Ethics: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

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Current Affairs : Ethics: Vision IAS March 2021 Current Affairs Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


	
	
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	POLICE	CORRUPTION	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, a PIL filed by the former Mumbai Police Commissioner raised the issue of alleged corruption in police 
transfers and postings in the state. 
What is Police Corruption? 
Police corruption is a specific form of police 
misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, 
other personal gain, and/or career advancement 
for a police officer or officers in exchange for not 
pursuing, or selectively pursuing their duty or 
misuse of public office in any form. 
Reasons behind Police Corruption 
• Absence of a strong institutional culture: 
Institutional value system plays an important 
role in guiding the behavior of participants in 
the system. It creates an internal need to 
follow the ethos and decreases the need for 
an any external or legal enforcer.  
o For instance, strong institutional culture 
practiced in the Indian Armed Forces 
results in soldiers following the same 
discipline outside the military ecosystem 
despite having no external enforcer.  
• Misuse of power and discretion: Police personnel wield wide powers and discretion while discharging their 
functions and those driven by selfish motives can misuse to accumulate private gains. 
• Ineffective enforcement of legislations: Ambiguities in legislations coupled with the police discretion “to act 
or not to act” in respect of certain offences give ample opportunities to the personnel to resort to corrupt 
practices. 
o Santhanam Committee noted that administrative delays are one of the major causes of corruption and 
there have been numerous cases where delay has been deliberately contrived. 
• Criminalization of politics: Political patronage coupled with muscle and money power enjoyed by the 
underworld prompt many police personnel to collude with such forces in order to make material gains. 
o Also, because of nexus between Police and mafia operators, organized crimes such as periodic extortion, 
kidnapping etc. committed by them go undetected. 
• Lack of supervision: Strength and the quality of the policepersons has not kept pace with the demands of a 
rapidly expanding economy and administration. This has resulted in supervision becoming ineffective. 
• Vicious cycle of bribery: Policepersons who have paid their way through, try to recover the amount as soon 
as possible and corruption becomes a tool for getting better return on investment. 
• Other factors: Salary structures, nature and hours of duty, poor training, accommodation problem and certain 
administrative and organizational problem etc. 
	
Need for Ethics in Policing 
Policing is essential for maintaining law and order and smooth functioning of the society. The discretionary power at all 
levels of functioning is extremely high. In this context, the absence of a professional code of ethics creates a scenario 
where it is easy to be a moral opportunist and use unethical conduct as a means of career advancement. Therefore, the 
old predicament, “who will guard the guardians”, makes imperative the need for a framework of values and professional 
ethics to guide the police in their dealing with citizens.	
	
Page 2


	
	
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	POLICE	CORRUPTION	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, a PIL filed by the former Mumbai Police Commissioner raised the issue of alleged corruption in police 
transfers and postings in the state. 
What is Police Corruption? 
Police corruption is a specific form of police 
misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, 
other personal gain, and/or career advancement 
for a police officer or officers in exchange for not 
pursuing, or selectively pursuing their duty or 
misuse of public office in any form. 
Reasons behind Police Corruption 
• Absence of a strong institutional culture: 
Institutional value system plays an important 
role in guiding the behavior of participants in 
the system. It creates an internal need to 
follow the ethos and decreases the need for 
an any external or legal enforcer.  
o For instance, strong institutional culture 
practiced in the Indian Armed Forces 
results in soldiers following the same 
discipline outside the military ecosystem 
despite having no external enforcer.  
• Misuse of power and discretion: Police personnel wield wide powers and discretion while discharging their 
functions and those driven by selfish motives can misuse to accumulate private gains. 
• Ineffective enforcement of legislations: Ambiguities in legislations coupled with the police discretion “to act 
or not to act” in respect of certain offences give ample opportunities to the personnel to resort to corrupt 
practices. 
o Santhanam Committee noted that administrative delays are one of the major causes of corruption and 
there have been numerous cases where delay has been deliberately contrived. 
• Criminalization of politics: Political patronage coupled with muscle and money power enjoyed by the 
underworld prompt many police personnel to collude with such forces in order to make material gains. 
o Also, because of nexus between Police and mafia operators, organized crimes such as periodic extortion, 
kidnapping etc. committed by them go undetected. 
• Lack of supervision: Strength and the quality of the policepersons has not kept pace with the demands of a 
rapidly expanding economy and administration. This has resulted in supervision becoming ineffective. 
• Vicious cycle of bribery: Policepersons who have paid their way through, try to recover the amount as soon 
as possible and corruption becomes a tool for getting better return on investment. 
• Other factors: Salary structures, nature and hours of duty, poor training, accommodation problem and certain 
administrative and organizational problem etc. 
	
