Example Problem B - Distillation System, Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

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Chemical Engineering : Example Problem B - Distillation System, Chemical Engineering Chemical Engineering Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


B
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
DISTILLATION SYSTEM
This example problem is taken from the CCPS publication Guidelines for
Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition (CCPS 1992) Figure 19.1. It
illustrates a distillation separation between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
and hydrogen chloride (HCl), a byproduct of the VCM formation reaction.
HCl is a potentially valuable by-product, but its presence in the VCM stream
in even small quantities will inhibit the polymerization of VCM to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), the desired final product.
Distillation operations require a detailed hazard analysis before the proper
Process Safety Systems (PSS) design basis can be determined, due to the com-
plexity of the operation (both heat and mass transfer), as well as the different
kinds and severity of events that impurities can introduce. The information in
CCPS (1992) illustrates the types and results of several hazard evaluation pro-
cedures for the VCM/HC1 separation, and will not be repeated here.
Note that, for the purposes of this example, the flow sheet shown in CCPS
(1992) has been somewhat simplified. This example is intended to illustrate a
proposed new design, with preliminary equipment sizes and ratings based
upon similar existing installations. Also, while the VCM/HC1 separation is an
industrially important process, the feed composition and purity requirements
chosen for this example are for illustration only, and do not necessarily reflect
current industrial practice. The physical properties for VCM and HCl were
obtained from standard open-literature references (Gallant 1968; Yaws
1977). For the purposes of this example problem, vapor-liquid equilibrium
data were estimated, since experimental data were not readily available in the
open literature.
Page 2


B
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
DISTILLATION SYSTEM
This example problem is taken from the CCPS publication Guidelines for
Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition (CCPS 1992) Figure 19.1. It
illustrates a distillation separation between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
and hydrogen chloride (HCl), a byproduct of the VCM formation reaction.
HCl is a potentially valuable by-product, but its presence in the VCM stream
in even small quantities will inhibit the polymerization of VCM to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), the desired final product.
Distillation operations require a detailed hazard analysis before the proper
Process Safety Systems (PSS) design basis can be determined, due to the com-
plexity of the operation (both heat and mass transfer), as well as the different
kinds and severity of events that impurities can introduce. The information in
CCPS (1992) illustrates the types and results of several hazard evaluation pro-
cedures for the VCM/HC1 separation, and will not be repeated here.
Note that, for the purposes of this example, the flow sheet shown in CCPS
(1992) has been somewhat simplified. This example is intended to illustrate a
proposed new design, with preliminary equipment sizes and ratings based
upon similar existing installations. Also, while the VCM/HC1 separation is an
industrially important process, the feed composition and purity requirements
chosen for this example are for illustration only, and do not necessarily reflect
current industrial practice. The physical properties for VCM and HCl were
obtained from standard open-literature references (Gallant 1968; Yaws
1977). For the purposes of this example problem, vapor-liquid equilibrium
data were estimated, since experimental data were not readily available in the
open literature.
B.I SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system in question is illustrated in Exhibit Bl with the steady state mate-
rial balance and basic process control information. Exhibit B2 provides an
equipment list for this portion of the process.
This system is intended to purify a 90 mole % VCM stream contaminated
with HCl to a purity of greater than 99.8% via distillation. The overhead
product is a 75%/25% VCM/HC1 mixture to be recycled back into the
process.
This example follows the nine-step process laid out in Chapter 2 for selec-
tion of the design basis for this installation's process safety systems. In order to
adequately perform Step 1, "Identify Failure Scenarios,
55
 some discussion of
information requirements in general, and distillation systems in particular is
warranted, along with specific information pertaining to this process.
B.2 GENERAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
The following information will be required to properly evaluate potential fail-
ure scenarios. Some of this information will routinely exist; other, less com-
monly used data (such as piping isometrics) may need to be estimated (for
new installations) or generated from field reviews (for existing installations)
before a proper evaluations can be completed.
