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31) How did Mahatma Gandhi change his attire with change in his status?
Answer: (i) As a boy from a Gujarati bania family, he usually wore a shirt with a dhoti or pyjama and sometimes a coat.
(ii) When he went to London to study law as a boy of 19 in 1888, he cut off the tuft on his head and dressed in a Western suit so that he would not be laughed at.
(iii) On his return, he continued to wear Western suits, topped with a turban.
(iv) As a lawyer in Johannesburg, South Africa in the 1890s, he still wore Western clothes. (v) In Durban in 1913, Gandhiji first appeared in a lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners.
(vi) On his return to India, he decided to dress like a Kathiawadi peasant.
(vii) In 1921, he adopted the short dhoti, the form of dress he wore until his death.
32) How did various people react to Mahatma Gandhi's call to wear khadi?
Answer: (i) Nationalists such as Motilal Nehru, a successful barrister from Allahabad gave up his expensive Western-style suits and adopted the Indian dhoti and kurta.
(ii) There were nationalists like B.R. Ambedkar who never gave up the Western-style suit. Many Dalits also wore three-piece suits, shoes and socks on all public occasions.
(iii) A woman wrote to Gandhiji from Maharashtra that she was too poor to buy khadi, so she wore a nine-yard long sari.
(iv) Other women like Sarojini Naidu and Kamala Nehru, wore coloured saris with designs, instead of coarse, white homespun khadi.
33) How did Mahatma Gandhi opt for khadi?
Answer: (i) When Mahatma Gandhi returned to India, he decided to dress like a Kathiawadi peasant.
(ii) So, he adopted a short dhoti with a shawl, as he wanted to experiment for a month or two.
(iii) But soon he saw this as his duty to the poor, and he never wore any other dress.
(iv) Khadi, white and coarse, was to him a sign of purity, simplicity and poverty.
(v) Wearing it also became a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of Western mill cloth.
(vi) He consciously rejected the well-known clothes of the Indian ascetic and adopted the dress of the poorest Indian.
34) "The experiment with swadeshi gave Mahatma Gandhi important ideas about using cloth as a symbolic weapon against the British rule". Support the statement with any five suitable facts.
Answer: (i) Gandhiji made spinning on charkha and the daily use of Khadi is a very powerful symbol as resistance to the British atrocities.
(ii) These were not only the symbols of self-reliance but also of resistance to the british mill-made cloth.
(iii) In Durban in 1913, Gandhiji first appeared in a lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners.
(iv) After adopting the short dhoti at the time of non-cooperation movement, He discarded his topi as well as the vest temporarily. But soon he realized it as a duty to the poor and never wore any other dress.
(v) In 1934, when he went to England for the saved table conference, he wore dhoti without a shirt even before the king George V.
35) The National Woman Suffrage Association was headed by (a) Mrs Stanton (b) Lucy Stone (c) Mr Stanton (d) Mrs Amelia
36) What was the Indian chintzes which was within the reach of many Europeans? (a) Khadi cloth (b) Cotton cloth (c) Woollen cloth (d) Silk cloth
37) Which of the following gave women greater freedom for movement? (a) Skirts (b) Blouses (c) Trousers (d) Scarves
38) What was the 'phenta'? Trouser (b) Skirt (c) Hat (d) Shoes
39) Who made the 'shoe-respect' rule stricter for Indians? (a) Lord Curzon (b) Lord Dalhousie (c) Lord William Bentick (d) Lord Mountbatten
40) Which of the following nationalists never gave up wearing the Western style suits? (a) Motilal Nehru (b) Dr. B.R. Ambedkar (c) Jawaharlal Nehru (d) Mahatma Gandhi
41) What kind of clothes were worn by the French Royal and elite Society?
Answer:Only regality could wear expensive initials like ermine and fur, silk, velvet and brocade. Other classes were not allowed to wear such materials.
42) What does 'Sans culottes' literally mean?
Answer: Its literal meaning is "without knee breeches".
43) What were Sumptuary Laws?
Answer: The laws which tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferiors, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and beverages and hunting game in certain areas were known as Sumptuary Laws.
44) Which sections of society could wear clothes made of expensive materials like ermine, fur, silk, velvet and brocade in french society.
Answer: Only royalty could wear expensive materials like ermine, fur, silk, velvet and brocade in French society.
45) Which revolution did abolish the Sumptuary Laws?
Answer: French Revolution abolished the Sumptuary Laws.