Need for Ethics in Policing 
Policing is essential for maintaining law and order and smooth functioning of the society. The discretionary power at all 
levels of functioning is extremely high. In this context, the absence of a professional code of ethics creates a scenario 
where it is easy to be a moral opportunist and use unethical conduct as a means of career advancement. Therefore, the 
old predicament, “who will guard the guardians”, makes imperative the need for a framework of values and professional 
ethics to guide the police in their dealing with citizens.	
	
	
 
What can be done to discourage and prevent Police Corruption?  
• Community policing initiatives such as in Bengaluru have been successful in helping resolve conflicts, fostering 
positive relationships with police, improving beat security and increasing police responsiveness and 
effectiveness can be adopted.  
• Making Transfers and Promotions Transparent: A system could be designed where postings are automatically 
generated by a software system after a given time interval. Similarly, objective criterion for promotions could 
be articulated. 
o Supreme Court (in Prakash Singh Case) sought a minimum tenure for the Inspector General of Police so 
that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians. 
• Introducing greater accountability:  Public hearings, objective performance and efficiency indicators can be 
introduced to monitor the performance of the Police force. 
o Another directive in Prakash Singh judgment recommended setting up State Police Complaints Authority 
where common people aggrieved by police action could approach.  
• Better service conditions: It can have a positive impact on police personnel who become coarse and turn 
cynical due to stress, strain and frustration of law enforcement profession. 
• Changing attitude of police leaders: There should be more flexibility, fluidity and individual innovativeness 
and initiative so that there would be meaningful deliberations and interactions at all levels of the force. 
• Innovative mechanisms: Efforts should be made to redefine the core areas of policing and identify and delink 
those duties and tasks that give ample scope for the lower rungs of police to resort to corrupt practices. 
• Use of Information Technology: Use of technology for reporting and handling of cases can play an important 
role in arresting corruption as non-registration of complaints is the most common grievance of citizens. 
o Rajasthan has introduced an initiative named Aarakshi to improve the efficiency of police procedures. 
9.2.	ETHICAL	WEALTH	CREATION		
“Wealth, the land unfailing, speeds to every land; Dispersing darkness at its lord’s command.” 
- Thiruvalluvar, Thirukural 
Introduction  
The theme of the Economic Survey of 2019-20 was wealth creation. This wealth creation had to be social 
responsibility. The outbreak of COVID-19 has further validated this idea by exposing the fragility and deficiencies 
Page 3


	
	
