53) Who was Lech Walesa? How did he become famous in Poland?
Ans: Lech Walesa was an electrician at the Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk in Poland. He became famous for his struggle against the ruling communist government. He was dismissed from service in 1976 for demanding higher pay. Later he joined strike of Lenin Shipyard. Very soon, Walesa emerged as the leader of the striking workers. Initially, the strike was started with a demand to take back a crane operators, a woman worker who was unjustly dismissed. Later the strike began to spread across the whole city. Now the workers wanted right to form independent trade unions, release of political prisoners and end to censorship on press. Later, Walesa organised the 'Solidarity' the first independent trade union in Poland.
54) How did Solidarity come to power in Poland?
Ans: After his dismissal from the service, Lech Walesa became the leader of the striking workers of Lenin Shipyard in the city of Gdansk in Poland. The workers raised many demands. Forming an independent union was one of them. The movement became so popular that the government had to give in. The workers led by Walesa signed a 21-point agreement with government to end their strike. The government agreed to recognise workers' right to strike and form an independent trade union. Solidarity, the first independent Union was formed. Solidarity entered an agreement with the government for free elections. In 1989, Solidarity contested all the 100 seats of the Senate and won 99 of them. Walesa became the President of Poland in 1990.
55) What were (he causes that led to the imposition of martial law in Poland under General Jaruzelski?
Ans: The causes that led to the imposition of martial law in Poland under General Jaruzelski were
(i) The movement under the leadership of Lech Walesa became stronger.
(ii) The workers demanded the right to form independent union, release of political prisoners and end to censorship on press.
(iii) 'Solidarity' was formed, which was the first independent trade union in any communist state.
(iv) Within a year Solidarity became very popular and had about one crore members.
(v) Revelations of widespread corruption and mismanagement in the government made matter worse for the rulers. General Jaruzelski grew anxious and imposed martial law in December 1981.
56) Write any one difference and one similarity between Pinochet's rule in Chile and the Communist rule in Poland. Or Highlight any two differences between Pinochet's rule in Chile and the Communist rule in Poland.
(i) Chile was ruled by a military dictator, Augusto Pinochet, while Poland was ruled by a political party, the Polish United Workers' Party, under the leadership of General Jaruzelski.
(ii) The goverment of Poland claimed that it was ruling on behalf of the working classes, but Pinochet made no such claim and openly favoured big capitalists.
(iii) Military officers had highest authority in Chile, no one could dare to question them, in Poland those who spoke against the leaders of the party were put in prison.
(i) In both the countries, Chile and Poland people could not choose or change their rulers.
(ii) There was no real freedom to express one's opinions, form political associations and organise protests of political action.
57) Write a short essay on the life of Aung San Suu Kyi.
Ans: Aung San Suu Kyi was born on 19th June, 1945 in Rangoon to General Aung San, undisputed hero of Myanmar. She was educated in the City of Rangoon until she was 15 years old. She studied politics at Delhi University. She went to Oxford where she studied philosophy, politics and economics. In 1972, she married British academician Michael Aris. She has two sons. She kept on righting for democracy and freedom for her homeland. She spent a long time under house arrest. She was released from house arrest in November, 2010. In April 2012, she stood for Parliament for the first time and won the election. She took oath on 2nd May, 2012 and now she has an official voice in the legislative branch. She was awarded the Nobel Peace Prize in 1991. She is known simply as 'The Lady' or 'Mother Suu' by millions other countrymen.
58) Why has democracy spread? Or Democracy has expanded through the 20th century. Explain with examples.
Ans: Democracy has spread because people consider it to be the best form of government. By the 18th and 19th centuries, the right to vote was granted to more and more people. Most of the factors of spread of democracy are related to the social, economic and political conditions internal to that country. People who suffer from socio-political inequalities struggle for the establishment of democracy in their countries. They hope only democracy can give them rights and freedom. In addition recently some powerful countries like the USA have taken the task to promote democracy to non-democratic countries. But this is not the right way for the establishment of democracy. The demand for democracy must come from within the country itself.
59) What is IMF? How does it work? Or 'International Monetary Fund is not truly a democratic institution. Justify this statement with three suitable examples. Or Do you think that the IMF works in democratic manner? Justify your answer with arguments.
Ans: The International Monetary Fund (IMF) is an international organisation that was created on 22 July, 1944. The IMF describes itself as 'an organisation of 188 countries, working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate international trade, promote high employment and sustainable economic growth and reduce poverty around the world'. The IMF is one of the biggest money lenders in the world. The IMF works to foster global growth and economic stability. Its member states do not have equal voting rights. Financial contributions from member countries are linked to voting power in the organisation. Nearly half of the voting power is in the hands of only ten countries viz. the USA, Japan, France, Germany, UK, China, Italy, Canada, Saudi Arabia and Russia. The remaining countries have hardly any or very little say in how such an international organisation takes decisions. Christine Lagarde of France is the Managing Director of IMF.
60) How did the end of the Soviet Union's control on East Europe lead to a big change in the map of the world?
