51) What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer: (i) Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development.
(ii) If the health of our country's population is looked after properly by the government, the ability to produce more will increase.
(iii) Good health is related to a disease-free population and a healthy population is always an asset to a country.
52) What is demographic divide? In which year is this divide seen in India and why?
Answer: When there is a sudden fluctuation in population or the growth rate declines, it is called demographic divide.
(i) In India, it took place in 1981 as the rate of growth started declining gradually.
(ii) It happened as the birth rate declined rapidly during this period.
(iii) Since 1981, birth rates declined, resulting in a gradual decline in the rate of population growth.
53) Sex ratio in the country has always remained unfavorable to females. What are its reasons?
Answer:(i) Preferential treatment is given to a male child and female children get neglected in most Indian homes.
(ii) The infant mortality rate in India is high and female infant mortality rate is still higher.
(iii) Women generally have lower social, political and economic status in the Indian society. We find dowry deaths, opposition to widow Remarriages and low nutritional levels in women.
54) What significant improvements have been noticed in the health status of our population?
Answer:Following improvements have been made in the health status of our population: (i) Diseases like small pox and plague have been eradicated.
(ii) Inoculation and vaccinations are provided to control dengue fever, leprosy, TB and polio, etc.
(iii) The infant mortality rate has also substantially reduced.
(iv) Improvement has been shown in sex ratio also in some states of India.
(v) Good public health facilities are provided to prevent spread of diseases and periodically information is imparted to the public to take precautions.
55) What is density of population? Give India's population distribution by density with the reasons responsible for the same.
Answer: Density of population is calculated as the number of persons per unit area. The population density of India in 2001 was 324 persons per sq. km.
(i) Regions with sparse population density: Rugged terrain and unfavourable climatic conditions are primarily responsible for sparse population in these areas. For example, Jammu and Kashmir, Arunachal Pradesh and Mizoram.
(ii) Regions with moderate population density: Hilly, dissected and rocky nature of terrain, moderate to low rainfall, shallow and less fertile soils have influenced the population densities in these areas. For example, Assam and peninsular states.
(iii) Regions with high density of population: These areas have high population density because of the flat plains with fertile soils and abundant rainfall. For example, Northern plains and Kerala.
56) What is the relationship between occupational structure and development?
Answer: The distribution of population according to different types of occupations is referred to as the occupational structure. They are generally classified as follows:
(i) Primary Activities: These include agriculture, animal husbandry, forestry, fishing, mining and quarrying, etc.
(ii) Secondary Activities: These include manufacturing industries, building and construction work, etc.
(iii) Tertiary Activities: These include transport, communications, commerce, administration and other services. The proportion of people working in different activities varies in developed and developing countries. Developed nations have high proportion of people in secondary and tertiary activities. Developing countries tend to have a higher proportion of their workforce engaged in primary activities. So, in the above manner, there is a relationship between occupational structure and development.
57) What is the role of NPP 2000 in the life of adolescents? Or What are the significant features of National Population Policy 2000?
Answer: (i) NPP 2000 identified adolescents as one of the major sections of the population that need greater attention.
(ii) Besides nutritional requirements, the policy put greater emphasis on other important needs of adolescents like protection from unwanted pregnancies arid sexually transmitted diseases.
(iii) It called for programmes that aim towards encouraging delayed marriages and child-bearing.
(iv) It aimed at providing food supplements and nutritional services.
(v) It also aimed at strengthening legal measures to prevent child marriage.
58) What is the difference between Population Growth and Population Change? Or Distinguish between population growth and population change.
Answer:1. Growth of Population: It refers to the change in the number of inhabitants of a country/region during a specific period of time. Population growth can be expressed in the absolute numbers as well as percentage per annum. Annual growth rate is measured in terms of percentage. For example, if it is 2 per cent, there is an increase of 2 persons for every 100 persons. 2. Change in Population: It happens due to the birth rate, death rate and the migration. If birth rate is high and death rate is low, there will be a growth in population. In migration, people move across regions and territories. Migration can be internal or international. Internal migration does not change the size of the population but influences the distribution of population within the nation.
59) What are the advantages of having a healthy population?
Answer: (i) Health is an important component of population composition, which affects the process of development of a country.
