1) Name the only country to have granted universal adult franchise till the 19th century.
Ans: New Zealand was the first country which granted universal adult franchise in 1893.
2) Our Constitution makers were influenced by which country's practice of parliamentary democracy?
Ans: Our Constitution makers were influenced by Great Britain's practice of parliamentary democracy.
3) What is a referendum?
Ans: A referendum is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal.
4) Name the President of Chile who was overthrown by a military coup in 1973.
Ans: Salvador Allende was the President of Chile. He was overthrown by a military coup in 1973.
5) Name the leader of Iraq who became its Prisedent after the success of a military coup.
Ans:Saddam Hussein became the President of Iraq after the success of a military coup.
6) In which year did the United States of America adopt a democratic Constitution?
Ans: The democratic Constitution of USA was adopted in 1787, although they had declared their independence from British rule on 4th July 1776.
7) Name organ of the UN is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries.
Ans: The UN Security Council is responsible for maintaining peace and security among countries,
8) Name the trade union which formed in Poland during the communist regime.
Ans:The name of the trade union was Solidarity.
9) When was democracy restored in Chile after General Pinochet's rule?
Ans: Democracy was restored in Chile in 1988 after General Pinochet's rule.
10) In which year was universal adult franchise introduced in India?
Ans: Universal adult franchise was introduced in India in 1950, when the new Constitution was implemented.
11) The workers led by Lech Walesa signed an agreement with the Polish Government consisting of how many points which ended their strike?
Ans: The agreement which ended their strike was a 21-point agreement.
12) Name the person who brought back army rule in Pakistan in 1999.
Ans: General Parvez Musharraf brought back army rule in Pakistan in 1999.
13) Name the President of Chile from 1970 to 1973.
Ans: Salvador Allende was the President of Chile from 1970 to 1973.
14) Who was leading the government in Poland when martial law was imposed in Poland in December 1981?
Ans:General Jaruzelski was leading the government in Poland when martial law was imposed in Poland in December 1981.
15) Salvador Allende, the President of Chile, favoured which sections of society?
Ans: Salvador Allende favoured the poor sections of society and the workers by reforming the educational system, giving free milk for children and redistribution of land to the landless farmers.
16) Which major historical event inspired many struggles for democracy all over Europe?
Ans: The French Revolution was the major historical event which inspired many struggles for democracy all over Europe.
17) Which form of government is found in most of the countries at present?
Ans: Democracy is the form of government which is found in most of the countries at present.
18) Which nation has recently taken on the task of democracy promotion in the rest of the world?
Ans: The United States of America has recently taken on the task of democracy promotion in the world. Its example is their interference in the affairs of Iraq.
19) Who was the first woman Defence Minister and President of a Latin American nation?
Ans:Michelle Bachelet was the first woman Defence Minister and President of Chile, a Latin American nation.
20) Which are the six official languages of the United Nations, used in inter-governmental meetings and documents?
Ans:The languages are Arabic, Chinese, English, French, Russian and Spanish.
21) Is it true that nowadays
(a) there are more people living in democracies around the world?
(b) there is a secular constitution in every country?
(c) in more and more countries rulers are being elected by the people?
(d) there are no more military dictators in the world?
Ans: (a) True
22) What is the principal requirement for democracy in international organisations?
Ans: The principal requirement for democracy in international organisations is that all countries in the world should be treated equally.
23) Who is the present UN Secretary-General?
Ans: Mr Ban Ki-Moon is the present UN Secretary General.
24) Name the first independent trade union formed in any of the communist regimes.
Ans: Solidarity in Poland was the first independent trade union formed in any of the communist regimes.
25) A military coup took place in Chile on 11th September 1973. Name the Army General who led the coup.
Ans: General Augusto Pinochet led the military coup.
26) Name the communist state which supported and controlled the government in Poland during communist rule.
Ans: Soviet Union supported and controlled the government in Poland during communist rule.
27) Name the leader of the striking workers in Poland who was dismissed from service in 1976 for demanding higher pays.
Ans: Lech Walesa was the leader of the striking workers in Poland who was dismissed from service in 1976 for demanding higher pays.
28) What was the major demand of striking workers led by Lech Walesa?
Ans: The major demand of striking workers led by Lech Walesa was the right to form independent trade unions.
29) Name the political party founded by Salvador Allende.
Ans: The Socialist Party of Chile was founded by Salvador Allende.
30) Name the continent where Chile is situated in.
Ans: Chile is situated in South America.
31) Name the country which had supported military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
Ans: United States of America had supported military coup led by General Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
32) Which system of rule takes effect when a military authority controls the state?
Ans: Martial law takes effect when a military authority controls the state.
33) Who was ruling Poland in 1980?
Ans: The Polish United Workers' Party was ruling Poland in 1980.
34) In which year Pinochet's military dictatorship came to an end in Chile?
Ans: In 1988, Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship came to an end in Chile.
35) General Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland in December 1981. What was the reason behind it?
Ans: General Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland in December 1981 due to the revelations of widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government.
36) By which term can we explain 'a sudden overthrow of me government illegally?'
Ans: The term 'coup' means 'a sudden overthrow of the government illegally.'
37) Who was elected as the President of Chile in January 2006?
Ans: Michelle Bachelet was the President of Chile in January 2006.
38) For how many yeas did Pinochet rule in Chile?
Ans:For seventeen years Pinochet ruled in Chile.
39) When did the British colonies in North America declared themselves as independent?
Ans: In 1776, the British colonies in North America declared themselves as independent.
40) Name the ten countries which enjoy more than 54 percent of the voting power in the IMF.