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	POLICE	CORRUPTION	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, a PIL filed by the former Mumbai Police Commissioner raised the issue of alleged corruption in police 
transfers and postings in the state. 
What is Police Corruption? 
Police corruption is a specific form of police 
misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, 
other personal gain, and/or career advancement 
for a police officer or officers in exchange for not 
pursuing, or selectively pursuing their duty or 
misuse of public office in any form. 
Reasons behind Police Corruption 
• Absence of a strong institutional culture: 
Institutional value system plays an important 
role in guiding the behavior of participants in 
the system. It creates an internal need to 
follow the ethos and decreases the need for 
an any external or legal enforcer.  
o For instance, strong institutional culture 
practiced in the Indian Armed Forces 
results in soldiers following the same 
discipline outside the military ecosystem 
despite having no external enforcer.  
• Misuse of power and discretion: Police personnel wield wide powers and discretion while discharging their 
functions and those driven by selfish motives can misuse to accumulate private gains. 
• Ineffective enforcement of legislations: Ambiguities in legislations coupled with the police discretion “to act 
or not to act” in respect of certain offences give ample opportunities to the personnel to resort to corrupt 
practices. 
o Santhanam Committee noted that administrative delays are one of the major causes of corruption and 
there have been numerous cases where delay has been deliberately contrived. 
• Criminalization of politics: Political patronage coupled with muscle and money power enjoyed by the 
underworld prompt many police personnel to collude with such forces in order to make material gains. 
o Also, because of nexus between Police and mafia operators, organized crimes such as periodic extortion, 
kidnapping etc. committed by them go undetected. 
• Lack of supervision: Strength and the quality of the policepersons has not kept pace with the demands of a 
rapidly expanding economy and administration. This has resulted in supervision becoming ineffective. 
• Vicious cycle of bribery: Policepersons who have paid their way through, try to recover the amount as soon 
as possible and corruption becomes a tool for getting better return on investment. 
• Other factors: Salary structures, nature and hours of duty, poor training, accommodation problem and certain 
administrative and organizational problem etc. 
	
Need for Ethics in Policing 
Policing is essential for maintaining law and order and smooth functioning of the society. The discretionary power at all 
levels of functioning is extremely high. In this context, the absence of a professional code of ethics creates a scenario 
where it is easy to be a moral opportunist and use unethical conduct as a means of career advancement. Therefore, the 
old predicament, “who will guard the guardians”, makes imperative the need for a framework of values and professional 
ethics to guide the police in their dealing with citizens.	
	
	
 
What can be done to discourage and prevent Police Corruption?  
• Community policing initiatives such as in Bengaluru have been successful in helping resolve conflicts, fostering 
positive relationships with police, improving beat security and increasing police responsiveness and 
effectiveness can be adopted.  
• Making Transfers and Promotions Transparent: A system could be designed where postings are automatically 
generated by a software system after a given time interval. Similarly, objective criterion for promotions could 
be articulated. 
o Supreme Court (in Prakash Singh Case) sought a minimum tenure for the Inspector General of Police so 
that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians. 
• Introducing greater accountability:  Public hearings, objective performance and efficiency indicators can be 
introduced to monitor the performance of the Police force. 
o Another directive in Prakash Singh judgment recommended setting up State Police Complaints Authority 
where common people aggrieved by police action could approach.  
• Better service conditions: It can have a positive impact on police personnel who become coarse and turn 
cynical due to stress, strain and frustration of law enforcement profession. 
• Changing attitude of police leaders: There should be more flexibility, fluidity and individual innovativeness 
and initiative so that there would be meaningful deliberations and interactions at all levels of the force. 
• Innovative mechanisms: Efforts should be made to redefine the core areas of policing and identify and delink 
those duties and tasks that give ample scope for the lower rungs of police to resort to corrupt practices. 
• Use of Information Technology: Use of technology for reporting and handling of cases can play an important 
role in arresting corruption as non-registration of complaints is the most common grievance of citizens. 
o Rajasthan has introduced an initiative named Aarakshi to improve the efficiency of police procedures. 
9.2.	ETHICAL	WEALTH	CREATION		
“Wealth, the land unfailing, speeds to every land; Dispersing darkness at its lord’s command.” 
- Thiruvalluvar, Thirukural 
Introduction  
The theme of the Economic Survey of 2019-20 was wealth creation. This wealth creation had to be social 
responsibility. The outbreak of COVID-19 has further validated this idea by exposing the fragility and deficiencies 
	
