41) The most dominant species of the tropical deciduous forests is (a) Palms (b) Ebony (c) Pine (d) Teak
42) The wet temperate type of forests are found between a height of (a) 1,000 to 2,000 m (b) 1,500 to 3,000 m (c) 3,000 to 3,600 m (d) 2,500 to 3,000 m
43) The Royal Bengal Tiger is a famous animal of (a) montane forests (b) mangrove forests (c) tropical rainforests (d) tropical deciduous forests
44) To which one of the following types of vegetation does rubber belong to? (a) Tundra (b) Tidal (c) Himalayan (d) Tropical evergreen
45) Define the following terms: (i) Virgin Vegetation (ii) Flora (iii) Fauna
Answer:(i) Virgin vegetation: Natural vegetation refers to a plant community which has grown naturally without human aid and has been left undisturbed by humans for a long time. This is called Virgin Vegetation. (ii) Floras/This term is used for natural vegetation of a particular region or period. (iii) Fauna: Various species of animals of wildlife is termed as fauna.
46) Which relief factors affect the flora and fauna of India?
Answer: Relief factors that affect the flora and fauna of India are the following:
(i)The nature of land influcences the type of vegetation.
(ii)The fertile land is generally used for agriculture.
(iii)The undulating and rough terrains are areas where grassland and woodlands develop and give shelter to a variety of wildlife.
(i)Different types of soils provide a basis for different types of vegetation.
(ii)The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes; while wet, marshy deltaic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation.
(iii)The hill slopes with some depth of soil have conical trees.
47) Describe how climatic factors influence the vegetation cover of India.
(i)The temperature along with humidity in the air and precipitation affects the vegetation. (ii)The fall in temperature affects the types of vegetation and its growth.
(i)The variation in duration of sunlight at different places is due to differences in Latitude, altitude, season and duration of the day.
(ii)Due to longer duration of sunlight trees grow faster in summer.
(i) In India, the entire rainfall is brought in by the advancing southwest monsoon and retreating northeast monsoon.
(ii) Areas of heavy rainfall have more dense vegetation as compared to other areas of less rainfall.
48) Distinguish between Moist Deciduous arid Dry Deciduous Forests.
Moist Deciduous Forests
Dry Deciduous Forests
They are found in areas where rainfall is between 100 to 200 cm.
They are found in areas of lower rainfall i.e. 70 to 100 cm.
They cover the eastern slopes of the Western Ghats, Shi waliks, Chotanagpur plateau, etc.
They cover rainier parts of the Deccan plateau and the western Ganga plains.
They provide better and more valuable timber.
They are less important for commercial exploitation.
Examples: Teak and sal trees and bamboo, shisham and sandalwood
Examples: Sal is the most important ' tree arid others are peepal arid neem.
49) Give the altitudinal distribution of Montane Forests.
Answer: In mountainous areas, the decrease in temperature with increasing altitude leads to the corresponding change in natural vegetation, (i) The foothills of the Himalayas? Shiwaliks have tropical moist deciduous flora. Sal and bamboo are important, trees up to 1,000 m in height, (ii) They are followed by the wet hill forests. They lie between about 1,000 to 2,000 mts. Important trees' are oak, chestnut, ash, birch, etc. (iii) Between 1,500 and 3,300 ,m above sea level, there, occur the well- known coniferous forests. Pine, deodar, silver fir, spruce, etc., are some dominant trees. (iv) Above the coniferous forests lie the alpine forests at an altitude of about 3,600m. Important trees are silver fir, pine, birch, etc.
50) Which animals are found in the Montane Forests?
Answer: The common animals found in these forests -are, the Kashmir stag, spotted dear, wild sheep, jack rabbit, Tibetan antelope, yak, snow leopard, squirrels, shaggy horn wild ibex, bear and rare red panda, sheep and goats with thick hair,
51) What is the importance of various species in the ecosystem?
Answer: (i) We have selected our crops from the reserve of edible plants from a biodiverse environment.
(ii) We have also experimented and selected many medicinal plants.
(iii) The animals were selected from large stocks to serve as milch animals.
(iv) They also provided us draught power, transportation, meat and eggs.
(v) The fish provide nutritive food.
(vi) Many insects help in pollination of crops and fruit trees. Every species has a role to play in the ecosystem.
52) State the main causes which are a threat to the ecosystem.
(i) Hunting and poaching by greedy hunters for commercial purpose and their profits.
(ii) Pollution due to chemical and industrial waste and acid deposits.
(iii) Introduction of alien species and reckless cutting of forests to bring land under cultivation.
(iv) People have inhabited the areas by clearing the forests. They are also responsible for the imbalance.
53) How is India one of the twelve mega biodiversity countries of the world?
Answer: (i) With about 47,000 plant species, India occupies the tenth place in the world and fourth place in Asia in plant diversity.
(ii) There are about 15,000 flowering plants in India which account for 6 per cent of the world's total number of flowering plants.
(iii) India also has 89,000 species of animals and a rich variety of fish in its fresh and marine waters.
54) How does soil factor affect the type of vegetation of a region?
Answer:(i) Soils also vary over space. Different types of soil provide basis for different types of vegetation.
(ii) The sandy soils of the desert support cactus and thorny bushes while wet, marshy, deltic soils support mangroves and deltaic vegetation.
(iii) The hill slopes with some depth of soil have conical trees.
55) What type of flora and fauna do we have in Tropical Rain forests?
Answer:(i) Some of the commercially important trees of this forest are ebony, mahogany, rosewood, rubber and cinchona.
(ii) The common animals found in these forests are elephants, monkey, lemur and deer. (iii) The one-horned rhinoceroses are found in the jungles of Assam and West Bengal.
