91) The term ENSO is referred to (a) El Nino Southern Onset (b) El Nino Southern Oscillations (c) En Nino Southern Oscillation (d) none of these
92) Tropical cyclones are often very destructive and arrive on the coasts of (a) Karnataka and Goa (b) Odisha and West Bengal (c) Maharashtra and Gujarat (d) Kerala arid Maharashtra;
93) In which of the following places in India, does precipitation take place in the form of snowfall? (a) Drass (b) Chandigarh (c) Shillong (d) Thiruvananthapuram
94) Which one of the following is called pre-monsoon showers in Kerala? (a) Kaal Baisakhi (b) South-west monsoons (c) Mango showers (d) None of these
95) Which force is responsible for the deflection of wind from its normal path?
Answer: The Coriolis force is responsible for the deflection of wind from its normal path.
96) What are the characteristic features of a tropical monsoon climate?
Answer: A 'tropical monsoon climate' results from the monsoon winds, which change direction according to the seasons. This type of climate has high temperature almost throughout the year. This climate has the driest month occurring near the winter solstice.
97) What are the controls affecting the climate of India?
Answer:The controls affecting the climate of India are latitude, altitude, pressure and wind system, distance from the sea, ocean currents and relief features.
98) How will you define climate?
Answer: Climate refers to the sum total of weather conditions and variations over a large area for a long period of time.
99) Which town out of Jaisalmer, Leh, Shillong and Thiruvananthapuram will be the hottest during daytime in June?
Answer:Jaisalmer will be the hottest because it is in Western Rajasthan (far away from the sea), which receives the monsoon in July only. Shillong and Leh are in mountainous regions, whereas Thiruvananthapuram is on the sea coast, the sea having a moderating influence on its temperature.
100) Why does Nasik receive much less rainfall than Mumbai?
Answer: Nasik is located on the leeward side of the Western Ghats, whereas Mumbai is located on the windward side. Leeward sides of mountain ranges receive much less rainfall than the windward sides.
101) Why does India have a monsoon type of climate?
Answer:The climate of India is strongly influenced by monsoon winds. Hence, it has a monsoon type of climate.
102) Which winds account for rainfall along the Malabar Coast?
Answer:The South-West monsoon winds are responsible for rainfall along the Malabar Coast.
103) Define monsoons.
Answer: Monsoons refers to the complete reversal of winds over a large area leading to a change of seasons.
104) What do you understand by 'break' in monsoon?
Answer: 'Break' in monsoon refers to the wet and dry spells of the monsoon. In other words, the monsoon rains take place for a few days at a time. They are interspersed with rainless intervals.
105) What is the effect of the presence of El Nino in the Western Pacific Ocean?
Answer: It has the effect of retarding the arrival of the monsoon.
106) The heavy rainfall on the Coromandel coast is due to which weather phenomenon?
Answer: The heavy rainfall on the Coromandel coast is due to the cyclonic depressions originating over the Andaman Sea, which occur during the season of retreating monsoon.
107) Which factor is responsible for the Indian sub-continent having milder winters when compared to locations in Central Asia?
Answer: The Himalayan mountains act as a barrier for the cold winds of Central Asia and prevent them from reaching the Indian sub-continent, thus ensuring a milder winter.
108) Out the towns/cities of Bhuj, Kolkata, Thiruvananthapuram and Shillong, where will the monsoon arrive last?
Answer:It will arrive the last in Bhuj, as it is in the North part of Gujarat, where the Arabian sea branch of the monsoon will reach at the end. All other towns mentioned are falling near the starting points of the monsoon.
109) Is it correct that the maximum rainfall in the winter season in India occurs in Meghalaya?
Answer: No, it is incorrect. The maximum rain in Meghalaya occurs during June-September. The maximum rainfall in the winter season occurs in Tamil Nadu.
110) Is it true that the monsoon winds are regular in arrival over India?
Answer:No, it is not true. The monsoon's behaviour is very erratic, as it depends on many factors.
111) Which season in Northern India has the characteristics of low humidity, weak winds and low temperature?
Answer: The winter season in North India has the characteristic of low humidity, weak winds and low temperature.
112) The phenomenon of the monsoon is experienced in which range of latitudes?
Answer:The phenomenon of the monsoon is experienced in the equatorial regions from latitude 20oN to 20oS.
113) In which season does the heat belt shift Northwards?