(ii) Sustained efforts of government programmes have registered significant improvement in the health conditions of the Indian population.
(iii) Good public health facilities provide preventive measures in advance to eradicate diseases.
(iv) The government of India should concentrate more on public health so that we have healthy productive workers. This will help in the development of the country.
(v) The substantial improvement is the result of many factors including improvement in public health, prevention of infectious diseases and application of modern medical practices in diagnosis and treatment of ailments.
60) What are the major components of population growth?
Answer: Birth rate, death rate and migration are the three major components of population growth.
(i) Birth rate is the major component of growth because if birth rate is higher than death rate, growth rate will automatically increase.
(ii) Another major component is death rate. These days we find that there are improved health facilities and there is awareness among people about their health maintenance. With the result, death rate has declined leading to growth rate of the population.
(iii) Migration is another component of population growth. Though internal migration does not change the population of the country but it does affect the distribution of population within the country. International migration definitely changes the size of the population.
61) What is the importance of people in this world?
Answer: (i) People are important for the development of the economy and society.
(ii) People make use of resources. They themselves are also resources, but with varying quality.
(iii) Coal is but a piece of rock, until people are able to invent technology to obtain it and make it a 'resource'.
62) How is population a pivotal element in social studies?
Answer: (i) It is the point of reference from where all other elements are observed.
(ii) Resources, calamities, disasters?all are meaningful only in relation to human beings.
(iii) Good health is related to a disease-free population and a healthy population is always an asset to a country.
63) Census provides us with the information regarding (a) population (b) death rate (c) age composition (d) life expectancy rate
64) Kerala has a sex ratio of (a)1,058 females per 1,000 males (b) 1,001 females per 1,000 males (c) 1,021 females per 1,000 males (d) 1,090 females per 1,000 males
65) Activities such as transport, communication, commerce, administration, etc. are included in (a) primary activities (b) secondary activities (c) tertiary activities (d) both (a) and (b)
66) Which major section of the populations needs 'greater attention' according to the NPP 2000? (a) Children (b) Adolescents (c) Youngsters (d) Aged
67) The magnitude of 'population growth' refers to (a) the total population of an area (b) the number of persons added each year (c) the rate at which the population decreases (d) the number of females per thousand males
68) According to the Census 2001, a 'literate person is one (a) who can read and write his and her name in any language (b) who is 7 years and above, and can read and write in any language with understanding (c) who can read and write in any language with understanding (d) who can read and write at least in one language with understanding
69) What is the most significant feature of the Indian population?
Answer: The most significant feature of the Indian population is the size of its adolescent population. It comprises about 20% of the total population, which is very high when compared to the other countries.
70) In the Census of India held in the year 2011, what was the density of population in India?
Answer: In the Census of India held in the year 2011, the density of population in India was 382 persons per sq km.
71) In how many years is the official enumeration of population carried out by the Census Bureau?
Answer: The official enumeration of population is carried out every 10 years. The last Census was held in 2011.
72) As per the 2011 Census, which state has the least density of population?
Answer: The state with the least density of population, as per the 2011 Census, was Arunachal Pradesh with 17 persons per sq km.
73) When did the National Population Policy come into effect?
Answer:The National Population Policy came into effect in the year 2000.
74) Out of the countries USA, Bangladesh, China and Great Britain, which one has a higher population density than India?
Answer: India had a population density of 382 persons per sq km, as per 2011 Census. Only the population density of Bangladesh was more at 1034 persons per sq km (as per the last estimate).
75) What ages are considered as the age of the working population in India?
Answer: In India, the working age population is the population of the people who are between the ages of 15 years and 59 years.
76) Which age range is considered as of adolescents in India?
Answer: In India, the population of adolescents is the population of the people who are between the aees of 10 years and 19 years.
77) Is it correct that there has been a substantial improvement in life expectancy at birth during the last 50 years in India?
Answer:Yes, it is correct. The life expectancy at birth has increased from 36.7 years in 1951 to 64.6 years in 2001, an increase of almost 28 years.
78) What is sex ratio?
Answer: The sex ratio is the number of females per 1000 males in a particular area, state or country at a particular time.
