1) Name the original name of the Nazi party.
Answer:The original name of the Nazi party was the Nationalist Socialist German Workers' Party, which was later renamed as the Nazi party.
2) Explain the purpose of the Enabling Act passed on 3rd March, 1933.
Answer:This Act established dictatorship in Germany, as it gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree. All political parties and trade unions were banned except for the Nazi party and its affiliates. The state established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
3) What was the work entrusted to the International War Tribunal set up in Nuremberg after the war?
Answer: It was set up to prosecute Nazi war criminals for crimes against peace, for war crimes and crimes against humanity.
4) Who were considered as the 'desirables' under Nazi rule?
Answer: Nordic German Aryans were considered as the 'desirables' under Nazi rule.
5) Who were mockingly called 'November criminals'?
Answer: Those who supported the Weimar Republic, mainly Socialists, Catholics and Democrats, became easy targets of attack in conservative nationalist circles. They were mockingly called the 'November criminals'.
6) On whose thinking were Hitler's ideas of racialism based?
Answer:Hitler’s ideas of racism were based on Emile Burnouf’s thinking.
Emile Burnouf was a racialist whose thoughts and ideas highly influenced the developing of Aryanism and theosophy. In all his writings and speeches, Adolf Hitler conveyed his belief and views about racial purity, as well as the superiority of Germanic race that he considered to be an Aryan master race.
7) What was the name given to separately marked areas where the Jews lived?
Answer:The separately marked areas where the Jews lived were called ghettos.
8) Which sport did Hitler promote?
Answer:Hitler promoted boxing because he believed that it would make children iron-hearted, strong and masculine.
9) What was the name given to the German Parliament?
Answer: The German Parliament was called the Reichstag.
10) Which treaty was signed by Germany after its defeat in the First World War?
Answer:The Treaty of Versailles was signed by Germany on 28th June, 1919 after its defeat in the First World War.
11) Which of the following was the most feared security force of the Nazi state?
Answer:Besides the existing regular police and the SA or Storm Troopers, special surveillance and security forces like the Gestapo (secret state police), the SS (the protection squads), criminal police and the Security Service (SD) were created to control and order society. Out of these, the Gestapo was the most feared security force of the Nazi state.
12) When did Germany attack the Soviet Union?
Answer:Germany attacked the Soviet Union in June, 1941, as Hitler, wanted to ensure food supplies and living space for Germans.
13) Which incident persuaded the USA to join the war?
Answer:Hitler's ideology of 'Lebensraum' meant that the world must be occupied such that it enabled the material resources and power of the German nation to increase. To achieve this objective, new territories had to be acquired for settlement.
14) What was Hitler's ideology of 'Lebensraum' or living space?
Answer: Hitler's ideology of 'Lebensraum' meant that the world must be occupied such that it enabled the material resources and power of the German nation to increase. To achieve this objective, new territories had to be acquired for settlement.
15) What was Nazi ideology with regard to school children?
Answer: Nazi ideology with regard to school children was that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children Nazi ideology. This required a control over the child both inside and outside school.
16) Who was the propaganda Minister of Hitler?
Answer: Joseph Goebbels was a German politician and Reich Minister of Propaganda in Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945.
17) Which move of Hitler is said to be a historical blunder?
Answer:Hitler attacked the Soviet Union in June, 1941. In this, historic blunder. Hitler exposed the German Western front to British aerial bombing and the Eastern front to the powerful Soviet armies.
18) Who was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery by Hitler?
Answer: Hjalmar Schacht was assigned the responsibility of economic recovery of Germany by Hitler.
19) When was Hitler offered Chancellorship of Germany and by whom?
Answer:On 30th January, 1933, President Hindenburg offered the Chancellorship, the highest position in the cabinet of ministers, to Hitler.
20) Which country became a laboratory for the experiment of the concept of Lebensraum?
Answer:Poland became the laboratory for this experimentation of the concept of Lebensraum.
21) What terms were used for 'killing' by the Nazis?
