1) Which of the guiding values of the Constitution of India means that people have the supreme right to make decisions?
Answer: The guiding value called 'Sovereign' means that people have the supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters. No external power can dictate to the Government of India.
2) How many members did the Constituent Assembly have that wrote the Indian Constitution?
Answer: The Constituent Assembly that wrote the Indian Constitution had 299 members.
3) Name the President of the Constituent Assembly?
Answer: Dr Rajendra Prasad was the President of the Constituent Assembly.
4) Is it true that non-democratic countries do not have a Constitution?
Answer:No, it is not true. Whether democratic or not, most countries in the world need to have some basic rules which are called the Constitution.
5) Name the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee of India?
Answer: Dr Bhim Rao Ambedkar, an eminent lawyer and politician, was the Chairman of the Constitution Drafting Committee of India.
6) Earlier to 1992, South Africa practiced a form of racial discrimination. What is it termed as?
Answer: The racial discrimination practiced in South Africa prior to 1992 was called apartheid.
7) In a republic, how is the Head of State decided or chosen?
Answer: In a republic, the Head of State is a person elected by people.
8) Nelson Mandela remained in prison for treason for how many years?
Answer: Nelson Mandela remained in prison for about 28 years.
9) On which day did South Africa gain independence from the rule of the White minority?
Answer: South Africa gained independence from the rule of the White minority on 26th April, 1994.
10) What is the title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela?
Answer:The title of the autobiography of Nelson Mandela is, "Long Walk to Freedom".
11) Which national leader tried to draft a Constitution for India as far back as in 1928?
Answer: Pandit Moti Lal Nehru tried to draft a Constitution for India in 1928.
12) When were the elections to the Constituent Assembly held in India?
Answer: The elections to the Constituent Assembly were held in July, 1946
13) The Constituent Assembly originally had how many members and was left with how many after the partition of the country?
Answer: Originally the Constituent Assembly had 389 members, but was reduced to 299 members after the partition of the country.
14) In which country did a large number of 'Whites' settle and become the local rulers?
Answer: The country is South Africa.
15) Who said, ".... I shall work for an India in which the poorest shall feel that it is their country in whose making they have an effective voice. ......"?
Answer:Mahatma Gandhi said this statement.
16) Did the ideals of the Quit India Movement contribute to the making of the Indian Constitution?
Answer: No, they did not. However, the Socialist Revolution in Russia, the Bill of the Rights of the US and the ideals of the French Revolution were the contributing factors.
17) Which organisation led the freedom movement in South Africa?
Answer: The African National Congress (ANC) was the umbrella organisation that led the struggle against the policies of segregation.
18) Which Indian politician bitterly criticized Mahatma Gandhi's vision?
Answer: Dr BR Ambedkar, who played a key role in the making of the Constitution, had a different understanding from Mahatma Gandhi of how inequalities could be removed. He often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision.
19) From which country's Constitution have most countries of the world chosen to begin their Constitution with a Preamble?
Answer: Most countries of the world have chosen to begin their Constitution with a Preamble from the Constitution of the USA.
20) Did all members of the Constituent Assembly of India hold the same views on all provisions of the Constitution?
Answer: No, they did not. But the Constituent Assembly worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner to decide all matters.
21) Why is India considered as a sovereign country?
Answer: India is a sovereign country because people have supreme right to make decisions.
22) How do you define a country where citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion?
Answer: A country where citizens have complete freedom to follow any religion in known as secular state.
23) Define the Preamble.
Answer: An introductory statement containing guiding values in a Constitution is known as Preamble.
24) Name the leader who used to write in the magazine 'Young India' in 1931.
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi used to write in the magazine 'Young India' in 1931.
25) Who is known as the Father of Indian Constitution?
Answer: Dr BR Ambedkar is known as the Father of Indian Constitution.
26) What is 'Constituent Assembly Debates'?
Answer: Each and every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly have been recorded and preserved as 'Constituent Assembly Debates'.
27) In which session of the Congress did Indian National Congress Plan on how independent India's Constitution should look like?
Answer:In Karachi Session(1931), Indian National Congress planned on how independent India's Constitution should look like
28) When did the Indian Constitution come into force?
Answer: On 26th January, 1950, the Indian Constitution came into force.
29) In the Constituent Assembly, the first captain of the Indian hockey team also has a role. Who was he?
Answer: He was Jaipal Singh.
30) Which country has the largest written Constitution of the world?
Answer: India has the largest written Constitution of the world.