79) Which social indicator out of sex ratio, literacy rate, age composition and death rate, is important to measure the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time?
Answer: The sex ratio is the social indicator which measures the extent of equality between males and females in a society at a given time.
80) Why is the year 1921 considered as a great demographic divide in India?
Answer: Before 1921, the population was not stable, as sometimes it increased and at other times it decreased. Between 1911 and 1921, the population of India decreased, but it is going on increasing since then.
81) What kind of migration does not change the size of the population in a country?
Answer: Internal migration from one city to another or from rural areas to urban areas within a country does not change the size of the population.
82) In which year was the first Family Planning Programme started by the Government of India?
Answer: The first Family Planning Programme was started in 1952 by the Government of India.
83) Under what conditions, will a person be considered literate?
Answer: A person will be considered literate if that person can read and write any language with understanding by the age of 7 years.
84) Which activity out of construction, accountancy, fishing and transportation is a primary activity?
Answer: Fishing is a primary activity, construction is a secondary activity, while accountancy and transportation are tertiary activities.
85) Almost 50% of India's population lives in five states. Name them.
Answer: Almost 50% of India's population lives in the five states of Uttar Pradesh, Maharashtra, Bihar, West Bengal and Andhra Pradesh.
86) Which states of India have the highest and lowest sex ratios?
Answer:Kerala has the highest sex ratio of 1084 and Haryana has the lowest sex ratio of 877 (as per the 2011 Census).
87) What is meant by dependency ratio?
Answer: The dependency ratio is the proportion of a population composed of people who are too young or too old to work.
88) Which state out of Rajasthan, Bihar, Assam and Jammu and Kashmir, has the highest population density?
Answer: Bihar has the highest population density at 1102 persons per sq km.
89) What is the major reason for the state of Kerala having a very high population density?
Answer: Kerala has a very high population density because it has a fertile soil and gets abundant rainfall, thus resulting in good prospects for the occupation of agriculture.
90) Does the term 'birth rate' mean the percentage of live births in 1 year?
Answer: No, the correct meaning of the term 'birth rate' is the number of live births in a year per 1000 persons.
91) Which group of persons out of adults, adolescents, the aged and children, comprise the maximum proportion of India's population?
Answer: Adults comprise the maximum proportion of India's population at 58.7 % of the population.
92) When was the first Census held in India?
Answer: The first Census in India (on a limited scale) was held in 1872. The first complete census was taken in 1881 and subsequently has been taken every 10 years.
93) Explain any three elements which are responsible for population growth. Or Describe the factors that cause changes in the size of population.
Answer: The three elements responsible for population growth are increasing birth rate, declining death rate and increased migration into the country from outside.
(i) Birth rates are affected by factors like nutrition, fertility, social value, the availability of contraception and culture.
(ii) Death rates are affected by disease, war, improved healthcare and nutrition.
(iii) Migration into the country is affected by characteristics of a country that attracts people to it push and pull factors.
94) Describe the three different population density zones of India.
Answer: The three population density zones in India are high, moderate and low.
(i) The high population density zone, which has a population density greater than 500 persons per sq km, consists of the states Uttar Pradesh, Bihar, West Bengal and Kerala.
(ii) The low density zone, which has a population density lesser than 100 persons per sq km, consists of the states Arunachal Pradesh, Mizoram and Jammu and Kashmir.
(iii) The remaining states fall in the moderate population density zone with 250-500 persons living per sq km.
95) "Resources, calamities and disasters are all meaningful only in relation to human beings". Explain the statement with suitable arguments.
Answer: The following arguments explain the given statements
(i) The statement highlights the importance of the human resource. It is the people who develop the economy and society.
(b) It is the people who make and use resources.
(c) Resources have no meaning without people, e.g., coal is just a piece of rock until people were able to make is usable.
(ii) Natural events like a river flood or Tsunami become a 'disaster' only when they affect a crowded settlement.
(iii) Population is the pivotal element from which the significance is derived. Thus, we can say that resources, calamities and disasters have no meaning without human beings.
|1. What is population?|
|2. How is population growth calculated?|
|3. What are the different factors affecting population growth?|
|4. What is overpopulation and its consequences?|
|5. What are the measures to control population growth?|