Q1. In an isosceles triangle ABC, with AB = AC, the bisectors of ∠ B and ∠ C intersect each other at O. Join A to O. Show that:
(i) OB = OC
(ii) AO bisects ∠ A
Ans:
Given:
AB = AC and
the bisectors of ∠B and ∠C intersect each other at O
(i) Since ABC is an isosceles with AB = AC,
∠B = ∠C
½ ∠B = ½ ∠C
⇒ ∠OBC = ∠OCB (Angle bisectors)
∴ OB = OC (Side opposite to the equal angles are equal.)
(ii) In ΔAOB and ΔAOC,
AB = AC (Given in the question)
AO = AO (Common arm)
OB = OC (As Proved Already)
So, ΔAOB ≅ ΔAOC by SSS congruence condition.
BAO = CAO (by CPCT)
Thus, AO bisects ∠A.
Q2. In ΔABC, AD is the perpendicular bisector of BC (see Fig.). Show that ΔABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC.
Ans: It is given that AD is the perpendicular bisector of BC
To prove:
AB = AC
Proof:
In ΔADB and ΔADC,
AD = AD (It is the Common arm)
∠ADB = ∠ADC
BD = CD (Since AD is the perpendicular bisector)
So, ΔADB ≅ ΔADC by SAS congruency criterion.
Thus,
AB = AC (by CPCT)
Q3. ABC is an isosceles triangle in which altitudes BE and CF are drawn to equal sides AC and AB respectively (see Fig.). Show that these altitudes are equal.
Ans:
Given:
(i) BE and CF are altitudes.
(ii) AC = AB
To prove:
BE = CF
Proof:
Triangles ΔAEB and ΔAFC are similar by AAS congruency since
∠A = ∠A (It is the common arm)
∠AEB = ∠AFC (They are right angles)
AB = AC (Given in the question)
∴ ΔAEB ≅ ΔAFC and so, BE = CF (by CPCT).
Q4. ABC is a triangle in which altitudes BE and CF to sides AC and AB are equal (see Fig). Show that
(i) ∆ ABE ≅ ∆ ACF
(ii) AB = AC, i.e., ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Ans: It is given that BE = CF
(i) In ΔABE and ΔACF,
∠A = ∠A (It is the common angle)
∠AEB = ∠AFC (They are right angles)
BE = CF (Given in the question)
∴ ΔABE ≅ ΔACF by AAS congruency condition.
(ii) AB = AC by CPCT and so, ABC is an isosceles triangle.
Q5. ABC and DBC are two isosceles triangles on the same base BC (see Fig). Show that ∠ ABD = ∠ ACD.
Ans: In the question, it is given that ABC and DBC are two isosceles triangles.
We will have to show that ∠ABD = ∠ACD
Proof:
Triangles ΔABD and ΔACD are similar by SSS congruency since
AD = AD (It is the common arm)
AB = AC (Since ABC is an isosceles triangle)
BD = CD (Since BCD is an isosceles triangle)
So, ΔABD ≅ ΔACD.
∴ ∠ABD = ∠ACD by CPCT.
Q6. ∆ABC is an isosceles triangle in which AB = AC. Side BA is produced to D such that AD = AB (see Fig). Show that ∠ BCD is a right angle.
Ans: It is given that AB = AC and AD = AB
We will have to now prove ∠BCD is a right angle.
Proof:
Consider ΔABC,
AB = AC (It is given in the question)
Also, ∠ACB = ∠ABC (They are angles opposite to the equal sides and so, they are equal)
Now, consider ΔACD,
AD = AB
Also, ∠ADC = ∠ACD (They are angles opposite to the equal sides and so, they are equal)
Now,
In ΔABC,
∠CAB + ∠ACB + ∠ABC = 180°
So, ∠CAB + 2∠ACB = 180°
⇒ ∠CAB = 180° – 2∠ACB — (i)
Similarly, in ΔADC,
∠CAD = 180° – 2∠ACD — (ii)
also,
∠CAB + ∠CAD = 180° (BD is a straight line.)
Adding (i) and (ii) we get,
∠CAB + ∠CAD = 180° – 2∠ACB+180° – 2∠ACD
⇒ 180° = 360° – 2∠ACB2∠ACD
⇒ 2(∠ACB+∠ACD) = 180°
⇒ ∠BCD = 90°
Q7. ABC is a right angled triangle in which ∠ A = 90° and AB = AC. Find ∠ B and ∠ C.
Ans:
In the question, it is given that
∠A = 90° and AB = AC
AB = AC
⇒ ∠B = ∠C (They are angles opposite to the equal sides and so, they are equal)
Now,
∠A+∠B+∠C = 180° (Since the sum of the interior angles of the triangle)
∴ 90° + 2∠B = 180°
⇒ 2∠B = 90°
⇒ ∠B = 45°
So, ∠B = ∠C = 45°
Q8. Show that the angles of an equilateral triangle are 60° each.
Ans: Let ABC be an equilateral triangle as shown below:
Here, BC = AC = AB (Since the length of all sides is same)
⇒ ∠A = ∠B =∠C (Sides opposite to the equal angles are equal.)
Also, we know that
∠A+∠B+∠C = 180°
⇒ 3∠A = 180°
⇒ ∠A = 60°
∴ ∠A = ∠B = ∠C = 60°
So, the angles of an equilateral triangle are always 60° each.
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