• Heat and material balance (HMB) data (steady state)
• Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for all chemicals
• Chemical reactivity data (primary and side/secondary reactions, if appli-
cable)
• Accurate piping and instrumentation diagrams (PScIDs)
• Equipment arrangements and plant layouts
• Pressure vessel drawings (with maximum allowable working pressure,
or MAWP), maximum vacuum, and maximum and minimum operat-
ing temperature information)
• Control valve and relief valve instrument data sheets
• Unsteady state (startup, shutdown, upset) conditions
• Cleanout procedures, including all non-process chemicals used
• Equipment computer models for evaluation of deviations from steady
state conditions, or for evaluation of worst-case startup and shutdown
conditions
• Utility supply information (composition, pressure, temperature, volt-
age, etc.)
Page 3


B
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
DISTILLATION SYSTEM
This example problem is taken from the CCPS publication Guidelines for
Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition (CCPS 1992) Figure 19.1. It
illustrates a distillation separation between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
and hydrogen chloride (HCl), a byproduct of the VCM formation reaction.
HCl is a potentially valuable by-product, but its presence in the VCM stream
in even small quantities will inhibit the polymerization of VCM to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), the desired final product.
Distillation operations require a detailed hazard analysis before the proper
Process Safety Systems (PSS) design basis can be determined, due to the com-
plexity of the operation (both heat and mass transfer), as well as the different
kinds and severity of events that impurities can introduce. The information in
CCPS (1992) illustrates the types and results of several hazard evaluation pro-
cedures for the VCM/HC1 separation, and will not be repeated here.
Note that, for the purposes of this example, the flow sheet shown in CCPS
(1992) has been somewhat simplified. This example is intended to illustrate a
proposed new design, with preliminary equipment sizes and ratings based
upon similar existing installations. Also, while the VCM/HC1 separation is an
industrially important process, the feed composition and purity requirements
chosen for this example are for illustration only, and do not necessarily reflect
current industrial practice. The physical properties for VCM and HCl were
obtained from standard open-literature references (Gallant 1968; Yaws
1977). For the purposes of this example problem, vapor-liquid equilibrium
data were estimated, since experimental data were not readily available in the
open literature.
B.I SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system in question is illustrated in Exhibit Bl with the steady state mate-
rial balance and basic process control information. Exhibit B2 provides an
equipment list for this portion of the process.
This system is intended to purify a 90 mole % VCM stream contaminated
with HCl to a purity of greater than 99.8% via distillation. The overhead
product is a 75%/25% VCM/HC1 mixture to be recycled back into the
process.
This example follows the nine-step process laid out in Chapter 2 for selec-
tion of the design basis for this installation's process safety systems. In order to
adequately perform Step 1, "Identify Failure Scenarios,
55
 some discussion of
information requirements in general, and distillation systems in particular is
warranted, along with specific information pertaining to this process.
B.2 GENERAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
The following information will be required to properly evaluate potential fail-
ure scenarios. Some of this information will routinely exist; other, less com-
monly used data (such as piping isometrics) may need to be estimated (for
new installations) or generated from field reviews (for existing installations)
before a proper evaluations can be completed.
• Heat and material balance (HMB) data (steady state)
• Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for all chemicals
• Chemical reactivity data (primary and side/secondary reactions, if appli-
cable)
• Accurate piping and instrumentation diagrams (PScIDs)
• Equipment arrangements and plant layouts
• Pressure vessel drawings (with maximum allowable working pressure,
or MAWP), maximum vacuum, and maximum and minimum operat-
ing temperature information)
• Control valve and relief valve instrument data sheets
• Unsteady state (startup, shutdown, upset) conditions
• Cleanout procedures, including all non-process chemicals used
• Equipment computer models for evaluation of deviations from steady
state conditions, or for evaluation of worst-case startup and shutdown
conditions
• Utility supply information (composition, pressure, temperature, volt-
age, etc.)
