51) Describe the economic condition of Russia before 1905.
(i) In Russia the war was initially popular and the policies of Tsar Nicholas II were supported by the people.
(ii) The First World War on the 'Eastern front' differed from that on the 'Western front'. In the West, armies fought from trenches, but in the East, armies moved a good deal and fought battles leaving large casualties.
(iii) Russia's army lost badly in Germany and Austria between 1914 and 1916. There were over 7 million casualties by 1917.
(iv) As the German armies moved forward, the Russian army destroyed crops and building to prevent the enemy to enter easily.
(v) The situation discredited the Russian government and Tsar.
(vi) The Russian Soldier did not wish to First Such a War.
52) What was the condition of Russia during the First World War?
Ans: In March 1917, Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed provisional government to run the country. Lenin and Bolshevik party thought that the time wars not ripe for socialist revolution and the Provisional government needed to be supported.
(i) In the meantime Bolshevik influence grow and the Provisional government saw its power reduce. So it decided to take stern measures against the spreading discontent.
(ii) Peasants and their socialist leader wanted a redistribution of land which could not be fulfilled by the government.
(iii) This government could not succeed to control over industry by the workers.
(iv) But it resisted attempts by workers to run factories.
(v) This government began arresting the leaders and the popular demonstrations staged by the Bolsheviks were repressed.
53) What were the social, economic, and political conditions in Russia before 1905?
Ans: Social Conditions Russian society was divided into three classes, the clergy, nobility and the working class. Serfdom was abolished in 1861, but the peasants, who constituted 85 percent of the population, had to pay heavy taxes for small holdings. Economic Conditions After industrialisation, many factories were set up by industrialists. The wages were minimum and the working hours were sometimes 15 hours. The condition of the workers was miserable. The state treasury was bankrupt due to heavy expenditure. Political Conditions Under the autocratic rule of Tsar Nicholas II, the Russian empire was vast and feudal. The disastrous defeat of Russia in the Russo-Japanese War of 1904 had eroded the prestige of Tsar Nicholas II.
54) In what ways was the working population in Russia different from other countries in Europe, before 1917? Or Explain any five differences between the peasants of Russia and peasants of Europe.
Ans: Working population of Russia was different from other European countries in the following ways
(i) About 85 percent of Russians were agriculturists. In France and Germany, the farmers were between 40 per cent to 50 per cent.
(ii) Industrialisation started late in Russia and industries were only found in small pockets.
(iii) Workers were a divided social group and maintained strong links with the villages they come from. In Europe, the industrial revolution changed a mainly rural society into an urban one.
(iv) In Russia sometimes the working hours for workers were 15 hours, compared with 10 or 12 hours in Europe.
(v) Unlike European peasants, Russian peasants had no respect for nobles and some even tried to grab the land of nobles.
55) Describe the main events of the October Revolution in Russia.
Ans: The main events of the October Revolution in Russia were
(a) On 16th October, 1917, Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik party to agree to seizure of power. A military Revolutionary committee was appointed under the leadership of Leon Trotskii.
(b) The uprising began on October 24, when pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace. In a swift response, the Military Revolutionary Committee ordered its supporters to seize government offices and arrest ministers.
(c) The city was under the committee's control and the ministers had surrendered. Uprisings took place in other cities also. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow Petrograd area.
56) What was Communist International?
Ans: After the First World War, the Communist International was organised in 1919 on the lines of the First International (1864-76) and the Second International (1889-1914). It was founded in Moscow in March, 1919 on the initiative of the Bolsheviks after the October Revolution in Russia and at a time of revolutionary upsurge in central Europe. It is also called the Third International. Its main objectives were to establish unity among the workers of the world, to fix their daily hours of work, to oppose imperialism and colonialism, to oppose oppression and wars, to promote revolution, etc. Under its guidance, various communist parties were formed in many countries of the world. The Communist International was dissolved in June 1943.
57) What were the main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution?
Ans: The main changes brought about by the Bolsheviks immediately after the October Revolution were
(i) The Bolsheviks were totally opposed to private properties; thus most of industry and banks were nationalised.
(ii) Lands of the clergy and nobility were confiscated and land was declared state property.
(iii) In cities, the large houses were partitioned to accommodate other families.
(iv) The use of old titles of aristocracy was banned.
(v) To assert the social change, new uniforms, e.g.. Soviet hats were designed for the army and the officials.
(vi) The Bolshevik party renamed itself as the Russian Communist Party, Russia became a one-party state. All Russian Congress of Soviets became the Parliament of the country.
58) Why were there revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905? What were the demands of the revolutionaries?
Ans: (a) The causes of the revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905 were
(i) Russia's defeat in the Russo-Japanese war of 1904 due to the poorly organised Russian army.