Ans: The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (USSR) was dissolved on 26th December, 1991. This dissolution accelerated the process of reviving of democracies in several countries. Poland, Lithuania, Latvia and several other countries became free from the influence of Soviet Union during 1989-90. Finally when the Soviet Union disintegrated, all the 15 republics comprising the USSR (Ukraine, Belarus, Moldova, Azerbaijan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, etc) emerged as independent countries. Most of them became democracies. The membership of the USSR in the Security Council and all other UN organs is now being continued by the Russian Federation. The other 14 independent states were all admitted to the UN. Thus, the breaking up of the USSR led to a big change in the political map of the world.
61) How was military dictatorship established in Chile in 1973? The functioning of UN Security Council is undemocratic.' Justify the statement by giving three suitable examples.
Ans: The Republic of Chile lies on the Western seaboard of South America. It was the first South American country to elect a Marxist government in 1970, under the leadership of Salvador Allende. In September 1973, there was a military coup in Chile led by General Augusto Pinochet. The Government of USA was not satisfied with Allende's pro-worker policies and funded the coup against Allende. Pinochet became the President of Chile and ruled it for the next 17 years. From a government that was elected by the people, power shifted to the military regime. They could do as they wished and no one had the right to question them. In this way, a military rule was established in Chile.
62) Explain the factors that make the United Nations a non-democratic organisation. Or 'International organisations are undemocratic'. Justify the statement. [CCE 2011]
While nations are becoming more democratic than they were earlier, international organisations are becoming less democratic'. Justify the statement with three suitable example.
Ans: The UN Security Council is an organ of the United Nations responsible for maintaining peace and security in the world.
(i) The UN Security Council has 15 members including 5 permanent members. Its 5 permanent members (China, France, Russia, the United Kingdom and the United States) enjoy the real power and take all crucial decisions.
(ii) Each permanent member has veto power. It means that the council cannot take a decision if any permanent member says no to that decision. This shows undemocratic nature of the Security Council.
(iii) Ten other members are elected by the General Assembly for two-year terms. In reality, they enjoy no powers and are not decision makers. This system has led more and more people and countries to protest and demand that the UN Security Council should be more democratic.
63) 'A democracy is incomplete without Universal Adult Franchise'. Explain the values which are associated with Universal Adult Franchise.
Ans: The United Nations was established on 24 October, 1945 to promote international cooperation. It has six principal organs, the General Assembly, the Security Council, the Economic and Social Council, the Secretariat, the International Court of Justice and the United Nations Trusteeship Council (which has been inactive since 1994).
(i) All the 193 member countries have one vote each in the General Assembly. But assembly cannot take any decision about what action should be taken in case of conflict between different countries. It can recommend on any matter, except matters of peace and security.
(ii) The Security Council is the most important and powerful UN organ that takes crucial decisions. Its real power lies in the hands of five permanent members which also enjoy 'veto' power.
(iii) The IMF (International Monetary Fund) is an international organisation which is the biggest moneylender for any country in the world. Its 188 members states do not have equal voting rights. The vote of each country is weighed by how much money it has contributed to the IMF. More than 54 per cent of the voting power in the IMF is in the hands of only ten countries.
(iv) The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries. The Presidents of the World Bank (so far 12 presidents) has always been a citizen of the US, conventionally nominated by the Treasury Secretary (Finance Minister) of the US government. The international organisations are thus becoming less democratic. Their working is affected by the American dominance in the international politics.
64) What are the different kinds of democracy?
Ans: Democracy is of two types (i) Direct Democracy (ii) Indirect democracy
65) Give any definition of democracy.
Ans:In the words of Abraham Lincoln, 'Democracy is government of the people, by the people and for the people'.
66) Who was the President of Chile during the early 70s?
Ans: Salvador Allende was the President of Chile during the early 70s.
67) When was President Allende overthrown in Chile and under whose leadership?
Ans: The revolt by the army took place in Chile on 11th September, 1973, under General Augusto Pinochet in which President Allende was killed.
68) In which year did the Soviet Union disintegrate into 15 republics?
Ans: In 1991, Soviet Union disintegrated into 15 republics.
69) What is UNO (United Nations Organisation)?
Ans: UNO is an international organisation of nations of the world to help cooperation in international law, security, economic development and social equity.
70) Which of the countries enjoy veto power in UNO?
Ans: Five countries who are permanent members of the Security Council, viz, the USA, England, Russia, France and China enjoy veto powers.
71) Name two essential characteristics of democracy.
Ans: Two essential characteristics of democracy are elected representatives and independent judiciary.
72) What happened in Poland in December 1981?
Ans: In 1981, General Jaruzelski imposed martial law in Poland.
73) Which country was known as 'Gold Coast'?
Ans:Ghana, a British colony was known as 'Gold Coast'.
74) Who became the President of Poland in 1990?
Ans: Lech Walesa became the President of Poland in 1990.
75) Which country in Africa was the first to become independent after the Second World War?
Ans: Ghana was the first African country to become independent(in 1957).