various principles of friendly and cooperative 
and peace related humanitarian international actions by all the member countries. 
 
Page 2


	
82	 																																																																									
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	INTERNATIONAL	ETHICS	
Introduction  
The outbreak of COVID-19 has suddenly altered the global realities regarding availability of resources and 
interaction among states. The shock created by the pandemic brought to the fore several international ethical 
dilemmas to the fore, such as national vs. global debate on access to vaccines or the idea of rights and 
responsibilities of developed nations towards other nations.  
What is international ethics?  
As the term suggests, international ethics refers to the ethics of interaction among nations. This interaction 
could be direct, like in the 
form of trade, capital flow 
and flow of people or even 
war. They can also interact 
indirectly as a participant 
of global affairs. For 
instance, India may not 
directly interact with many 
South American countries 
but they indirectly interact 
with them through 
international bodies like 
UN.  
As a corollary, 
International ethics offers 
insights into how nations 
and other entities treat 
other nations and its 
people. It provides us with 
insights to assess the good 
and harms, the rights and 
wrongs, which can occur in 
the international space. 
International ethics takes 
care of "justice in global 
affairs, legitimacy and 
influence in international 
politics. 
For a nation, International 
ethics enables one to participate more actively in shaping and building good international community. Ukraine 
crisis, the refugee crisis engulfing Europe, the civil war in Syria, the unresolved maritime territorial disputes in 
the South China Sea; all these disputes could be framed fundamentally as ethical and normative challenges. 
What role do international ethics play in global affairs?  
• Rising globalization: It is resulting in interdependence and greater shared responsibilities, thereby calling on 
nations and other multinational organizations to act jointly. 
o Because of the growing power of non-state actors (especially multinational corporations), in terms of 
their economic, political, and social reach. It is necessary to ask questions relating to their moral choices. 
• Resolution of international conflicts: UN has been promoting various principles of friendly and cooperative 
and peace related humanitarian international actions by all the member countries. 
 
	
83	 																																																																													
“If it's wrong when they do it, it's wrong when we do it.”: Noam Chomsky 
• Environmental Protection: International ethics guides the fight against ozone depletion, global warming, 
etc. which are common shared problems, and which require actions from all the nations. 
• Managing global health emergencies: Response to emergencies such as COVID-19 calls for ensuring the 
ethical inclusion of vulnerable groups in the vaccine development process and making a safe, effective 
vaccine accessible to all. 
• Protecting Human Rights: Even today, human rights continue to go unprotected and disrespected, with 
situations of protracted conflict and displacement only the most visible example of a gap between the 
promise and reality of universal human rights. Global ethics could address this challenge on both a 
conceptual and practical level. 
What are the elements that dictate a country’s approach towards international ethics?  
• Size and nature of the nation and the economy: It defines a nation’s space for international relations as 
nations. For instance, the nations which have large export/import sectors are dependent on other 
economies and are vulnerable to international developments. 
• Competition between Nations: It is easier to grasp ethical issues associated with international problems by 
considering nations competing with one another for (natural) resources, competing for markets, competing 
for investments, competing for talents, competing for technology and education. 
o For example, former US President Trump’s desire to place high tariffs on foreign allies to boost America’s 
economy (America First approach), has been labeled unethical by international leaders. 
• Power and international ethics: International ethics is influenced by various philosophies of international 
and national power and how this power is played out. There are beliefs in some quarters that power does 
not follow any rules and this reasoning (thought faulty) tilts the global balance in favor of powerful nations 
and entities and is unfavorable to less powerful nations and entities. 
o For instance, Human rights norms and international humanitarian law tend to focus more on human 
rights issues related to non-Western countries. 
• Defence and military enterprise: International ethics also play out in the form of use of power by one 
country against another country to achieve its global goals and protecting its national interests. 
o For example, post 9/11, war on Afghanistan and Iraq by western powers was justified on domestic 
security grounds. 
• Systems, social arrangements, and conditions that define our range of choices: These systems and social 
arrangements tend to form public opinion in a nation. It plays a vital role guiding the level and nature of 
engagement a country would have with other countries.  
o For example, Freedom of speech in a country and the associated international media scrutiny at times 
plays an important role in guiding relations among nations.  
• Decision maker or the agent who makes a choice: All individual (president, minister, official representative, 
CEO, community leader, consumer) are moral agents. Each has a role as an autonomous actor. 
There is a sloka on human interaction in Mahabharata’s Shanti-Parva where Vidura tells Yudhisthira: “By self-
control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself.” 
• Interdependence, cooperation, and collaboration: What one country has done to the people of another 
country; what one group has done to another group provides the general field for international ethics. 
o During the 1961 Berlin crisis, Soviets attempted to sabotage West Germany and Berlin by blockading 
their access to food, water, and other basic necessities. US and Britain responded by airlifting supplies to 
Berlin. 
• Diplomatic relations: Diplomatic initiatives help to resolve differences, facilitates movement of people, 
ensure peace and security and to further their rights and interests and to share duties and responsibilities.  
o Ethical practices, such as respect for human life and the tenants of democracy, are a key feature of a 
stable nation and portray a reputation of strength, trustworthiness, and stability. 
“Without Ethical Culture, there is no salvation to Humanity”: Albert Einstein 
What are the challenges in creating an International framework of ethical conduct?  
While public relation ethics are closely linked to the cultural and social environments, conceptualizing ethics in a 
global context could be challenging for the following reasons: 
Page 3


