45) India's contacts with the world have continued through the ages due to its strategic position in Asia. The ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of Panchtantra, the Indian numerals and the decimal system thus could reach many parts of the world. However, the Indian system of values is somewhat different from the values of the Western countries and has remained so despite these ancient contacts. Only during the last few years has our value system been significantly influenced by ideas from the West. What do you think may be the reasons for this system of values remaining intact for so many centuries, but is rapidly changing now? contacts were very limited. As a result, the Indian system of values was not influenced much. However, now there is quick transmission of ideas due to fast means of communication, so that the Indian system of values is being affected and also quite rapidly.
Ans: The contacts between Indians and the people of the West in ancient times were between only a limited number of people from both sides, due to communication links being limited. There were no telephones, no aeroplanes, no internet, etc in those times and thus the contacts were very limited. As a result, the Indian system of values was not influenced much. However, now there is quick transmission of ideas due to fast means of communication, so that the Indian system of values is being affected and also quite rapidly.
46) Why the latitudinal extent influences the duration of the day and night as one moves from North to South?
Ans: The latitudinal extent influences the duration of day and night as one moves from South to North. When a place is near the equator, Sunrays falls on it straight, so days and nights are almost equal, but as it moves away from equator, sunrays falls on it slanting, so nights are longer and days are shorter. Places near equator have almost equal day and night.
47) Why is Indian Ocean named after our country? Give three reasons.
Ans:Indian Ocean is named after India because
(i) India has the longest coastline on the Indian Ocean.
(ii) India has a central location between East and West Asia.
(iii) India's Southernmost extension Deccan Peninsula protrudes into Indian Ocean that makes it significant to international trade done through Indian Ocean.
48) Why is India called a subcontinent? Name the countries which form a part of Indian subcontinent?
Ans: A subcontinent is a big geographical unit that have different geographical features than rest of the continent. The Indian subcontinent exhibits such features in the continent of Asia.
(i) It covers 2.4 per cent of the Earths total land area. It has long land frontier that is about 15200 km and nearly 7500 km long coastline.
(ii)Its natural frontiers like Himalayas in North and Deccan Peninsula provides it a unique identity on the globe.
(iii) Its longitudinal and latitudinal extent is 300. The Himalayas separate it from rest of Asia. It enjoys unique climate, natural vegetation and culture. The Indian subcontinent comprises of India, Pakistan, Bangladesh, Nepal and Bhutan.
49) When was the Suez Canal opened? How it has benefitted India?
Ans:The Suez Canal was opened in 1869. It has reduced the distance between India and Europe by 7000 km. Earlier the sea route from Europe to India was via cape of Good Hope which is the Southern tip of Africa. This route was very long. Thus, Suez Canal has reduced the distance between India and Europe.
50) Which longitude has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India? Explain any two reason for its selection.
Ans:82030' E longitude has been selected as the Standard Meridian of India. It has been selected because
(i) it passes through the middle of country.
(ii) like Standard Meridian of other countries it also divisible by 7 hrs and 30 minutes. , Puducherry and Delhi.
51) What influence did the land routes to India have on cultural exchanges in ancient times?
Ans: India's contacts with the world have continued through the ages, but her relationships through the land routes are much older than her maritime contacts. The various passes across the mountains in the North have provided passages to the ancient travellers, while the oceans restricted such interaction for a long time. These routes have contributed in the exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times. The ideas of the Upanishads and the Ramayana, the stories of panchtantra the Indian numerals and the decimal system. The spices, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries.
52) Explain why the cities of Mumbai and Chennai are able to see the noon Sun exactly overhead twice a year, but Delhi never sees it exactly overhead.
Ans:Mumbai and Chennai are South of the Tropic of Cancer (23.30' N), while Delhi is North of it. Due to the tilt of the axis of rotation of the Earth by 23.50, parts of the Earth North of the Tropic of Cancer will never have the noon Sun exactly overhead. Parts to its South will have the noonday Sun exactly overhead twice a year, between the time of the Vernal Equinox in March and the Autumnal Equinox in September.
53) The central location of India at the head of the Indian Ocean is considered of great significance. Why?
Ans: The Indian land mass has a central location between the East and the West Asia. India is a Southward extension of the Asian continent. The trans Indian Ocean routes which connect the countries of Europe in the West and the countries of East Asia provide a strategic central location to India. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the Western coast and with South-East and East Asia from the Eastern coast. No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has indeed. Thus, India's eminent position in the Indian Ocean which justifies the naming of an ocean after it.
54) Describe the location and size of India in three points each.
(i) India is the 7th largest country in the world which lies entirely in Northern hemisphere.
(ii) The main land extends between latitudes 804' N and 3706' N and longitudes 6807' E and 97025' E.
(iii) The tropic of cancer (23030' N) divides the country into almost two equal parts.
(i) The landmass of India has an area of 3.28 million sq km.
(ii) India's total area accounts for about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world.
(iii)India has a land boundary of about 15200 km and the total length of coastline is 7516.6 km.
55) What is the longitudinal extent of India? What is its implication?
