Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

51) Why did pastoral nomads of Jammu and Kashmir migrate?

Answer: (i) By the end of April, they began their northern march for their summer grazing grounds.
(ii) Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as Kafila. They crossed the Pir Panjal passes and entered the valley of Kashmir.
(iii) With the onset of summer, the snow melted and the mountain sides were lush green. The variety of grasses that sprouted, provided rich nutritious forage for the animal herds. (iv) By the end of September, the Bakarwals were on the move again, this time on their downward journey, back to their winter base. When the high mountains were covered with snow, the herds were grazed in the low hills. 

52) What do you know about Tanganyika?

Answer:(i) Britain conquered what had been German East Africa during the First World War. (ii) In 1919, Tanganyika came under British control. (iii) It attained independence in 1961 and united with Zanzibar to form Tanzania in 1964.  

53) Which grazing lands of Kenya were converted into national parks?

Answer: (i) Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania. (ii) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt animals nor graze their herds in those areas. (iii) Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds.  

54) How did the warriors of Maasai land defend their community?

Answer:  (i) The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. (ii) They defended the community and organised cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. It is through raids that the power of different pastoral groups was asserted. (iii) Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class, when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participating in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders.  

55) How was pastoral community of the world affected by changes in the modern world?

Answer:Pastoral community in different parts of the world was affected in a variety of ways by changes in the modern world. (i) New laws and new borders affected the patterns of their movement. With increasing restrictions on their mobility, pastoralists found it difficult to move in search of pastures. (ii) As pasture lands disappeared, grazing became a problem and pastures deteriorated through continuous overgrazing. (iii) Times of drought became times of crises, when cattle died in large numbers.  

56) How did pastoralists adapt to new times? 

Answer:Pastoralists did adapt to new times. (i) They changed the paths of their annual movement, reduced their cattle numbers, pressed for rights to enter new areas, exerted political pressure on the government for relief and subsidy and demanded a right in the management of forests and water resources. (ii) Pastoralists are not relics of the past. They are not people who have no place in the modern world. (iii) Environmentalists and economists increasingly came to recognise that pastoral nomadism was a form of life that was perfectly suited to many hilly and dry regions of the world.  

57) How do Gujjar Bakarwals spend their life on the mountains of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer: (i) They are great herders of goat and sheep. Many of them have migrated to this region while searching for greener pastures. (ii) Gradually, they have established themselves in the area and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds. (iii) In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Shiwalik range. (iv) By the end of April, they move upwards for their summer pastures. In summer, these mountains were lush green with a variety of grasses that provided nutritious forage for the animal herds.  

58)  What lifestyle did the Dhangars-the pastoral community of Maharashtra- follow? 

Answer: (i) Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and others were buffalo herders. (ii) They stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. (iii) During monsoons, this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. (iv) By October, the Dhangars reached the  Konkan. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by Konkani peasants. Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the lower end of the grain stalks called stubble. (v) With the onset of monsoon, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with their flocks and returned to the dry plateau. Konkani peasants gave supplies of rice to them since grains were scarce in the plateau.   

59) Discuss how the life of pastoralists changed dramatically under the colonial rule.

Answer: (i) The colonisers wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms. Land revenue was one of the main sources of income for them. By expanding cultivation, it could increase the revenue collection. To the colonial people, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. (ii) Through Forest Acts, some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal, were declared 'Reserved'. No pastoralist was allowed to enter these forests. The colonisers believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor. (iii) The colonisers wanted nomadic tribes to live in villages, in fixed places with fixed rights. Those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding. (iv) Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures.   In most pastoral tracts of India, grazing tax was introduced in the mid-19th century. This tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made more efficient.  

60) How did the Maasa is of northern Kenya lose their grazing lands? Or Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer:(i) Before colonial times, Maasai land stretched over a vast area from North Kenya to the steppes of northern Tanzania. (ii) In 1885, it was cut into half by an international boundary between Britain and Germany. (iii) The best grazing grounds were gradually taken over for white settlements and Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania. (iv) The British encouraged the local people to expand cultivation. Thus, pasturelands were turned into cultivated fields. (v) By the end of the colonial rule, large areas of grazing lands were turned into game reserves. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves; they could neither hunt nor graze their cattle in these areas. 

61) Describe the social division of the Maasais.