46) Which material became popular for clothing in Europe after Industrial Revolution in Britain?
Answer:Cotton became popular for clothing in Europe after Industrial Revolution in Britain.
47) Which community in India was among the first to adopt Western style clothing in their dress?
Answer:The Parsis were the first Indian community to westernise, so they first adopted Western style clothing in their dress.
48) Which section of the Indian society began wearing Western clothes without giving up their Indian clothes?
Answer: Bengali bureaucrats began stocking Western style clothes for work outside the home and changed into more comfortable Indian clothes at home.
49) Which factor was responsible for the transformation of clothing pattern in European countries in the 19th century?
Answer: Industrial Revolution was responsible for the transformation of clothing pattern in European countries in the 19th century.
50) State the period when people of France were expected to strictly follow the 'Sumptuary Laws'.
Answer:From about 1294 to the time of French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow the 'Sumptuary Laws'.
51) What is cockade?
Answer:Cockade is a cap, usually worn on one side.
52) In Victorian England, why were women from childhood tightly laced up and dressed in stays?
Answer:In Victorian England, women from childhood tightly laced up and dressed in stays, because it was thought that women looked attractive, elegant and graceful in these dresses.
53) When did women in England start agitating for democratic rights?
Answer:By the 1830s, women in England began agitating for democratic rights.
54) Who was the first American dress reformer to launch loose tunics?
Answer:Mrs Amelia Bloomer was the first American dress reformer to launch loose tunics.
55) When and where was 'Rational Dress Society' started?
Answer:In 1881, 'Rational Dress Society5 was started in England.
56) What is meant by Sans Culottes?
Answer: Sans Culottes literally meant those 'without knee breeches'.
57) Which was the favourite dress of Gandhiji?
Answer: The favourite dress of Gandhiji was turban and dhoti.
58) When was slavery abolished in Travancore?
Answer: Slavery was abolished in Travancore in 1855.
59) What was the colour of the cap of Liberty worn by French revolutionaries?
Answer: The colour of the cap of Liberty worn by French revolutionaries was red because red was regarded as one of the colours of patriotism.
60) Wearing of which two things created misunderstanding between the British and the Indians?
Answer:Wearing of turbans and hat created misunderstanding between the British and the Indians.
61) Which family did play a significant role in the search for a national dress of India?
Answer: Tagore family of West Bengal played a significant role in the search for a national dress of India.
62) Who wrote the book 'Striloker Paricchad' in 1872?
Answer:Saudamini Khastagir wrote the book 'Striloker Paricchad' in 1872.
63) In the first decade of the 20th century, which movement in Bengal was linked to the politics of clothing?
Answer: In the first decade of the 20th century, Swadeshi Movement in Bengal was linked to the politics of clothing.
64) What was khadi according to Gandhiji?
Answer:White and coarse khadi was to Gandhiji, a sign of purity, simplicity and poverty and wearing it became a symbol of nationalism.
65) What was the cause behind the radical changes in women's clothing?
Answer:Radical changes in women's clothing came about as a result of the two World Wars, as thousands of women came out to work and they needed comfortable and convenient clothings.
66) In traditional Indian clothing pattern, what did the wearing of turban symbolise?
Answer: The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of respectability and could not be removed at will.
67) People of which community were prohibited from using umbrellas, shoes and golden ornaments?
Answer: The Shanar (also called Nadars) were a community who were prohibited from using umbrellas, shoes and golden ornaments.
68) In which century were the ideals of beauty and style of clothing transformed?
Answer: In the 19th century the ideals of beauty and style of clothing were transformed.
69) Who dominated the American suffrage Association?
Answer:Lucy Stone dominated the American Suffrage Association.
70) What was corset?
Answer:Corset in a closely fitting and stiff inner bodice, worn by Women to give shape and support to the figure.
71) Who recommended Chapkan (a long buttoned coat) as the most suitable dress for men?
Answer: Rabindranath Tagore recommended 'chapkan' (a long buttoned coat) as the most suitable dress for men.
72) Who introduced the new style of wearing sari, called Brahmika sari?
Answer:Jnandanandini Devi, wife of Satyendranath Tagore introduced the new style of wearing sari, called Brahmika sari.
73) Name the person who refused to take off his shoes in the court of the session Judge of Surat?
Answer: Mancokjee Cowasjee Entee, an assessior in the Surat Fouzdaree Adawlut, refused to take off his shoes in the court of the session judge of Surat.
74) When did Western style clothing come into India?