EXHIBITBI
Mater/a/ Balance and Basic Process Control System
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
•
A
^
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
STREAM
NO.
EGXH 2 O EGXH 2 O 100« STEAM VENT
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
MC "2
LIQ. OUT
MC "I
LlQ. OUT
WAlN COND.
"2 <MC"2)
MAIN COND
"KMC'D
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
REFLUX FEED STREAM
450.000 650.000 24.300
NORMALLY
NO FLOW
58.350 40,845 58.350 40.815
1
58.350 99.195 181.250 40,845 239.600 iDXhr
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
OXO 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 'VOXI.O 0.364X0.636 0.1X0.9
I MOLE FRAC.
HCLXVCM
-20
,
338 IO IO
.
95.3 95.3 95.3
-
IO 32
TEMP
C F)
80 80
. 200 IH.5 111.4 112.2 H2.2
_±i_
117.2 112.2
125.7
PRESS.
(PSIA)
Page 4


B
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
DISTILLATION SYSTEM
This example problem is taken from the CCPS publication Guidelines for
Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition (CCPS 1992) Figure 19.1. It
illustrates a distillation separation between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
and hydrogen chloride (HCl), a byproduct of the VCM formation reaction.
HCl is a potentially valuable by-product, but its presence in the VCM stream
in even small quantities will inhibit the polymerization of VCM to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), the desired final product.
Distillation operations require a detailed hazard analysis before the proper
Process Safety Systems (PSS) design basis can be determined, due to the com-
plexity of the operation (both heat and mass transfer), as well as the different
kinds and severity of events that impurities can introduce. The information in
CCPS (1992) illustrates the types and results of several hazard evaluation pro-
cedures for the VCM/HC1 separation, and will not be repeated here.
Note that, for the purposes of this example, the flow sheet shown in CCPS
(1992) has been somewhat simplified. This example is intended to illustrate a
proposed new design, with preliminary equipment sizes and ratings based
upon similar existing installations. Also, while the VCM/HC1 separation is an
industrially important process, the feed composition and purity requirements
chosen for this example are for illustration only, and do not necessarily reflect
current industrial practice. The physical properties for VCM and HCl were
obtained from standard open-literature references (Gallant 1968; Yaws
1977). For the purposes of this example problem, vapor-liquid equilibrium
data were estimated, since experimental data were not readily available in the
open literature.
B.I SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system in question is illustrated in Exhibit Bl with the steady state mate-
rial balance and basic process control information. Exhibit B2 provides an
equipment list for this portion of the process.
This system is intended to purify a 90 mole % VCM stream contaminated
with HCl to a purity of greater than 99.8% via distillation. The overhead
product is a 75%/25% VCM/HC1 mixture to be recycled back into the
process.
This example follows the nine-step process laid out in Chapter 2 for selec-
tion of the design basis for this installation's process safety systems. In order to
adequately perform Step 1, "Identify Failure Scenarios,
55
 some discussion of
information requirements in general, and distillation systems in particular is
warranted, along with specific information pertaining to this process.
B.2 GENERAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
The following information will be required to properly evaluate potential fail-
ure scenarios. Some of this information will routinely exist; other, less com-
monly used data (such as piping isometrics) may need to be estimated (for
new installations) or generated from field reviews (for existing installations)
before a proper evaluations can be completed.
• Heat and material balance (HMB) data (steady state)
• Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for all chemicals
• Chemical reactivity data (primary and side/secondary reactions, if appli-
cable)
• Accurate piping and instrumentation diagrams (PScIDs)
• Equipment arrangements and plant layouts
• Pressure vessel drawings (with maximum allowable working pressure,
or MAWP), maximum vacuum, and maximum and minimum operat-
ing temperature information)
• Control valve and relief valve instrument data sheets
• Unsteady state (startup, shutdown, upset) conditions
• Cleanout procedures, including all non-process chemicals used
• Equipment computer models for evaluation of deviations from steady
state conditions, or for evaluation of worst-case startup and shutdown
conditions
• Utility supply information (composition, pressure, temperature, volt-
age, etc.)