Answer:(i) The Maasai society was divided into two social categories?elders and warriors. (ii) The elders formed the ruling group and met in periodic councils to decide on the affairs of the community and settle disputes. (iii) The warriors consisted of younger people, mainly responsible for the protection of the tribe. (iv) They also organised cattle raids. Raiding was important in a society where cattle was wealth. Raiding asserted the power of the different pastoral groups. Young men came to be recognised as members of the warrior class when they proved their manliness by raiding the cattle of other pastoral groups and participated in wars. They, however, were subject to the authority of the elders.

62)  How did the British carry out the administration of the Maasais?

Answer:  (i) The British appointed chiefs of different sub-groups of the Maasais, who were made responsible for the affairs of the tribe.
(ii) They imposed restrictions on raiding and warfare, thereby restricting the authority of elders and warriors.
(iii) The chiefs, often collected wealth over time. They had a regular income with which they could buy animals, goods and land.
(iv) They lent money to poor neighbours who needed cash to pay taxes. Many of them began to live in towns as traders.
(v) Their wives and children stayed back in the villages to look after the animals.
(vi) 'these chiefs managed to survive the devastations of war and drought. They had now botli pastoral and non-pastoral income, and could buy animals when their stock was depleted.  

63) In what ways was cultivation practised in Maharashtra by Dhangars?

Answer: 
(i) Since the land is semi-arid with low rainfall, nothing but dry crops like hajra could be sown here.
(ii) By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajm and moved westward. After a march of about a month, they reached the Konkan.
(iii) This was a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. Here, the shepherds were welcomed by the Konkani peasants.
(iv) After the kharif harvest was out at this time, the fields had to be fertilized and made ready for the rabi harvest.
(v) Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on stubble. The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the shepherds took back to the plateau where grain was scarce.
(vi) With the onset of monsoon, the Dhangars left the Konkan and the coastal areas with other flocks and returned to their settlements on the dry plateau. 

64) How did Raikas of Rajasthan practise cattle rearing?

Answer:(i) In the deserts of Rajasthan lived the Raikas.
(ii) The rainfall in the region is less and uncertain. On cultivated land, harvest fluctuated every year. Over vast stretches, no crop could be grown.
(iii) So the Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism.
(iv) During the monsoon, the Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner stayed in their home villages, where pasture was available.
(v) By October, when grazing grounds were dry and exhausted, they moved out in search of other pastures and water, and returned again during the next monsoon.
(vi) One group of Raikas?known as Maru Raikas?herded camels and another group reared sheep and goat.  

65) Which factors affected the lives of pastoral groups of Rajasthan?

Answer:Life of pastoral group of Rajasthan was affected by a number of factors. (i) They needed to calculate the timings of their movements, and ensure that they could move through different territories. (ii) They had to set up relationship with farmers on the way, so that the heads could graze in harvested fields and manure the soil. (iii) They combined a range of different activities?cultivation, trade and herding?to make their living.  

66)   Discuss why the colonial government in India brought Forest Acts and explain how the law changed the lives of Pastoralists?

Answer:  (i) By the mid-19th century, various Forests Acts were also being enacted in the different provinces.
(ii) Through these Acts, some forests which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal were declared 'Reserved'.
(iii) No pastoralist was allowed to access these forests.
(iv) Other forests were classified as 'Protected'. In these, customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movement was severely restricted.
(v) The colonial officials believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees that germinated on the forest floor.
(vi) The herds trampled over the saplings and ate away the shoots. This prevented new trees from growing. 

Lives of Pastoralists:
(i) The Forest Acts changed the lives of pastoralists. They were now prevented from entering many forests that had earlier provided valuable forage for their cattle.
(ii) Their movements were regulated even in the areas where they were allowed entry.
(iii) They needed a permit for entry. The timing of their entry and departure was specified, and the number of days they could spend in the forest was limited.
(iv) Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available. The grass was succulent and the undergrowth in the forest was ample.
(v) They had to move because the forest department permits that had been issued to them, now ruined their lives. The permit specified the periods in which they could be legally within a forest. If they overstayed, they were liable to fines.  

67) Who were Banjaras? Describe the life of Banjaras.