Ans:The longitudinal extent of India is from 680 7'E to 97025' E. The Earth rotates from West to East. So, the Sun appears to move from East to West. There is a corresponding time difference of one hour for every 150 of longitudinal difference. Due to this there is local time variation of almost two hours between extreme Eastern and Western part of India. Due to this time variation one uniform Standard Meridian (82030') has been chosen for India, so that every place in India should have one standard time, that is known as Indian Standard Time (IST).
56) India has a long coastline which is advantageous. Explain.
Ans:No other country has a long coastline on the Indian Ocean as India has and indeed it has provided a significant boost to India's maritime trade. Almost 90 per cent of India's international trade is done through sea. The Deccan Peninsula protrudes into the Indian Ocean, thus helping India to establish close contact with West Asia, Africa and Europe from the Western coast and with South-East Asia and East Asia from the Eastern coast. India's central location at the head of the Indian Ocean and its long coastline have much helped in its interaction through sea. The sea routes passing through the Indian Ocean provides easy connectivity to India with the West and the East. India has developed many ports on its Western and Eastern coast like Mumbai, Chennai, Kochi, Visakhapatnam, etc which have become major centres for international business.
57) How did India's contact with rest of the world contribute in the exchange of ideas and commodities? Explain.
Ans: India has a long history of international ties. Despite living with in natural frontiers, Indian society has not developed in isolation. It has influenced the rest of the world and in return has also been influenced by the rest of the world. India's contact with the outside world was much before the sea routes. The various passes across the Himalayas has provided gateway to many ancient travellers. While Ocean restricted such interaction. These routes have contributed in exchange of ideas and commodities since ancient times. Due to unique position in Asia, the ancient land routes, including famous 'Silk Route' passed through the Indian subcontinent. The ideas of the Upanishads, the Ramayana, the Gita and other Indian scriptures were known to the world in older ages. The Indian numerals as well as decimal system long back crossed the border. The Arabs took these ideas to the West. India's silk, spices, handicrafts, muslin and other merchandise were taken from India to different countries. The Greek enriched the Indian culture with their contribution in the field of architecture, science, etc. Islamic influence (from West Asia) is clearly visible in architectural styles of domes, arch, minarets, etc.
58) India said to enjoy a strategic position with reference to the International Trade Route. In your view which features provide India a strategic advantage?
Ans:India occupies a unique position on the globe. It enjoys a unique proximity with Europe, Africa and Australia. The Indian landmass has a central location between East and West Asia. India is Southward extension of Asia thus it forms the South-Central Peninsula of world largest continent. The Deccan Peninsula, India's Southward extension protrudes into Indian Ocean and divides it into two seas, the Arabian sea on the West and the Bay of Bengal on its East. The Deccan Peninsula helps India to establish easy contact with West Asia, East Africa and Europe from Western coast also establishes contacts with South-East Asia, East Asia and Australia from Eastern coast. India has the longest coastline in Indian Ocean. These geographical features provides India a significant edge in International trade. Lakshadweep, Puducherry and Delhi.
59) What is the total area of India's land mass? What percentage of total geographical area of the world does it cover?
Ans: Total area of India is 3.28 million sq km. It covers about 2.4 per cent of the total geographical area of the world.
60) Which states of India neither have a coastline and nor have an International border?
Ans:The states of India which neither have a coastline and nor have an international border are Haryana, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand.
61) What is the total land boundary of India?
Ans:The total land boundary of India is about 15200km.
62) What is the total length of India's coastline?
Ans: The total length of India's coastline (including the islands) is about 7517 km.
63) Which neighbour country lies to the South-East of the Nicobar Islands?
Ans: The neighbour country is Indonesia.
64) Which union territories (or part of them) are found on the West coast of India?
Ans: The union territories (or part of them) which are found on the West coast of India are Daman and Diu, and Mahe (part of Puducherry). Lakshadweep is off the West coast of India, not on it.
65) Find out the number of union territories along the Western and Eastern coasts.
Ans:Union Territories along the (a) Western Coast Lakshadweep, Daman and Diu, Dadra and Nagar Haveli and Mahe (belonging to Puducherry). (b) Eastern Coast Puducherry, Andaman and Nicobar islands.
66) Find out area wise which is the smallest and which is the largest state.
Ans: Area wise (a) Largest State Rajasthan (342239 sq km) (b) Smallest State Goa (3702 sq km)
67) Name the group of island lying in the Arabian sea.
Ans: Lakshadweep island lie in the Arabian sea.
68) Name the countries which are larger than India.
Ans: Russia, Canada, USA, China, Australia and Brazil are the - countries that are larger than India.
69) Which island group of India lies to its South-East?
Ans: Andaman and Nicobar islands lie to the South-East of India.
70) Which island countries are our Southern - neighbours?
Ans: Sri Lanka and Maldives are the two island countries that are the Southern neighbours of India.
71) (a) Two features are shown on the political outline map of India. Identify these features and write their names on the lines marked on the map. (i) A state with a large tribal population (ii) This state became part of India in 1961 (b) On the map, locate and label the following with appropriate symbols. 1. A state in the Eastern region of India bordering three countries, but not bordering China. 2. The Union Territory bordering both Gujarat and Maharashtra.
(b) 1. West Bengal
2. Dadra and Nagar Haveli