Answer:Various terms like Euthanasia programme (killing of mentally or physically unfit Germans), 'Final Solution' (killing of Jews), 'Special Treatment' (mass killings), and similar other terms were used for killing 'undesirables' by the Nazis.
22) Which event was termed the 'Holocaust'?
Answer: The Nazi killing operations against the Jews were referred to as the 'Holocaust' by the Jews, as they wanted the world to remember the atrocities and sufferings, they had endured during the Nazi killing operations.
23) What was the name of Hitler's autobiography, written before he assumed the Chancellorship of Germany?
Answer:Hitler's autobiography was named 'Mein Kampf, meaning 'My Struggle'.
24) What did the term 'Evacuation' mean in Hitler's Germany?
Answer: It meant deporting people to gas chambers for mass killings.
25) What was the slogan coined by Hitler when he followed his aggressive foreign policy?
Answer:The slogan was 'One people, one empire and one leader'.
26) The US army dropped the atomic bomb in 1945 on which cities?
Answer:The US army dropped the atomic bomb in 1945 on the Japanese cities of Hiroshima on 6th August, 1945, followed by another one over Nagasaki on 9th August, 1945.
27) What was the name of the Nazi Youth organisation which consisted of all German boys of 14 to 18 years of age?
Answer: The Youth League of the Nazis was founded in 1922. Four years later it was renamed as Hitler Youth and consisted of all German boys of 14 to 18 years of age. To unify the youth movement under Nazi control, all other youth organizations were systematically dissolved and finally banned.
28) Who was Hitler? How did. Hitler reconstruct Germany?
Answer:Adolf Hitler was the founder of the Nazi party, who became the Chancellor of Germany in 1933. He soon became the dictator of Germany. To reconstruct Germany, Hitler assigned the responsiblity of economic recovery to the economist Hjalmar Schacht. In 1933, Hitler pulled out of the League of Nations, reoccupied the Rhineland in 1936 and integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan, 'One people, one empire, and one leader'.
29) Examine any three inherent defects in the Weimar Constitution. Or Explain the inherent defects of the Weimar constitution that made republic unstable and vulnerable to dictatorship. Or State any three factors which made the Weimar Republic politically fragile.
Answer: The Weimar Constitution had three inherent defects (i) It was based on proportional representation, which made achieving a majority by one party virtually impossible. Only coalition governments ruled. (ii) Existence of Article 48 in the constitution, which gave the President the power to impose emergency suspend civil rights and rule by decree. (iii) Due to 20 different coalition governments being formed, people lost confidence in the democratic Parliamentary system, as it offered no solutions to their problems.
30) Nazis used chilling words as an art of propaganda. Justify.
Answer: The Nazi regime used chilling words as an art of propaganda. They never used the words 'kill' or 'murder' in their official communications. The term 'special treatment', 'final solution' (for the Jews). 'Euthanasia' (for the disabled), 'selection' and 'disinfection' were used. Gas chambers looked like bathrooms and were labelled as 'Disinfection Area'. Nazi ideas were spread through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets. Media played an important role to popularise Nazi ideas.
31) What was the impact of the Great Depression on the US?
Answer: The Wall Street Exchange of USA crashed in 1929. As a result, values of shares dropped drastically and the national income of the USA fell by half. Hundreds of American banks, factories, mining companies and business firms went bankrupt. There was large scale unemployment, poverty and starvation in the country. The effects of this recession in the US economy were felt worldwide. It is known as the Great Depression of 1929.
32) What were the main features of Hitler's geopolitical concept of Lebensraum? Give three features.
Answer: The main features of Hitler's geopolitical concept of Lebensraum or living space were
(i) He believed that new territories had to be acquired for settlement.
(ii) The settlers in new lands would be able to maintain intimate links with the place of their origin.
(iii) The new settlements would enhance the material resources and power of the German nations. By capturing Poland, Hitler put his new ideas into practice.