(ii) The prices of essential commodities rose so that real wages declined by 20 percent
(iii) Workers were dismissed at the Petiole Iron Works.
(iv) The procession of workers led by Father Gapon reached the Winter Palace where it was attacked by the police. In this incident, 100 workers were killed and 300 wounded. This is known as 'Bloody Sunday' which finally led to revolutionary disturbances in Russia in 1905.
(b) The revolutionaries demanded a reduction in daily working hours to eight, increase in wages and improvement in working conditions.
59) Explain the views of socialists on private property. Name the international body set-up to spread and coordinate their efforts. Or Explain the views of the socialists on private property with special emphasis on Karl Marx. Name the International body setup to spread and coordinate their efforts.
(i) Socialists were against private property. They saw it as the root of all social evils.
(ii) Socialists favored society as a whole rather than single individually owned property, more attention would be paid to collective social interests.
(iii) Marx said that in capitalism, factories were owned by the capitalists and the profit of capitalists was produced by workers.
(iv) But the workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of private property.
(v) Marx suggested that to free themselves from the capitalist exploitation, the workers had to the construct a radically socialist society. In a socialist society, all property was socially controlled.
(vi) Marx believed that workers would triumph in their conflict with capitalists and there should be 'dictatorship of the proletariat'. This communist society is the natural society of the future. To coordinate their efforts, Socialists formed the international body, viz, the 'Second International.'
60) Explain the ideology of the three power groups present in the Russian society, i.e., the Liberals, the Radicals and the conservatives. Or What were the different notions of Liberals, Radicals and Conservatives regarding new formation of the Government in Russia? Discuss.? Or In which three ways were Liberals of the 19th century different from Radicals of that period? Explain.
(i) Liberals were one of the groups which looked to change society. They wanted a 'secular' nation which tolerated all religions.
(ii) They opposed religious discrimination and uncontrolled power of dynastic rulers. They wanted to safe guard the rights of individual.
(iii) They wanted a representative, elected Parliamentary Government and a well trained judiciary that was independent of rulers and officials.
(iv) They did not believe in the universal adult franchise. They did not want the vote for women and felt only men of property should have the vote.
(i) They wanted a government based on the majority of a country's population. They supported universal adult suffrage, including the vote for women.
(ii) Unlike liberals, they opposed the privileges of great landowners and wealthy factory owners.
(iii) They were not against the existence of private property, but opposed concentration of property in the hands of a few.
(i) They were opposed to Liberals and Radicals. They generally opposed to the idea of change in the 18th century.
(ii) By the 19th century, they accepted that some change was inevitable, but believed it had to be brought about through a slow process.
(iii) They respected old or past traditions and customs.
61) Describe the circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution?
Explain any five causes leading to the outbreak of the Russian Revolution.
Highlight the social and political conditions that led to Russian Revolution?
Ans: The Russian Revolution is the collective term for a series of revolutions in Russia in 1917. The Emperor was forced to abdicate and the old regime was replaced by a provisional government during the first revolution of February 1917. In the second revolution, during October, the provisional Government was removed and replaced with a Bolshevik government. The main circumstances which were responsible for the Russian Revolution are
(i) Russia's own industries were few in numbers and the industrial workers were exploited extremely.
(ii) In Russia 85 percent of people were agriculturists. The king nobles and church-owned large landed properties. Like the industrial workers, peasants also lived in miserable conditions.
(iii) Russia had an autocracy. Tsar Nicholas II was a deeply conservative ruler and maintained a strict authoritarian system. He cared little for the general people. He dragged the Russian into the First World War.
(iv) Karl Marx's theory of communism appealed to the people. He said that workers had to overthrow capitalism and the rule of capitalists by the revolution.
(v) The popularity of Bolshevik party increased steadily under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin.
The Bolsheviks had formed committees and Soviets and created conditions which eventually led to the Russian Revolution.
62) Mention the values which are associated with Stalin's collectivization programme. Mention three values.
Ans: Fig. Stalin's collectivizationBy 1927 -1928, the towns in Soviet Russia were facing an acute problem of grain supplies. Stalin introduced collectivization programme. From 1929, the communist party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms (Kolkhoz). The bulk of land and implements were transferred to the ownership of collective farm. It was possible by eliminating the class of 'kulaks' well to do or rich farmers of Russia. The values which are associated with Stalin's collectivization programme are as follows
(i) Promotion of State-controlled large farms to increase production and solved the problem of grain scarcity.
(ii) Transfer of Ownership of Land took away land from peasants and established the collective farm, the state-controlled large farms.
(iii) Elimination of a Social Class eliminated 'kulaks' the well to do peasants of Russia.
63) What were the impacts of the Russian Revolution in Russia? Or Explain any five effects of the Russian Revolution of 1917 over Russia?