of the current wealth creation machinery. In this context, several economists and thinkers have suggested a move 
towards ethical creation of wealth.  
What is meant by Ethical Wealth Creation? 
Historically, the primary source of wealth within many civilizations centered around stealing valuable assets from 
their neighbors or by conquering and enslaving them. For example, the raids executed by Nadir Shah in the Indian 
sub-continent. But capturing of this wealth did not necessarily translate to a wealthier empire.  
On the contrary, the Indian subcontinent has experienced wealth creation in times of stability and absence of 
war. For example, during the Maurya period in the ancient or the Mughal period in the Medieval times. The 
primary reason for this scenario can be attributed to idea that ethical wealth creation has been a part of our 
culture. For example, the idea of Shubh-Laabh propagates the idea that social prosperity and business profit 
cannot exist in isolation.  
But how ethical wealth creation can be differentiated 
from unethical wealth creation?  Following can be cited 
as key elements of ethical wealth creation-  
• Overall Human Development: Ethical wealth 
creation acts as a catalyst for overall development of 
the individual whereas unethical wealth creation 
sores up wealth at the expense of development in 
other areas.  
• Beneficial for all stakeholders: Ethical wealth 
creation is centered around win-win for customers, 
businesses, citizens and society in general. Unethical 
wealth creation, on the other hand is centered 
around extraction of wealth by some sections 
through exploitation of less powerful sections. 
• Sustainable in nature: Ethical wealth creation is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable, unlike 
the scenario where immediate profit generation is the sole motive.  
• Fair and equitable sharing: Ethical wealth creation has its basis in redistribution of wealth on the principles of 
fairness and equity. On the other hand, distribution in unethical wealth creation creates artificial scarcities and 
necessities.  
Why moving towards Ethical Wealth Creation is important? 
The world is rapidly moving forward with growth in technology, human productivity and human connectivity. The 
speed of growth also makes the deficiencies in our growth model all the more glaring. Following can be cited as 
key reasons which strengthen the case of ethical wealth creation-  
• Disjointed nature of wealth creation and well-being: Long-term well-being is primary motivation behind 
wealth creation. But several studies suggest that there is absence of a strong correlation between the well-
being and the current model of wealth creation.  
• Economic models without moral foundations hurts the economy in the long-run: The current profit-driven 
model focuses on value extraction rather than value creation. Encouragement of such attitude could lead to 
selfish economic actions. For example, growth in the number of Willful Loan Defaulters.  
• Persistent Income inequality: The persistent nature of economic inequality suggests that the trickle-down 
theory, advocated by the current economic model may not hold. The theory suggests that economic growth 
at the top of income pyramid trickles down to the base of the pyramid.  
o At the same time, the income inequality is further fueled by the recent issues like Jobless Growth, which 
further aggravate this economic divide.  
• Environmental Sustainability: The current model views environmental sustainability as a hindrance to 
development. This has translated to economic growth being accompanied with issues like climate change, 
global warming, threats to biodiversity etc.  
• Financial Instability: The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 highlighted the financial fragility of the current system. 
The COVID-19 pandemic has now highlighted the supply chain vulnerabilities and poor disaster readiness of 
the system.  
Page 4


	
	
9.	ETHICS	
9.1.	POLICE	CORRUPTION	IN	INDIA	
Why in News? 
Recently, a PIL filed by the former Mumbai Police Commissioner raised the issue of alleged corruption in police 
transfers and postings in the state. 
What is Police Corruption? 
Police corruption is a specific form of police 
misconduct designed to obtain financial benefits, 
other personal gain, and/or career advancement 
for a police officer or officers in exchange for not 
pursuing, or selectively pursuing their duty or 
misuse of public office in any form. 
Reasons behind Police Corruption 
• Absence of a strong institutional culture: 
Institutional value system plays an important 
role in guiding the behavior of participants in 
the system. It creates an internal need to 
follow the ethos and decreases the need for 
an any external or legal enforcer.  
o For instance, strong institutional culture 
practiced in the Indian Armed Forces 
results in soldiers following the same 
discipline outside the military ecosystem 
despite having no external enforcer.  
• Misuse of power and discretion: Police personnel wield wide powers and discretion while discharging their 
functions and those driven by selfish motives can misuse to accumulate private gains. 
• Ineffective enforcement of legislations: Ambiguities in legislations coupled with the police discretion “to act 
or not to act” in respect of certain offences give ample opportunities to the personnel to resort to corrupt 
practices. 
o Santhanam Committee noted that administrative delays are one of the major causes of corruption and 
there have been numerous cases where delay has been deliberately contrived. 
• Criminalization of politics: Political patronage coupled with muscle and money power enjoyed by the 
underworld prompt many police personnel to collude with such forces in order to make material gains. 
o Also, because of nexus between Police and mafia operators, organized crimes such as periodic extortion, 
kidnapping etc. committed by them go undetected. 
• Lack of supervision: Strength and the quality of the policepersons has not kept pace with the demands of a 
rapidly expanding economy and administration. This has resulted in supervision becoming ineffective. 
• Vicious cycle of bribery: Policepersons who have paid their way through, try to recover the amount as soon 
as possible and corruption becomes a tool for getting better return on investment. 
• Other factors: Salary structures, nature and hours of duty, poor training, accommodation problem and certain 
administrative and organizational problem etc. 
	