Answer: In the 19th century Western style clothing come into India.
75) Who made the 'shoe respect' rule stricter for the Indians?
Answer: In the mid-19th century, Governor General lord Dalhousie made the 'shoe respect' rule stricter for the Indians.
76) When did Gandhiji adopt the short dhoti a form of dress and wore until his death?
Answer: In 1921, Gandhiji adopted the short dhoti a form of dress and wore until his death.
77) Who were attacked in the marketplace and their upper clothes were torn off in October 1859 at Travancore?
Answer:Shanar women of Travancore were attacked in the marketplace and their upper clothers were torn off in October 1859.
78) In what ways do you think the notions of weakness and dependence came to be reflected in women's clothing?
Answer:As women were considered weak and dependent, they needed to be strengthen in various ways, which included their clothing also. This reflected in the following items worn by women
(i) Busk This was strip wood, whalebone or steel worn in front of the corset to stiffen and support it.
(ii) Corset This was a close-fitting and stiff inner bodice to give shape and support to the woman's figure.
(iii) Stays This was used as a support, as part of woman's dress to hold the body straight. (iv) Steel Rod with Semi-circle This was to support the chin of the woman so, that it did not droop.
79) Can you think of other reason why the use of khadi could not spread among some classes, castes and regions of India?
Answer: The wearing of khadi could not spread all over India for the reasons given below (i) Khadi was costly and most people could not spin it at home and then weave it for cloth. Rich people were not interested in coarse khadi clothes; they preferred Western outfits. (ii) Caste regulation limited people to wear certain type of dresses. Some Hindu upper-castes thought that wearing khadi would destroy their caste superiority. Some Dalits converts to Christianity accepted Western style suit as a means of self-respect.
(iii) The remote regions of India were not even aware of what khadi was, why they should wear it and where to get it.
80) Explain the reasons for the changes in clothing patterns and materials in the 18th century.
Answer:Changes in clothing patterns and materials in the 18th century took place due to events like the Industrial Revolution and the French Revolution. Due to colonialism, different cultures came into contact with each other and were in turn influenced by each other's dress styles. Thus, changes took place in the clothing patterns. Trade with India brought the beautiful and easy-to-maintain Indian chintzes (cotton cloth printed with designs and flowers) within the reach of Europe Cotton clothes became more accessible and preferable to a wider section of people in Europe.
81) Give any two examples of the ways in which European dress codes were different from Indian dress codes.
The following two examples show difference between European and Indian dress codes
European Dress Code
Indian Dress Code
Europeans used to wear hats which were removed before social superiors as a sign of respect.
Indians used to wear turbans to protect them from the heat. It was a symbol of respect and could not be removed at will.
The dress code in Europe was influenced by a persons economic and social status.
The dress code in India was influenced and followed by the caste system.
82) In 1805, a British official Benjamin Heyne, listed the manufactures of Bangalore which included the following Women's cloth of different musters and names Coarse chintz Muslin Silk clothes Of this list, which kind of cloth would have definitely fallen out of use in the early 1800s and why?
Answer:In the early 1800s, the East India Company was exporting a large quantity of silk clothes, coarse chintz and muslin to England, as such clothes were not available in England or even in Europe. Due to this, such cloth material became expensive in India and so they fell out of use. Also, Western clothes were influencing the men in Indian society and they were adopting to the Western mill-made clothes quickly. This further led to reduction in use of silk, coarse chintz and muslin
83) Suggest reasons why women in 19th century India were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress even when men switched over the more convenient Western clothing. What does this shows about the position of women in society?
Answer: In the 19th century, Indian men switched over to more convenient Western style clothing but women were obliged to continue wearing traditional Indian dress because they were bounded by the traditions, customs and social values of India. Indian society was a patriarchal society or a male dominated society and women were supposed to uphold the family honour and wear traditional clothes. This implies that the women were considered inferior to men in Indian society.
84) (a) What was the impact of the Industrial Revolution on the clothing of Europe? (b) Why was there a change in the clothing patterns of women during the two World wars? (c) What was the importance of turban in the Indian dress code?
Answer:(a) During the Industrial Revolution, cotton clothes became more accessible to a wider section of the people in Europe. Clothes got lighter, shorter and simpler. (b) The two World Wars forced the women to work in factories. The women started wearing a working uniform of blouse and trousers with accessories like scarves which was later replaced by overalls and caps. They stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes. (c) Turban in India was not just for the protection from the heat, but was a sign of respectability which could not be removed at will.