33) Explain the impact of the First World War on European society and polity. Or State any three effects of the First World War over Europe. Or First World War left deep imprint on European society and polity. Support the statement with three examples.
Answer: The First World War left a deep imprint on European society and polity. It had a devastating impact on the entire continent.
(i) In society, soldiers were ranked higher than civilians. Trench life of the soldiers was glorified by the media.
(ii) Politicians and publicists laid great stress on the need for men to be aggressive and masculine.
(iii) Aggressive war propaganda and national honour occupied centre stage in the public sphere.
(iv) People's support grew for the recently established dictatorships.
(v) Democracy as a young and fragile idea could not survive the instabilities of interwar Europe.
34) What were the main features of Nazism?
Answer:The Nazis were against democracy and socialism. They. believed that there was no equality between people, but only a racial hierarchy. They stressed on the superiority of the Nordic Aryan Race. All other races were classified as 'undesirable'. Jews, Gypsies and Blacks living in Nazi Germany were considered as undesirable and were largely persecuted. The Nazis glorified war and believed in the geopolitical concept of Lebensraum or living space meaning that they could acquire new territories through war.
35) How was Nazi ideology taught to the youth in Germany?
Answer: Hitler believed that a strong Nazi society could be established only by teaching children Nazi ideology. Youth organisation like 'Jung volk' tutored ten year old children. At the age of 14th, all boys had to join 'Hitler Youth' where they learnt to worship war, glorify aggression, condemn democracy and hate Jews, Communists, Gypsies and all 'undesirables'. After a period of rigorous ideological and physical training, they joined the labour service, usually at the age of 18th.
36) How would you have reacted to Hitler's ideas if you were (i) A Jewish Woman (ii)A non-Jewish Woman
Answer: (i) If I were a Jewish woman, I would have condemned Hitlers ideas. I would have pleaded for a safe shelter as I felt insecure in Germany. (ii) If I were a non-Jewish woman, I would try to mobilise support secretly and would have helped the victims of Nazi persecution. I did not support Hitler's view about Jews being 'undesirable', because I had a number of Jewish friends. They were just like other human beings. They should not be called 'undesirables'.
37) What was the Enabling Act? Or When was the Enabling Act passed in Germany? How did this act establish dictatorship of Hitler in Germany?
Answer:On 3rd March, 1933, the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to sideline Parliament and rule by decree. All political parties and trade unions were banned in Germany, except the Nazi party and its affiliates. The new state machinery under Hitler established complete control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
38) Explain any five measures adopted by Hitler to establish dictatorship in Germany.
Answer:Having acquired power. Hitler set out to dismantle the structures of democratic rule.
(i) Under his rule, the Fire Decree of 28th February, 1933 was passed which indefinitely suspended civic rights like freedom of speech, press and assembly.
(ii) Then he turned his arch enemies the communists, most of whom were hurriedly packed off to the newly established concentration camps.
(iii) The Socialists, Democrats and Catholics also were arrested and killed.
(iv) On 3rd March, 1933 the famous Enabling Act was passed. This Act established dictatorship in Germany. It gave Hitler all powers to control over the economy, media, army and judiciary.
(v) All political parties and trade unions were banned. He controlled media, army and judiciary.
39) What were the promises made by Hitler to people of Germany? Or Explain three factors which led to the rise of Hitler in Germany? Or State any three promises made by Adolf Hitler to the German society. Or How did Hitler effectively mobilise popular support in Germany? Explain in five points.
Answer:During the Great Depression (1929-1932) Nazism became a mass movement and the Nazi propaganda created hopes of a better future for the German people. Hitler gave some promises
(i) He promised to build Germany into a strong nation.
(ii) He promised to undo the injustice and humiliation caused by the Treaty of Versailles and restore the dignity of the German people.
(iii) He promised employment for those looking for work.
(iv) He promised to secure future of the youth.
(v) He promised to weed out all foreign influence and resist all foreign conspiracies against Germany.