Need for Ethics in Policing 
Policing is essential for maintaining law and order and smooth functioning of the society. The discretionary power at all 
levels of functioning is extremely high. In this context, the absence of a professional code of ethics creates a scenario 
where it is easy to be a moral opportunist and use unethical conduct as a means of career advancement. Therefore, the 
old predicament, “who will guard the guardians”, makes imperative the need for a framework of values and professional 
ethics to guide the police in their dealing with citizens.	
	
	
 
What can be done to discourage and prevent Police Corruption?  
• Community policing initiatives such as in Bengaluru have been successful in helping resolve conflicts, fostering 
positive relationships with police, improving beat security and increasing police responsiveness and 
effectiveness can be adopted.  
• Making Transfers and Promotions Transparent: A system could be designed where postings are automatically 
generated by a software system after a given time interval. Similarly, objective criterion for promotions could 
be articulated. 
o Supreme Court (in Prakash Singh Case) sought a minimum tenure for the Inspector General of Police so 
that they are not transferred mid-term by politicians. 
• Introducing greater accountability:  Public hearings, objective performance and efficiency indicators can be 
introduced to monitor the performance of the Police force. 
o Another directive in Prakash Singh judgment recommended setting up State Police Complaints Authority 
where common people aggrieved by police action could approach.  
• Better service conditions: It can have a positive impact on police personnel who become coarse and turn 
cynical due to stress, strain and frustration of law enforcement profession. 
• Changing attitude of police leaders: There should be more flexibility, fluidity and individual innovativeness 
and initiative so that there would be meaningful deliberations and interactions at all levels of the force. 
• Innovative mechanisms: Efforts should be made to redefine the core areas of policing and identify and delink 
those duties and tasks that give ample scope for the lower rungs of police to resort to corrupt practices. 
• Use of Information Technology: Use of technology for reporting and handling of cases can play an important 
role in arresting corruption as non-registration of complaints is the most common grievance of citizens. 
o Rajasthan has introduced an initiative named Aarakshi to improve the efficiency of police procedures. 
9.2.	ETHICAL	WEALTH	CREATION		
“Wealth, the land unfailing, speeds to every land; Dispersing darkness at its lord’s command.” 
- Thiruvalluvar, Thirukural 
Introduction  
The theme of the Economic Survey of 2019-20 was wealth creation. This wealth creation had to be social 
responsibility. The outbreak of COVID-19 has further validated this idea by exposing the fragility and deficiencies 
	