EXHIBITBI
Mater/a/ Balance and Basic Process Control System
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
•
A
^
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
STREAM
NO.
EGXH 2 O EGXH 2 O 100« STEAM VENT
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
MC "2
LIQ. OUT
MC "I
LlQ. OUT
WAlN COND.
"2 <MC"2)
MAIN COND
"KMC'D
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
REFLUX FEED STREAM
450.000 650.000 24.300
NORMALLY
NO FLOW
58.350 40,845 58.350 40.815
1
58.350 99.195 181.250 40,845 239.600 iDXhr
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
OXO 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 'VOXI.O 0.364X0.636 0.1X0.9
I MOLE FRAC.
HCLXVCM
-20
,
338 IO IO
.
95.3 95.3 95.3
-
IO 32
TEMP
C F)
80 80
. 200 IH.5 111.4 112.2 H2.2
_±i_
117.2 112.2
125.7
PRESS.
(PSIA)
B.3 PSS DISCUSSION FOR DISTILLATION OPERATIONS
6.3. / Vessel Design and Primary Containment
A common feature of many distillation systems is their initial expense, or capi-
tal cost. Particularly for large volume products, the physical size and cost of the
equipment can be large. This leads to a great deal of effort in optimizing the
equipment sizes, relative to one another and to the rest of the production facil-
ity. If this optimization is not done with a systems approach with due consid-
eration of process safety, savings in vessel cost can be more than offset by the
relatively greater expense of additional active or procedural PSSs required.
Although not always recognized as such, the proper design, construction
and maintenance of primary containment systems (process pressure vessels
and storage tanks) is the first and best line of defense against catastrophic
events. As such, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1995), API
Standard 650 1993 and API Standard 620 1990 are key PSS-related
resources. In most states and some countries, the ASME code is followed by
law. ASME Code Section VIII contains specific requirements for design, test-
ing and relief of vessels whose operating pressure is greater than 15 psig.
EXHIBIT B2
Equipment List
Equipment Item
VCM Column
Item No. C-201
Main Overhead
Condenser # I
Item No. E-201A
Main Overhead
Condenser # 2
Item No. E-201B
Reflux
Accumulator
Item No. V-208
Reboiler
Item No. E-207
Description and
Tentative Size
8 ft dia x 62 ft
52 sieve trays
46 in dia x 16 ft
tube length
5655 ft
2
40 in x 16 ft tube
length
3927 ft
2
6 ft dia x
6 ft straight side
40 in dia x 10 ft
tube length
3927ft
2
Material of
Construction
Zirconium-
clad steel
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Zirconium-
clad steel
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Preliminary
Design
Pressure
200 psig and
-2 psig(vac)
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
Preliminary
Design
Temperature
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
Page 5


B
EXAMPLE PROBLEM:
DISTILLATION SYSTEM
This example problem is taken from the CCPS publication Guidelines for
Hazard Evaluation Procedures, Second Edition (CCPS 1992) Figure 19.1. It
illustrates a distillation separation between vinyl chloride monomer (VCM)
and hydrogen chloride (HCl), a byproduct of the VCM formation reaction.
HCl is a potentially valuable by-product, but its presence in the VCM stream
in even small quantities will inhibit the polymerization of VCM to polyvinyl
chloride (PVC), the desired final product.
Distillation operations require a detailed hazard analysis before the proper
Process Safety Systems (PSS) design basis can be determined, due to the com-
plexity of the operation (both heat and mass transfer), as well as the different
kinds and severity of events that impurities can introduce. The information in
CCPS (1992) illustrates the types and results of several hazard evaluation pro-
cedures for the VCM/HC1 separation, and will not be repeated here.