Answer:Banjaras were the pastoral community of North India. They were found in the villages of UP, Punjab, Rajasthan, M.P. and Maharashtra.
(i) They moved in the villages of Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.
(ii) In search of good pasture land for their cattle, they moved over long distances.
(iii) They sold plough cattle and other goods to the villagers in exhange for grain and fodder.  

68) What do you know about pastoralists communities of Africa?

Answer: (i) In Africa, where over half of the world's pastoral population lives, even today 22 million Africans depend on some forms of pastoral activity for their livelihood.
(ii) They include communities like Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana. (iii) Most of them now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult.
(iv) They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkeys; and they sell milk, meat, animal skin and wool.
(v) Some of them also earn through trade and transport, others combine pastoral activity with agriculture, still others do a variety of odd jobs to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism.  

69) Who were Maasais?

Answer: (i) The title Maasai derives from the word 'Maa'. 'Ma-Sai' means 'My People'. (ii) The Maasais are traditionally nomadic and pastoral people who depend on milk and meat for subsistence. (iii) High temperatures combine with low rainfall to create conditions which are dry, dusty and extremely hot. (iv) Drought conditions are common in this semi-arid land of equatorial heat. (v) During such times pastoral animals die in large numbers. 

70) Which similarities are observed in the lifestyles of the Pastoralists of Jammu and Kashmir and Himachal Pradesh? Describe.

Answer: (i) Gujjar Bakarwals of J&K are great herders of goat and sheep. They established and moved annually between their summer and winter grazing grounds. (ii) In winter, high mountains covered with snow, they lived in shiwalik range. (iii) In summer they begin northern march for the grazing grounds in the valleys of Kashmir. They go in groups called as kafila. (iv) Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh have a similar cyclic movement. They too spend the winters in shiwaliks - grazing - in scrub forest. (v) By April they move north and spend summer in Lahul and Spiti. (vi) When snow melts many move to high ground. 

71) Who are pastoral nomads? Explain the life style and occupational activities of pastoral nomads of deserts of Rajasthan. 

Answer: (i) They are groups of people on the move with their herds of goats and sheep or camels or cattle. (ii) Pastoral Nomads of Desert of Rajasthan: (a) They are called Raikas. (b) Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralisms. (c) During monsoons Raikas of Barmer, Jaisalmer stayed in their home villages where pastures were available. (d) By October, they move out in search of other pastures and return again during the next monsoon.  

72) Gujjar Bakarwals, the pastoral nomads are from (a) Himachal (b) Garhwal and Kumaon (c) Jammu and Kashmir (d) Madhya Pradesh

Answer:C  

73) High meadows in Garhwal and Kumaon are called (a) Bugyals (b) Kafilas (c) Raikas (d) Bhabar

Answer:A  

74) What is a 'stubble'? (a) Spring crop usually harvested after March (b) Crop grown during summer (c) Lower ends of grain stalks left in the ground after harvesting (d) Settlements in the dry plateau region

Answer:C  

75) The Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanzania were turned into (a) Grazing land (b) Game reserves (c) Cultivated land (d) Settlement areas 

Answer: B   

76) Who are the pastoral nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer:Gujjar Bakarwals are the pastoral nomadic communities of Jammu and Kashmir. 

77) What is a Bhabar?

Answer: A dry forested area below the foot hills of Garhwal and Kumaun is known as Bhabar.  

78) What is Bugyal?

Answer: Vast meadows in the high mountains is known as Bugyal.  

79) When was the Criminal Tribes Act passed?

Answer: The Criminal Tribes Act was passed in 1871.  

80) What is man dap?

Answer:A man dap is a work place of Gujjar cattle herders where they make ghee which they take down for sale and these are build at about 10000 to 11000 feet.  

81) Who are Raikas?

Answer:The Raikas are a pastoral community of Rajasthan.  

82) What is Dhandi?

Answer: The settlement of Maru Raikas of Rajasthan is known as Dhandi.  

83) In which of the continent of the world, about half of the population lives as pastoralists?

Answer:In Africa about half of the population lives as pastoralists.  

84) In which part of India Gaddi shepherd live?

Answer:The Gaddi shepherd lives in Himachal Pradesh.  

85) In which type of forests, no pastoral activity was allowed?

Answer:In reserved forests, no pastoral activity was allowed.

The document Extra Question & Answers (Part - 2) - Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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