31) Who often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision regarding how to remove inequalities from our society?
Answer: Dr BR Ambedkar had a different understanding of how inequalities could be removed from our society, thus he often bitterly criticised Mahatma Gandhi and his vision.
32) On the basis of what did the system of apartheid divide people?
Answer: On the basis of skin colour the system of apartheid divided people.
33) "I have fought against the white domination and I have fought against the Black domination''. Who said this sentence?
Answer: Nelson Mandela said this statement.
34) If the head of the state is an elected person and not a hereditary position. What is it called?
Answer: It is called as Republic.
35) Name the founder of Andhra Mahila Sabha.
Answer: G Durgabai Deshmukh was the founder of Andhra Mahila Sabha.
36) What would have happened in South Africa if the black majority had decided to take revenge on the whites for all their oppression and exploitation?
Answer: If the blacks had not forgiven the whites for all their oppression and exploitation and decided to take revenge upon them, there would have been bloodshed everywhere. It could have led to a division of the country and we would not have seen a united and peaceful South Africa that exists now. Fortunately, the black community followed the policy of non-violence in their freedom struggle.
37) Match the following leaders with their roles in the making of the Constitution.
(a) Motilal Nehru
(i) President of the Constituent
(b) BR Ambedkar
(ii) Member of the Constituent Assembly
(c) Rajendra Prasad
(iii) Chairman of the Drafting Committee
(d) Sarojini Naidu
(iv) Prepared a Constitution for India in 1928
Answer: (a)-(iv), (b)-(iii), (c)-(i), (d)-(ii).
38) Read again the extracts from Nehru's speech "Tryst with Destiny" and answer the following Why did Nehru use the expression "not wholly or in full measure" in the first sentence? What pledge did he want the makers of the Indian Constitution to take? "The ambition of the greatest man of our generation has been to wipe every tear from every eye". Who was he referring to?
Answer: (i) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru used the expression 'not wholly or in full measure' because the pledge that they had taken was yet to be fulfilled, it was yet to be completed, although not all at once but substantially and gradually.
(ii) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru wanted the makers of the Constitution to take a pledge of dedication to the service of the nation and her people and to the still larger cause of humanity.
(iii) Pt Jawaharlal Nehru was referring to Mahatma Gandhi.
39) Here are some of the guiding values of the Constitution and their meanings. Rewrite them by matching them correctly.
(i) Government will not favour any religion
(ii) People have the supreme right to make decisions.
(iii) Head of the State is an elected person.
(iv) People should live like brothers and sisters
Answer: (a)-(ii), (b)-(iii), (c)-(iv), (d)-(i),
40) Here are different opinions about what made India a democracy. How much importance would you give to each of these factors? Democracy in India is a gift of the British rulers. We received training to work with representative legislative institutions under the British rule. Freedom struggle challenged the colonial exploitation and denial of different freedoms to Indians. Free India could not be anything but democratic. We were lucky to have leaders who had democratic convictions. The denial of democracy in several other newly independent countries shows the important role of these leaders.
Answer:(i) Although, the British rule was not democratic our leaders learnt about how to work with representative Legislative institutions during the last few years of the rule, as the British allowed elections in a limited way and creation of some Legislative Assemblies. (ii) Freedom struggle against colonial exploitation contributed a lot to making India a democracy. (iii) This is the most important factor in making India a democracy. The absence of these type of leaders made many newly independent countries undemocratic.
41) What do you understand by the term 'apartheid'?
Answer: Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa, which was imposed on black by the white Europe In this system, the blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in white areas only if they had a permit. Trains, buses, taxis, hotels hospitals, schools, colleges, libraries, cinema halls, theatres, beaches, swimming pools, public toilets, etc were all separate for the whites and the blacks.
42) What was the 'Drafting Committee'?
Answer: The 'Drafting Committee' chaired by Dr BR Ambedkar prepared a draft of the Constitution for discussion. Several rounds of thorough discussion took place on the Draft Constitution, clause by clause. The members worked for 114 days spread over three years. More than two thousand amendments were considered. Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly has been recorded and preserved.
43) How did the Blacks of South Africa fight against the practice of apartheid? What is meant by apartheid? How did the people of South Africa struggle against it? Or Describe any three efforts made by the people of South Africa to struggle against the apartheid system.
Answer:Apartheid was the name of a system of racial discrimination unique to South Africa, which was imposed by the white Europeans on the blacks. (i) Since 1950, the blacks, coloureds and Indians fought against the apartheid system. They launched protest marches and strikes. (ii) The African National Congress led the struggle against this policy of segregation. (iii) Many workers' unions and the Communist Party joined this movement. (iv) Even many sensitive Whites joined the ANC and played a leading role in this movement.