Note that, for the purposes of this example, the flow sheet shown in CCPS
(1992) has been somewhat simplified. This example is intended to illustrate a
proposed new design, with preliminary equipment sizes and ratings based
upon similar existing installations. Also, while the VCM/HC1 separation is an
industrially important process, the feed composition and purity requirements
chosen for this example are for illustration only, and do not necessarily reflect
current industrial practice. The physical properties for VCM and HCl were
obtained from standard open-literature references (Gallant 1968; Yaws
1977). For the purposes of this example problem, vapor-liquid equilibrium
data were estimated, since experimental data were not readily available in the
open literature.
B.I SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
The system in question is illustrated in Exhibit Bl with the steady state mate-
rial balance and basic process control information. Exhibit B2 provides an
equipment list for this portion of the process.
This system is intended to purify a 90 mole % VCM stream contaminated
with HCl to a purity of greater than 99.8% via distillation. The overhead
product is a 75%/25% VCM/HC1 mixture to be recycled back into the
process.
This example follows the nine-step process laid out in Chapter 2 for selec-
tion of the design basis for this installation's process safety systems. In order to
adequately perform Step 1, "Identify Failure Scenarios,
55
 some discussion of
information requirements in general, and distillation systems in particular is
warranted, along with specific information pertaining to this process.
B.2 GENERAL INFORMATION REQUIREMENTS
The following information will be required to properly evaluate potential fail-
ure scenarios. Some of this information will routinely exist; other, less com-
monly used data (such as piping isometrics) may need to be estimated (for
new installations) or generated from field reviews (for existing installations)
before a proper evaluations can be completed.
• Heat and material balance (HMB) data (steady state)
• Material safety data sheets (MSDSs) for all chemicals
• Chemical reactivity data (primary and side/secondary reactions, if appli-
cable)
• Accurate piping and instrumentation diagrams (PScIDs)
• Equipment arrangements and plant layouts
• Pressure vessel drawings (with maximum allowable working pressure,
or MAWP), maximum vacuum, and maximum and minimum operat-
ing temperature information)
• Control valve and relief valve instrument data sheets
• Unsteady state (startup, shutdown, upset) conditions
• Cleanout procedures, including all non-process chemicals used
• Equipment computer models for evaluation of deviations from steady
state conditions, or for evaluation of worst-case startup and shutdown
conditions
• Utility supply information (composition, pressure, temperature, volt-
age, etc.)
EXHIBITBI
Mater/a/ Balance and Basic Process Control System
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
•
A
^
8 7 6 5 4 3 2 I
STREAM
NO.
EGXH 2 O EGXH 2 O 100« STEAM VENT
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
MC "2
LIQ. OUT
MC "I
LlQ. OUT
WAlN COND.
"2 <MC"2)
MAIN COND
"KMC'D
OVERHEAD
PRODUCT
UNDERFLOW
PRODUCT
REFLUX FEED STREAM
450.000 650.000 24.300
NORMALLY
NO FLOW
58.350 40,845 58.350 40.815
1
58.350 99.195 181.250 40,845 239.600 iDXhr
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
40X60
(BY WT. ) X
EGXH 2 O
OXO 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 0.364X0.636 'VOXI.O 0.364X0.636 0.1X0.9
I MOLE FRAC.
HCLXVCM
-20
,
338 IO IO
.
95.3 95.3 95.3
-
IO 32
TEMP
C F)
80 80
. 200 IH.5 111.4 112.2 H2.2
_±i_
117.2 112.2
125.7
PRESS.
(PSIA)
B.3 PSS DISCUSSION FOR DISTILLATION OPERATIONS
6.3. / Vessel Design and Primary Containment
A common feature of many distillation systems is their initial expense, or capi-
tal cost. Particularly for large volume products, the physical size and cost of the
equipment can be large. This leads to a great deal of effort in optimizing the
equipment sizes, relative to one another and to the rest of the production facil-
ity. If this optimization is not done with a systems approach with due consid-
eration of process safety, savings in vessel cost can be more than offset by the
relatively greater expense of additional active or procedural PSSs required.
