Mono- , Di- Tri- Ethylene Glycols (Meg, Deg, Teg)
A major petrochemicals and find application in manufacture of polyester and as antifreeze accounts for 70% of Ethylene oxide production. Ethylene oxide preheated to 195oC. EO:H2O ratio 10:1 to maximize MEG production By Products DEG, TEG. Figure M- VII 5.3 gives detail manufacturing of MEG, DEG and TEG from Ethylene Oxide
Figure M- VII 5.3: MEG, DEG and TEG from Ethylene Oxide
Vinyl chloride is one of the important petrochemical feedstocks and find use in manufacture of poly vinyl chloride the second largest tonnage commercial polymer after polyethylene. About 95percent of the present vinyl chloride production worldwide is used in polymer production or copolymer application. Another important use of vinyl chloride is in the production of vinylidiene chloride. According to SRI consulting global production and consumption of Ethylene dichloride (EDC) in 2009 (which accounts for 95 percent consumption in vinyl chloride manufacture), was about 33.7 million tones with global capacity of about 73 percent in 2009.
The original process of manufacture of vinyl chloride was by reaction of acetylene derived from calcium carbide with hydrochloric acid in gaseous phase in presence of mercuric chloride catalyst at temperature around 100- 180 oC. However with the availability of ethylene from cracker plant now vinyl chloride is made from ethylene obtain from cracker plant
The process of vinyl chloride manufacture takes place in two stages.
First Stage: Ethylene is reacted with chlorine in either liquid or vapor phase in presence of ferric chloride. However, the liquid phase process is more common and the reaction takes place at around 50- 90 oC and 3- 5 atm pressure.
Second Stage: Vinyl chloride is produced by pyrolysis of vaporised ethylene dichloride in a set of tubular furnaces at temperature of about 400- 500oC.
Ethylene chloride by direct Chlorination of Ethylene:
Vinyl Chloride by Chlorination
The first stage is typical electrophilic addition of a halogen to an alkene. The second stage is a free radical chain reaction.
The original process of manufacture of vinyl chloride by ethylene chlorination and cracking of ethylene dichloride had been replaced by oxychlorination process in which no hydrochloric acid is formed as byproduct. The process involves production of ethylene dichloride by exothermic reaction of ethylene, hydrochloric acid and oxygen. Liquid phase: at about 170- 180 oC in at 15-20 atm pressure in presence of copper chloride in either fixed or fluidised bed reactor.Vapor phase reaction: the temperature and pressure are 200- 220 oC and 20- 50 atm pressure
Figure M-VII 5.4: Vinyl Chloride from Oxychlorination Process
Vinyl acetate is one of the important derivatives of ethylene which is used as intermediate for manufacture of polyvinyl alcohol, polyvinyl acetate, polyvinyl butyral, etc.
Global end use pattern of vinyl acetate is:- Adhesives (23%), paints and coating (29%), textiles (21%), plastics (17%), paper and board (10%). Consumption pattern of vinyl acetate in India is polyvinyl acetate emulsions & resins (50%), polyvinyl alcohol (25%), ethylene vinyl acetate (10%), others (15%).
End use pattern of vinyl acetate in India is :- Adhesives (35- 40%), textiles (30- 35%), paints and coating (15-20%), others (10-15%)
Vinyl acetate from Ethylene route
Use of Vinyl Acetate
Surface coating adhesives, Textile resins
Textile size, Grease proofing paper, Vinyl
emulsifier, Thickener, Viscosity regulators, Adhesives,
Acrylo- nitrile Copolymer
Water resistant insulation enamel
Ethylene Vinyl Acetate Copolymers
Textile and Paper Coating
Vinyl chloride comonomers
VC-VAC, LP Records, VC-VAC Coating
Fermentation of Molasses:
Ethyl alcohol is prepared from molasses by fermentation process utilising yeast enzymes.Separation of 8-10% alcohol is achieved in a series of distillation columns, as alcohol and water at 95% concentration form azeotropic mixture.
Ethanol by Esterification and Hydrolysis
Ethanol by Vapor Phase Hydration of Ethylene
Figure M- VII 5.5: Ethanol from Catalytic Recycle Hydration of Ethylene
Table M-VII 5.8: Product Profile of Acetaldehyde
Solvent, Drugs, Dyes, Agricultural chemicals
Insecticides, Fungicides, Disinfectants
1,3-Butylene Glycol (Polyesters),Urethane coating,
Humcetant, Printing ink,Crotonaldehyde,n-butyl alcohol, n-butyric acid
anhydride, 2-ethyl hexanol ,Rubber accelerator, Sorbic acid
Rubber accelerator, Antioxidant dye,stuff
Epoxidation reaction, Reagent in caprolactam,
Alkyl resin, Stabilizer, Plasticizers, Chlorinated
polyether resin, Intumescents
Acetyl salicylic acid, Cellulose acetate, Esters
Cellulose acetate, Vinyl acetate Chloro-acetic acid
Food and, beverages, lactates, adhesives,