	
82	 																																																																									
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	INTERNATIONAL	ETHICS	
Introduction  
The outbreak of COVID-19 has suddenly altered the global realities regarding availability of resources and 
interaction among states. The shock created by the pandemic brought to the fore several international ethical 
dilemmas to the fore, such as national vs. global debate on access to vaccines or the idea of rights and 
responsibilities of developed nations towards other nations.  
What is international ethics?  
As the term suggests, international ethics refers to the ethics of interaction among nations. This interaction 
could be direct, like in the 
form of trade, capital flow 
and flow of people or even 
war. They can also interact 
indirectly as a participant 
of global affairs. For 
instance, India may not 
directly interact with many 
South American countries 
but they indirectly interact 
with them through 
international bodies like 
UN.  
As a corollary, 
International ethics offers 
insights into how nations 
and other entities treat 
other nations and its 
people. It provides us with 
insights to assess the good 
and harms, the rights and 
wrongs, which can occur in 
the international space. 
International ethics takes 
care of "justice in global 
affairs, legitimacy and 
influence in international 
politics. 
For a nation, International 
ethics enables one to participate more actively in shaping and building good international community. Ukraine 
crisis, the refugee crisis engulfing Europe, the civil war in Syria, the unresolved maritime territorial disputes in 
the South China Sea; all these disputes could be framed fundamentally as ethical and normative challenges. 
What role do international ethics play in global affairs?  
• Rising globalization: It is resulting in interdependence and greater shared responsibilities, thereby calling on 
nations and other multinational organizations to act jointly. 
o Because of the growing power of non-state actors (especially multinational corporations), in terms of 
their economic, political, and social reach. It is necessary to ask questions relating to their moral choices. 
• Resolution of international conflicts: UN has been promoting various principles of friendly and cooperative 
and peace related humanitarian international actions by all the member countries. 
 
	
83	 																																																																													
“If it's wrong when they do it, it's wrong when we do it.”: Noam Chomsky 
• Environmental Protection: International ethics guides the fight against ozone depletion, global warming, 
etc. which are common shared problems, and which require actions from all the nations. 
• Managing global health emergencies: Response to emergencies such as COVID-19 calls for ensuring the 
ethical inclusion of vulnerable groups in the vaccine development process and making a safe, effective 
vaccine accessible to all. 
• Protecting Human Rights: Even today, human rights continue to go unprotected and disrespected, with 
situations of protracted conflict and displacement only the most visible example of a gap between the 
promise and reality of universal human rights. Global ethics could address this challenge on both a 
conceptual and practical level. 
What are the elements that dictate a country’s approach towards international ethics?  
• Size and nature of the nation and the economy: It defines a nation’s space for international relations as 
nations. For instance, the nations which have large export/import sectors are dependent on other 
economies and are vulnerable to international developments. 
• Competition between Nations: It is easier to grasp ethical issues associated with international problems by 
considering nations competing with one another for (natural) resources, competing for markets, competing 
for investments, competing for talents, competing for technology and education. 
o For example, former US President Trump’s desire to place high tariffs on foreign allies to boost America’s 
economy (America First approach), has been labeled unethical by international leaders. 
• Power and international ethics: International ethics is influenced by various philosophies of international 
and national power and how this power is played out. There are beliefs in some quarters that power does 
not follow any rules and this reasoning (thought faulty) tilts the global balance in favor of powerful nations 
and entities and is unfavorable to less powerful nations and entities. 
o For instance, Human rights norms and international humanitarian law tend to focus more on human 
rights issues related to non-Western countries. 
• Defence and military enterprise: International ethics also play out in the form of use of power by one 
country against another country to achieve its global goals and protecting its national interests. 
o For example, post 9/11, war on Afghanistan and Iraq by western powers was justified on domestic 
security grounds. 
• Systems, social arrangements, and conditions that define our range of choices: These systems and social 
arrangements tend to form public opinion in a nation. It plays a vital role guiding the level and nature of 
engagement a country would have with other countries.  
o For example, Freedom of speech in a country and the associated international media scrutiny at times 
plays an important role in guiding relations among nations.  
• Decision maker or the agent who makes a choice: All individual (president, minister, official representative, 
CEO, community leader, consumer) are moral agents. Each has a role as an autonomous actor. 
There is a sloka on human interaction in Mahabharata’s Shanti-Parva where Vidura tells Yudhisthira: “By self-
control and by making dharma (right conduct) your main focus, treat others as you treat yourself.” 
• Interdependence, cooperation, and collaboration: What one country has done to the people of another 
country; what one group has done to another group provides the general field for international ethics. 
o During the 1961 Berlin crisis, Soviets attempted to sabotage West Germany and Berlin by blockading 
their access to food, water, and other basic necessities. US and Britain responded by airlifting supplies to 
Berlin. 
• Diplomatic relations: Diplomatic initiatives help to resolve differences, facilitates movement of people, 
ensure peace and security and to further their rights and interests and to share duties and responsibilities.  
o Ethical practices, such as respect for human life and the tenants of democracy, are a key feature of a 
stable nation and portray a reputation of strength, trustworthiness, and stability. 
“Without Ethical Culture, there is no salvation to Humanity”: Albert Einstein 
What are the challenges in creating an International framework of ethical conduct?  
While public relation ethics are closely linked to the cultural and social environments, conceptualizing ethics in a 
global context could be challenging for the following reasons: 
	