Ans: (i) The Russian Revolution put an end to the autocratic Tsarist rule in Russia. It abolished the Romanov dynasty.
(ii) It led to the establishment of world's first communist/socialist government.
(iii) The new Soviet Government announced its drawl from the First World War.
(iv) The socialist government announced the nationalization of all industries, private lands. Banks, mines, railways, telephones, etc. These were declared as state property.
(v) Planned economic development started at the time of Stalin. Collectivization of the agriculture was introduced by Stalin. From 1929, the party forced all peasants to cultivate in collective farms.
(vi) Planned economy soon turned the USSR into a powerful industrial nation by the Second World War. Poverty began disappearing from Russia. With the outbreak of World War II, USSR had given socialism a global face.
64) What was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism?
Ans: Private property was the root of all evils in society, according to socialism.
65) What was the boundary of the Russian empire during 1914?
Ans: In 1914, besides the territory around Moscow, the Russian empire included current day Finland, Latvia, Lithuania, Estonia, parts of Poland, Ukraine and Belarus, Georgia, Armenia and Azerbaijan.
66) What was the significance of the Russian Revolution?
Ans: The most significant feature of the Russian revolution was the establishment of a socialist state.
67) List the religious groups in Russia at the time of Tsar Nicholas II.
Ans: Fig. Tsar Nicholas II At the time of Tsar Nicholas II, the majority of Russians belonged to the Russian Orthodox Christians. Others were Catholics, Protestants, Muslims, and Buddhists.
68) What were the April Theses of Lenin?
Ans: In his 'April Theses' Lenin declared that the war be brought to a close, land be transferred to the peasants and banks be nationalised.
69) When did the Bolsheviks make peace with Germany at Brest-Litovsk?
Ans: In March, 1918, despite opposition by their political allies, the Bolsheviks made peace with Germany at Brest-Litovsk.
70) Why did the Tsarist autocracy collapse in 1917?
Ans: The Tsarist autocracy collapsed in 1917 due to social, economic, and political reasons. Social Reasons In the First World War the defeat of the Russian army was shocking and demoralising. There were over 7 million casualties and 3 million refugees by 1917. The rest of the population became hostile to the Tsar. Economic Reasons There were labour shortages due to the participation of able-bodied men in the war which led to the shutdown of many small factories. Moreover, large quantities of grain were sent to feed the army. For the people in cities, bread and flour became expensive and scarce. This scarcity led to riots at bread shops. People became very dissatisfied with the policies of the Tsar. Political Reasons Tsar Nicholas II was an autocratic, inefficient, weak ruler who believed in the Divine Rights of the king. The bureaucracy got special rights and privileges, but the general public got none. Moreover, the Tsar had built a vast empire and imposed the Russian language and culture on diverse nationalities. A large section of the Russian empire became hostile to the Tsar and his corrupt bureaucracy. All these factors led to the discredit of the government and brought about the end of Tsarist autocracy.
71) Make two lists : One with the main events and the effects of the February Revolution and the other with the main events and effects of the October Revolution. Write a paragraph on who was involved in each and who were the leaders.
Ans: Events and Effects of the February Revolution
1. 22nd February 1917 Lockout of a factory on the right bank. Effect - the next day, the workers of 50 factories went on strike in sympathy.
2. 24th and 25th February Demonstrators came back on the streets and were dispersed by imposing a curfew.
3. 25th February The government suspended the Duma. Politicians criticised the measure.
4. 26th February Demonstrators returned in force to the streets.
5. 27th February Workers ransacked the Police Headquarters.
6. 2nd March The Tsar abdicated. Soviet leaders and Duma leaders formed a Provincial Government to run the country. No political party was actively organising the February Revolution. Men and women workers were involved in this movement who were supported by the soldiers.
Events and Effects of the October Revolution
1. 16th October 1917 Lenin persuaded the Petrograd Soviet and the Bolshevik Party to agree to a socialist seizure of power. It led to the formation of a Military Revolutionary Committee for the seizure of power.
2. 24th October Uprising began. The buildings of two Bolshevik newspapers were seized by the military men loyal to the government.
3. On the same day pro-government troops were sent to take over telephone and telegraph offices and protect the Winter Palace.
4. Responding to the Government's action, the Military Revolutionary Committee seized the government offices and arrested the ministers.
5. The navy played a significant role in the assault of the Winter Palace.
6. The revolutionaries took over different military points.
7. By nightfall, the city was under the committee's control and the ministers had surrendered.
8. By December, the Bolsheviks controlled the Moscow Petrograd area. The Bolsheviks were involved mainly in the October Revolution. Vladimir Lenin and Leon Trotskii were the main leaders of the Revolution.