(iv) Besides these animals, plenty of birds, bats, sloth, scorpions and snails are also found in these jungles.
56) Where are elephants and one-horned rhinoceros mainly found and why?
Answer: (i) The elephants are the most majestic animals among the mammals. They are found in the hot wet forests of Assam, Karnataka and Kerala. They prefer forested hilly areas, providing plenty of food and water for them throughout the year.
(ii) One-horned rhinoceroses live in swampy and marshy lands of Assam and West Bengal.
57) Name any two endangered species of Indian wildlife and write one point each on Project Tiger and Project Rhino.
Answer: (i) Two endangered species are tiger and rhino.
(ii) Project Tiger has been a great success and is observed in Jim Corbett Park and West Bengal. With the help of this project, Indian wildlife department is able to save the number of tigers in India.
(iii) Project Rhino reserves are at Kaziranga and Man as National Park respectively. This one-horned rhino prefers to live in marshy lands of Assam and North-west Bengal.
58) What is a bio reserve? Give any two examples.
Answer: (i) A bio reserve is a scheme or programme for the protection and conservation of the great biological diversity of our land.
(ii) It preserves wild land, flora and fauna in their natural forms.
(iii) Its surrounding zone is utilised for research and experimentation in developing forests and other products. Examples: Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve set up at the bi-junction of Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Kerala.
(ii) Nanda Devi Biosphere Reserve set up in UP, the first one in Himalayas.
59) Which are the most widespread forests of India? Mention any two characteristic features of these forests.
Answer: The Tropical Deciduous forests are the most widespread forests in India- found in areas receiving 70 to 200 cms of rainfall.
(i) Trees of this type of forests shed their leaves for about six to eight weeks during the dry season.
(ii) The forests are further subdivided into moist and dry deciduous depending on the availability of water.
60) Which plants out of algae, fungi, ferns and orchids are flowering plants?
Answer:Only orchids are flowering plants, while the remaining are non-flowering.
61) Which Union Territory has the maximum percentage of its area under forest cover?
Answer: Andaman and Nicobar Islands is the Union Territory which has the maximum percentage of its area under forest cover, which is 86%.
62) What kind of vegetation is usually found in fertile level land?
Answer:The vegetation usually found in fertile level land consists of cultivated crops.
63) How do forests affect the soil?
Answer:They give humus to it, control soil erosion and regulate the flow of water.
64) Which state of India has the maximum percentage of its area covered by forests?
Answer: Nagaland is the state which has the maximum percentage of its area (more than 80%) covered by forests.
65) What are the climatic conditions of Tropical Evergreen forests?
Answer: The climatic conditions are high temperature and heavy rainfall (above 200 cm per year).
66) What kinds of forests are found in the areas with less than 70 cm annual rainfall?
Answer:Thorn and scrub type of forests are found in areas with less than 70 cm annual rainfall.
67) What kinds of forests are found in the areas with annual rainfall between 100 and 200cm?
Answer: Tropical Moist Deciduous type of forests are found in areas with annual rainfall between 100 and 200 cm.
68) To which type of vegetation does rubber belong to?
Answer:Rubber belongs to tropical evergreen vegetation.
69) Sal trees are found in forests with what amount of annual rainfall?
Answer: Sal trees are found in Deciduous forests of both types, moist and dry. Thus, they will be found in forests with annual rainfall between 70 and 200 cm.
70) Which are the most widespread forests in India?
Answer:They are Tropical Deciduous forests, which cover 64% of India's forest area (Dry 30% and Moist 34%), as per a survey carried out in 2009.
71) Why are migratory birds from the Northern part of Asia mostly found in winter in the wetlands of India?
Answer: Migratory birds from the Northern part of Asia are mostly found in winter in the wetlands of India because the wetlands provide adequate food and water for the birds, besides having an equable climate.
72) Which medicinal plant has both anti-bacterial and anti-biotic properties?
Answer:The neem plant has both anti-bacterial and anti-biotic properties.
73) What are the common animals found in thorn and scrub forests?
Answer:In thorn and scrub forests, the common animals found are rats, mice, rabbits, foxes, wolves, tigers, lions, wild ass, horses and camels.
74) How will you define a sanctuary?
Answer:A sanctuary is an area designated for the protection of wild animals.
75) If a species introduced to another environment, it is called as?
Answer:Exotic species are natural vegetation which has originally from foreign countries, as the word 'exotic' refers to species which are not indigenous.
76) What is the main medicinal use of the Sarpagandha plant?
Answer:The main medicinal use of the Sarpagandha plant is to treat high blood pressure.
77) In which of the states of Odisha, Uttar Pradesh, Assam and Rajasthan are tropical evergreen forests found?
Answer: Tropical evergreen forests are found in the state of Assam.
78) Which major animals are preserved in the Kaziranga, Sunderban, Gir and Simlipal Sanctuary/Reserve?
Answer:Kaziranga National Park is the preserve of the rhinoceros, Sunderban is the home of the Royal Bengal Tiger, Gir is famous as the last home of the Asiatic Lion in India and Simlipal is well-known as a sanctuary for elephants.
79) Are mangrove forests found in the regions where the Narmada and Tapi rivers flow into the Arabian Sea?
Answer:No, they are not, as mangrove forests are found in the delta regions of the East coast, not on the estuaries of the Narmada and Tapi.
80) In which of the states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand and Rajasthan are tropical deciduous forests found?
Answer: Tropical deciduous forests are found in the states of Odisha, Chhattisgarh and Jharkhand. Rajasthan has only tropical thorn and scrub forests.