84	 																																																																									
• Defining global ethics: States will not always agree on what is ethical and what is unethical. One of the 
problems the League of Nations faced is that different states can have their own viewpoints on ethics and 
aggression. 
o Consider the nuclear weapons doctrine of MAD—mutual assured destruction. The entire strategic 
framework is based on the idea of reciprocal threat. Within this system, to ensure stability, the most 
rational thing to do is to make an immoral threat (and be prepared to carry it out). 
“To be prepared for War is one of the most effectual means of preserving peace.” ? George Washington 
• Polarizations between local and global: Advocating for the global is considered another attempt to 
reproduce the imperialistic normative framework as a model for enhancing global and moral acceptance for 
Western imperialism. 
• Domination of some global publics: The adoption of a global ethical framework is not justifiable if the values 
of only a few global publics are considered. Global inclusivity (i.e., considering everyone’s values and moral 
thinking) and global solidarity (i.e., showing equal concern for everyone’s well-being) should be considered 
when approaching ethics in a global context. 
• Western dominance over defining global norms: Western norms tend to get accepted as universal ideas 
despite prevalence of evident issues. For example, Sanctions, supposedly a humane alternative to war, shift 
the burden of harm largely to civilians, mainly women and children and cause large-scale death and suffering 
through ‘structural violence’ (starvation, malnutrition, and disease). 
How can an international ethical framework be 
approached?  
The perception of international ethics across the 
world is different. These are dependent on the 
elements of their situation and policies. But 
despite these variations, global interactions and 
the need for cooperation has generated universal 
acceptance of some basic principles-  
• Pluralism: The idea states that sooner or later 
all countries will have to collaborate at some 
level as humanitarian existence is shared as a 
common experience. For example, the 
humanitarian existence is contingent upon 
the collective ability of all countries to 
cooperate for checking climate change.  
• Rights and Responsibilities: The idea 
emphasizes that it is the responsibility of all countries (especially mature and developed countries) to 
protect the rights of all of its global citizens. Refraining from this reality leads to scenarios such as civil strife, 
wars, migrant crisis and human right violations. Such issues affect the well -being of not only the nation 
concerned but also the associated nations.  
• Fairness: Fairness in some form of the other is a part of ethical systems across the globe. As a result, it gets 
naturally translated to the global interactions. This idea materializes in the form of acts of reciprocity, equal 
treatment of nations, etc. 
These principles could form the bedrock or the core ideology guiding creation of an international ethical 
framework. The modalities of such a framework may change with time, technological development or societal 
change. But the essence of this framework would be centred on the above mentioned principles.  
 
 
 
 
 
 
Read More
Offer running on EduRev: Apply code STAYHOME200 to get INR 200 off on our premium plan EduRev Infinity!

Related Searches

Sample Paper

,

mock tests for examination

,

Summary

,

ppt

,

Viva Questions

,

study material

,

practice quizzes

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

Ethics: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

video lectures

,

Objective type Questions

,

Ethics: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

Important questions

,

MCQs

,

past year papers

,

Free

,

Ethics: May 2021 Current Affair Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

,

pdf

,

Exam

,

Semester Notes

,

Extra Questions

;