40) Explain any four points of Hitler's foreign policy. What did Schacht advice to Hitler? Or Describe any three important points of Hitler's foreign policy. Or Describe Hitler's foreign policy before the Second World War.
Answer:In foreign policy Adolf Hitler took quick and successful steps.
(i) He pulled Germany out of the League of Nations in 1993.
(ii) He integrated Austria and Germany in 1938 under the slogan 'one people, one empire and one leader'.
(iii) He then captured German-speaking Sudetenland from Czechoslovakia and later the entire country.
(iv) Hitler got unspoken support of England, which had considered the Versailles Treaty as too harsh.
(v) These quick success at home and abroad helped to reverse the destiny of the country.
41) Describe any five effects of the First World War on Germany. Or Explain any three effects of the First World War on Germany.
Answer: (i) The First World War left a deep imprint on European society. The war had a devastating impact on the entire continent both psychologically and financially.
(ii) Financially there was a great economic loss. The Weimar Republic was being made to pay compensation.
(iii) Formation of League of Nations took place to prevent the Second World War.
(iv) Germany lost its overseas colonies.
(v) The Allied powers demilitarised Germany to weaken its powers.
(vi) Many of Germany's territories were annexed and distributed amongst Allied Powers.
42) How did the common people react to Nazism?
Answer: (i) Many people saw the world through Nazi eyes.
(ii) They spoke their mind in Nazi language.
(iii) They felt hatred and anger when they saw someone looked like a Jew.
iv) They marked the houses of Jews and reported about their suspicious neighbours.
(v) Common men really believed that Nazism would bring hap piness and prosperity for them.
(vi) The large majority of Germans were passive onlookers, they were scared to act on protest against Nazism.
(vii) But many German organised active resistance to Nazism, braving police repression and death.
43) Explain any three points to prove that Nazi rule was barbarous.
Answer: (i) In Nazi Germany only Nordic German Aryans were considered 'desirable'. Jews, Gypsies, Blacks, Russians, Polish people were brutally killed in gas chambers.
(ii) The Jews and Communists were tortured in concentration camps. Even 'undesirable children' were segregated and taken to the gas chambers.
(iii) Special surveillance and security forces were created to control and carried atrocities against the selected group of innocent people. The extra constitutional powers given to them, which made Nazi state its reputation as the most dreaded criminal state.
44) Describe the Hitler's policy towards the Jews? Or How were the Jews worst sufferers in the Nazi government?
Answer:Once in power, the Nazis quickly began to implement their dream of creating a racial society of 'pure and healthy Nordic Aryans. They were alone considered 'desirables'. (i) The Jews were the worst sufferer in Nazi Germany. The Nazi hatred of the Jews was rooted in the traditional Christian hostility towards them. They had been stereotyped as killers of Christ and usurers.
(ii) In Nazi Germany, they lived in separately marked areas called ghettos. They were often persecuted through periodic organised violence and expulsion from the land.
(iii) From 1933 to 1938, the Nazis terrorized pauperised and segregated the Jews, compelling them to leave Germany.
(iv) Hitler believed that 'the Jewish problem' could be solved only through total elimination. As a result they were largely killed gas chambers. As many as 6 million Jews were killed by the Nazis, what was known as 'genocidal war'?
45) Evaluate the use of media by the Nazis to popularise their ideology in Germany
Answer:The Nazi regime used language and media with care to win supports for the regime and popularise its worldviews.
(i) Nazi ideas were spread through visual images, films, radio, posters, catchy slogans and leaflets.
(ii) In posters, enemies of Germany were stereotyped, mocked and abused.
(iii) Socialists and liberals were represented as weak and degenerate. They were criticised as malicious foreign agents.
(iv) Propaganda films were produced to create hatred for Jews.
(v) Orthodox Jews were stereotyped and marked, they were shown with flowing beards, wearing Kaftans and referred to as vermin, rats and pests.
(vi) Through media, Nazism worked on the minds of the people and turned their hatred at those marked as 'undesirable' by them.