Although not always recognized as such, the proper design, construction
and maintenance of primary containment systems (process pressure vessels
and storage tanks) is the first and best line of defense against catastrophic
events. As such, the ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code (1995), API
Standard 650 1993 and API Standard 620 1990 are key PSS-related
resources. In most states and some countries, the ASME code is followed by
law. ASME Code Section VIII contains specific requirements for design, test-
ing and relief of vessels whose operating pressure is greater than 15 psig.
EXHIBIT B2
Equipment List
Equipment Item
VCM Column
Item No. C-201
Main Overhead
Condenser # I
Item No. E-201A
Main Overhead
Condenser # 2
Item No. E-201B
Reflux
Accumulator
Item No. V-208
Reboiler
Item No. E-207
Description and
Tentative Size
8 ft dia x 62 ft
52 sieve trays
46 in dia x 16 ft
tube length
5655 ft
2
40 in x 16 ft tube
length
3927 ft
2
6 ft dia x
6 ft straight side
40 in dia x 10 ft
tube length
3927ft
2
Material of
Construction
Zirconium-
clad steel
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Zirconium-
clad steel
Zirconium
tubes, steel
shell
Preliminary
Design
Pressure
200 psig and
-2 psig(vac)
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
200 psig and
full vacuum
Preliminary
Design
Temperature
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
35O
0
F
The CCPS Publication Guidelines for Engineering Design for Process Safety
(CCPS 1993) also provides useful information, and will be used as a reference
for this portion of the example. Other specific references, such as NFPA 77
1993, and API RP 2003 1991 may also have applicability.
B.3.2 Control Systems and Safe Automation
Distillation operations typically involve large quantities of potential energy,
either in the form of utility energy (steam, hot oil, refrigeration, etc.) or associ-
ated in the process (heated feed streams, elevated operating pressure, large
inventories of volatiles and flammables, etc.). Most control strategies focus
initially on keeping these processes at steady state, as the purity from distilla-
tion operations is extremely sensitive to small changes in process variables.
Without giving due consideration to the startup, shutdown, upset, and other
potential unsteady state conditions that the system may encounter, a good
control strategy for operation at steady state may prove wholly inadequate in
dealing with unusual or infrequent deviations. Thus, the control strategy,
examined as a part of the overall safe automation plan, must be put together in
order to have a reliable, cost-effective system capable of optimal production
under normal circumstances, and must respond adequately in the event of
abnormal or upset conditions.
Unlike vessel design and construction, there are very few regulatory
requirements surrounding the use of automatic controls for PSS applications.
The CCPS Publications "Guidelines for Safe Automation of Chemical Proc-
esses" (1994) Chapters 4 and 5, and "Guidelines for Engineering Design for
Process Safety" (1993), Chapter 9 provide a useful compilation of current
industry practices.
For this example, Exhibit Bl shows only six primary control loops needed
to maintain this process at steady state. This is what CCPS (1994), Chapter 4
refers to as the Basic Process Control System (BPCS). Like vessel design,
proper attention to this fundamental design is the first, and best defense
against an uncontrolled release of process material to the environment. How-
ever, given the potential hazards involved, it is reasonable to expect that addi-
tional measurement and control points will be needed to provide adequate
early warning of potentially dangerous deviations from normal conditions. It
is important to develop a clear strategy of safe operating limits, alarms, inter-
locks and emergency shutdown devices (ESDs) which constitute the Safety
Instrumented Systems (SIS) at an early stage of process development. This is
so that costs can be estimated, equipment designed to accommodate the nec-
essary additional measurement points, and to evaluate the appropriate level of
reliability needed. The effect of instrument location and the reliability of com-
ponents, as well as other process requirements must also be determined. To do
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