Ans: The countries which enjoy more than 54 percent of the voting power in the IMF are the USA, Japan, Germany, France, United kingdom, China, Italy, Saudi Arabia, Canada and Russia.
41) Who was elected the President of Chile in 1970? What steps did he take to help the poor? Or State any three reforms undertaken by Allende after forming the government. Why is his rule called democratic?
Ans: Salvador Allende was elected the President of Chile in 1970.
(i) Allende had taken several policies to help the poor and the workers.
(ii) Allende introduced reforms in the educational system, provided free milk to poor children and redistributed land to the landless farmers.
(iii) The landlords, the rich people, the people associated with church, other political parties opposed his policies. He opposed the idea of foreign companies taking away natural resources like copper from his country.
42) Who was Salvador Allende? Why was his policy opposed by the aristocrats?
Ans: Salvador Allende (1908-1973) was the founder leader of the Socialist Party of Chile. Allende led the Popular Unity coalition to victory in the Presidential election in 1970. After being elected the President of Chile, he redistributed of land to the landless farmers, gave free milk for poor children and opposed foreign companies which were taking away important natural resources like copper from Chile. His worker policies were not acceptable to the aristocrats. That is why the aritocrats opposed his policies.
43) How did Pinochet establish army rule in Chile after a successful coup? Or State any three major developments in Chile after the military coup of September 1973.
Ans:On 11th September, 1973, a military coup under the leadership of General Augusto Pinochet took place in Chile.
(i) A military dictatorship was established.
(ii) Pinochet's Government tortured and killed those who supported democracy and did not support him.
(iii) More than 3000 people were killed by the military.
(iv) General Bachelet's wife and daughter put in prison and tortured.
(v) From a government that was elected by the people, the power shifted to the military officers.
44) How was democracy restored in Chile? Or How did Pinochet's military dictatorship come to an end? Explain.
Ans: General Augusto Pinochet's military dictatorship came to an end after he decided to hold a referendum in 1988. He thought that people would vote for him. But the people of Chile voted against him. Political freedom was restored and finally General Bachelet's daughter, Michelle Bachelet was elected President of Chile in 2006. The elected government that came to power ordered inquires into ' Pinochet's rule, which showed that his government was not only brutal but also very corrupt.
45) Explain any three salient features of democracy.
Ans: Salient features of democracy are
(i) Democracy is a form of government which allows people to choose their rulers. This choice should be made through a free and fair election, where those people currently in power have a fair chance of losing.
(ii) In a democracy, people can express their opinions freely, form political associations and organize political action.
(iii) In a democracy, each adult citizen, including women, must have one vote and each vote must have one value.
46) Why was an independent trade union so important in Poland? Why are trade unions necessary?
Ans: In Poland, the trade unions were controlled by the ruling party and there could be no trade unions independent of the party. When the workers of the Lenin Shipyard in Gdansk went on strike. The strike was considered illegal because it was called by an independent group of workers and not an authorised trade union. In order to have justice, the workers must have an independent trade union. These are necessary because they can take up the cause of the workers in a better and organised manner and get their demands fulfilled.
47) Why were women given voting rights much later than men in most countries.? Why did this not happen in India ?
Ans: In most countries, the society was male dominated and traditionally there was gender wise division of labour. Men worked outside the homes and earned for the family while the women stayed at home and did the household work and looked after the children. They were not encouraged to join public life and so voting rights were denied to them in most countries and societies. Women in India got voting rights along with men because after becoming independent from the British rule in 1947, the Constitution of independent India provided Universal Adult Franchise, which did not discriminate between men and women.
48)What should be the policy of the Government of India towards the Military rulers of Myanmar?
Ans: India is a well established democratic country, where citizens enjoy all the fundamental rights and lead a happy and free life. But in Myanmar, democracy has been destroyed and a large number of people have been killed. 6 to 10 lakhs have been uprooted from their homes. So, the Government of India must use its power to influence the autocratic government of Myanmar to give more rights to the people of Myanmar. India always supported the struggle of pro-democracy leader Aung San Suu Kyi of Myanmar. Moreover India should also maintain cordial relations with its neighbouring country.
49) Should there be World Government? If yes/who should elect it? And what powers should it have?
Ans: (i) Yes, there should be a World Government.
(ii) It should consist of representatives from each country appointed by the government of the concerned country, because a direct election would be too complicated and difficult.
(iii) It should have the power to settle disputes between different countries and solve issues relating to environment, peace, poverty, natural resources, human rights, equality, etc and other matters that affect the international community.
50) Should the permanent members of the UN be given the power to veto?
Ans: No, the permanent members of the UN should not be given the power to veto. In reality, the five permanent members have this veto power but it is generally used for their own interest. It is not used for the interest of the international community. Generally, the fifteen member Security Council of the UN take crucial decisions. But the council cannot take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision. Thus many countries protest against the veto power and urge that the UN should be more democratic.
51) Explain any three difficulties people face in a non-democratic country.
Ans: People in a non-democratic country face a lot of difficulties like
(i) Dictators do not allow other parties to function.
(ii) Freedom of speech and expression is denied. If the people raise their voice they may be arrested, put in jail and tortured and even executed.
(iii) People cannot choose their leaders or change them.
52) Describe any three demands of the workers of 'Lenin Shipyard' during their strike which started in August 1980 in Poland?
Ans: On 14 August 1980, the workers of Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk went on a strike. Their main demands were
(i) The strike began with a demand for taking back a woman crane operator, who was unjustly dismissed from service.
(ii) They wanted the right to form independent trade unions.
(iii) They also demanded the release of political prisoners and an end to censorship on press.