44) What is meant by 'sovereign, socialist and secular' as the key words of our Constitution?
Answer: The Constitution of India declares India as a sovereign, socialist, secular and democratic republic.
(i) Sovereign The sovereign nature of India signifies that people of India have supreme right to make decisions on internal as well as external matters.
(ii) Socialist The socialist nature of India suggests that wealth is generated socially and should be shared equally by society.
(iii) Secular The word 'secular' signifies that the state has no official religion of its own. Every citizen has complete freedom to follow any religion.
45) The South African Constitution inspires democrats all over the world'. Justify the statement.
Answer: After two years of discussion and debate the Constitution of South Africa was produced. It gave its citizens the most extensive rights available in any country. The Constitution writers included everybody, no one has treated differently whatever they have done in the past. So all communites sat down together to transform the bitter experience into a binding glue of a rainbow nation. They wanted to solve the problems of the country collectively. The Constitution was based on social equality and justice. Thus the Constitution inspires democrats all over the world.
46) Who led the struggle against apartheid? State any four practices following in the system of apartheid in South Africa.
Answer:African National Congress (ANC) led the struggle against apartheid. Many sensitive whites also joined the ANC to oppose apartheid and played a leading role in the struggle movement. Apartheid was the name of a system or policy of racial discrimination unique to South Africa. (i) The white Europeans imposed this system on non-white people of South Africa. (ii) The blacks were forbidden from living in white areas. They could work in these areas only if they had a permit. (ii) There were separate schools, colleges, hotels, hospitals, trains, buses, cinema halls, theatres, shopping areas and public toilets, swimming pools and beaches, etc for the whites and blacks. (iii) The blacks could not even visit the churches where the whites worshipped. (iv) The non-whites were denied the voting rights and even the basic human right.
47) What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? Give any five reasons. Or Why do we need a Constitution in a democracy? Explain any three reasons. Or What is a Constitution? Why do we need a Constitution? Give any four reasons.
Answer: The Constitution of a country is a set of written rules that are accepted by all people living together in a country. Constitution is the supreme law that determines the relationship among people living in a territory (called citizens) and also the relationship between the people and government. We need a Constitution because
(i) It generates a degree of trust and coordination that is necessary for different kind of people to live together.
(ii) It specifies how the government will be constituted, who will have power to take which decisions.
(iii) It lays down limits on the powers of the government and tells us what the rights of the citizens are.
(iv) It expresses the aspirations of the people about creating a good society.
(v) Indian Constitution safe guards the interests of minority, OBC, poor and weaker section of our society. It gives universal adult franchise to all and establishes equality for all.
48) "The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the constitution of India. "Justify the statement with three arguments.
Answer: The manner in which the Constituent Assembly worked gives sanctity to the Constitution. This statement can be justified by following points
(i) It worked in a systematic, open and consensual manner.
(ii) First some basic principles were decided and agreed upon and a draft of Constitution was prepared.
(iii) Serveral rounds of thorough discussion took place, clause by clause.
(iv) More than two thousands amendments were considered.
(v) Every document presented and every word spoken in the Constituent Assembly was recorded and preserved. These 'Constituent Assembly Debates, were printed in 12 volumes.
49) How has the Indian Constitution embodied the basic values into institutional arrangements? Explain.
Answer: Indian Constitution is embodying the basic values into institutional arrangements by following ways
(i) The Constitution of India is a detailed document. It needs to be amended quite regularly to keep it updated. It has to be changed in accordance with people's aspirations and changes in society. These changes are called Constitutional Amendments.
(ii) The Constitution lays down a procedure for choosing persons to govern the country. (iii) It defines who will have how much power to take which decisions.
(iv) It limits the powers of the government by providing some rights to the citizen that cannot be violated.
50) Explain the major factors that contributed to the making of Indian Constitution. Or List the factors that contributed to the making of Indian Constitution.
Answer: The making of a Constitution for a huge and diverse country like India was not an easy task. The various factors that contributed in the making of our Constitution were (i) Many of our leaders were inspired by the ideals of French Revolution
(ii) They were also influenced by the practice of parliamentary democracy in Britain and the Bill of Rights in the US.
(iii) Socialist Revolution in Russia inspired them to think of a system based on social and economic equality. (iv) At each step they questioned whether the things suited our country or not.