of the current wealth creation machinery. In this context, several economists and thinkers have suggested a move 
towards ethical creation of wealth.  
What is meant by Ethical Wealth Creation? 
Historically, the primary source of wealth within many civilizations centered around stealing valuable assets from 
their neighbors or by conquering and enslaving them. For example, the raids executed by Nadir Shah in the Indian 
sub-continent. But capturing of this wealth did not necessarily translate to a wealthier empire.  
On the contrary, the Indian subcontinent has experienced wealth creation in times of stability and absence of 
war. For example, during the Maurya period in the ancient or the Mughal period in the Medieval times. The 
primary reason for this scenario can be attributed to idea that ethical wealth creation has been a part of our 
culture. For example, the idea of Shubh-Laabh propagates the idea that social prosperity and business profit 
cannot exist in isolation.  
But how ethical wealth creation can be differentiated 
from unethical wealth creation?  Following can be cited 
as key elements of ethical wealth creation-  
• Overall Human Development: Ethical wealth 
creation acts as a catalyst for overall development of 
the individual whereas unethical wealth creation 
sores up wealth at the expense of development in 
other areas.  
• Beneficial for all stakeholders: Ethical wealth 
creation is centered around win-win for customers, 
businesses, citizens and society in general. Unethical 
wealth creation, on the other hand is centered 
around extraction of wealth by some sections 
through exploitation of less powerful sections. 
• Sustainable in nature: Ethical wealth creation is economically, socially and environmentally sustainable, unlike 
the scenario where immediate profit generation is the sole motive.  
• Fair and equitable sharing: Ethical wealth creation has its basis in redistribution of wealth on the principles of 
fairness and equity. On the other hand, distribution in unethical wealth creation creates artificial scarcities and 
necessities.  
Why moving towards Ethical Wealth Creation is important? 
The world is rapidly moving forward with growth in technology, human productivity and human connectivity. The 
speed of growth also makes the deficiencies in our growth model all the more glaring. Following can be cited as 
key reasons which strengthen the case of ethical wealth creation-  
• Disjointed nature of wealth creation and well-being: Long-term well-being is primary motivation behind 
wealth creation. But several studies suggest that there is absence of a strong correlation between the well-
being and the current model of wealth creation.  
• Economic models without moral foundations hurts the economy in the long-run: The current profit-driven 
model focuses on value extraction rather than value creation. Encouragement of such attitude could lead to 
selfish economic actions. For example, growth in the number of Willful Loan Defaulters.  
• Persistent Income inequality: The persistent nature of economic inequality suggests that the trickle-down 
theory, advocated by the current economic model may not hold. The theory suggests that economic growth 
at the top of income pyramid trickles down to the base of the pyramid.  
o At the same time, the income inequality is further fueled by the recent issues like Jobless Growth, which 
further aggravate this economic divide.  
• Environmental Sustainability: The current model views environmental sustainability as a hindrance to 
development. This has translated to economic growth being accompanied with issues like climate change, 
global warming, threats to biodiversity etc.  
• Financial Instability: The Global Financial Crisis of 2008 highlighted the financial fragility of the current system. 
The COVID-19 pandemic has now highlighted the supply chain vulnerabilities and poor disaster readiness of 
the system.  
	
Applicability of these reasons becomes doubly important for India as India is going through a rapid growth phase. 
The more ethical this growth is, the more impactful it will be in the long-term. In this context, the Economic Survey 
of 2019-20 stated that Ethical Wealth Creation will be key to India becoming a $ 5 Trillion Economy by 2025.  
What can be done to make wealth creation more ethical?  
• Complementing the role of market, government and society: Ethical wealth creation does not imply moving 
towards a state-centric model. It implies broadening of developmental objectives and involving all institutions 
to achieve these objectives.  
o For example, the idea of coming together of the invisible hand of the market and Government driven hand 
of trust can propagate ethical wealth creation.  
• Focusing on the Triple bottom line- People, Profit, Planet: A triple bottom line which includes economic 
growth, movement of social parameters like inequality levels and status of the environment can guide the 
future course of action.  
• Moving from money-centric to people-centric capitalism: Currently, the economic decisions are made solely 
on the basis of financial parameters. Moving towards an idea, where employees, customers and society 
become a part of decision-making process could produce people-centric capitalism and address issues such as 
jobless growth.  
• Focusing on building overall resilience going forward: This can be done by investing on strengthening health 
and social protection systems and integrating environment-social-governance (ESG) principles in channelling 
public and private investments towards SDGs. 
Conclusion  
All the aforementioned steps focus on broadening the overall objective of development. The idea is to bring these 
objectives as close to the idea of human well-being as possible. But the dynamism of human mind and human 
needs does not allow us to create a fixed notion of well-being.  
In this context, it becomes important to understand that efficacy of wealth creation and its process will always 
be judged on its ability to address dynamic developmental needs of the time.  
 
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