Answer: The heat belt shirts Northwards during the summer season.
114) In which season does the rainfall in Ganga valley reduce from East to West?
Answer:Rainfall in Ganga valley reduces from East to West during the season of advancing monsoon.
115) The phenomenon of 'October Heat' is characteristic feature of which season?
Answer: The phenomenon of 'October Heat' occurs during the season of Retreating Monsoon.
116) Why is the unifying influence of the monsoon on the Indian sub-continent quite perceptible?
Answer:The monsoon provides water to set the agricultural activities in motion and as the major occupation of the people is agriculture, the monsoon acts as a unifying bond.
117) What is the duration of the monsoon season in Western Rajasthan?
Answer:The advancing monsoon reaches Western Rajasthan in the beginning of July. Thus, the monsoon season in Western Rajasthan is from 1st July to 15th September.
118) Which city out of Chennai, Guwahati, Jodhpur and Mumbai has the minimum rain?
Answer:Jodhpur has the minimum rain, as it is in Western Rajasthan (near the Indian Desert). The other cities mentioned have moderate to heavy rain.
119) Why does Thiruvananthapuram have an equable climate?
Answer:Thiruvananthapuram is on the coast and thus has an equable climate due to moderating influence of sea.
120) Which feature of the Indian sub-continent does not allow the South-West monsoon winds to escape from India?
Answer: The Himalayan mountains do not allow the South-West monsoon winds to escape from India, as they act as a barrier to the monsoon winds and also deflect the monsoon winds Westwards from Assam.
121) Which area receives the highest rainfall in the world?
Answer: Mawsynram in the Southern region of Khasi hills, receives the highest rainfall in the world.
122) In which season, loo is experienced over the 'Northern Plains'?
Answer: Loo is experienced during summer season over the Northern plains.
123) What is the cause of rainfall during winters in the North-Western part of India?
Answer:Western disturbances which is common phenomenon during winters in the North-Western part of India bring rainfall during the period.
124) How is the climate of India governed by the atmospheric condition? Explain with three suitable examples.
Answer:The climate of India is governed by the atmospheric conditions in the following ways Pressure and surface winds During winter, the North of Himalaya has a high pressure area and over the ocean, to the South, there is a low pressure area. So, cold wind blows towards the sea. In summer, a low pressure area develops over North-Western India. So, there is a complete reversal of direction of winds. So, wind rich in moisture gathered from ocean moves towards the mainland and brings widespread rainfall.
(ii) Upper air circulation It is dominated by a Westerly flow. Jet stream is one of its important components. These are located over 27o-30o North latitude, therefore, they are also called subtropical Westerly jet streams. This brings Western cyclonic disturbance in the North and North-Western India.
(iii) Tropical cyclones These occur during the monsoon as well as in October-November and are part of the Easterly flow. These disturbances affect the coastal regions of the country.
125) Write any four characteristics of Arabian Sea branch of South-West monsoons?
Answer: Any four characteristics of Arabian Sea branch of South-West monsoons are as follow
(i) The Arabian Sea branch strikes the Western Ghats between last week of May and first week of June and provides abundant rainfall.
(ii) This branch precipitates heavily along the Western coast from Kerala to Gujarat.
(iii) The Eastern part or leeward side of Western Ghats does not receive much rainfall. Therefore, Southern plateau remains comparatively dry.
(iv) Rajasthan receives scanty or almost no rainfall.
126) What is the ITCZ? What is its significance?
Answer: The North-East and South-East trade winds converge in a low pressure zone from about 5oN to 5oS, known as the Inter Tropical Convergence Zone (ITCZ). Solar heating in the region forces air to rise through convection, which results in widespread rain in this region. The ITCZ is a key component of the global circulation system and this zone is the wettest area on the planet. The equatorial region does not have a dry season and is constantly hot and humid.
127) Mention any three characteristics of the Indian Monsoon.
Answer: Some features of the monsoon are
(i) Burst Around the time of its arrival, the normal rainfall increases suddenly and continues constantly for several days. This is known as the 'burst' of monsoon.
(ii) Break The monsoon has a tendency to have 'breaks' in rainfall. Thus, the rain is interspersed with rainless intervals.
(iii) Retreating Monsoon This is the transition season of monsoons during October-November, when the monsoon winds are retreating.
128) "Location and relief are important factors in determining the climate of India'' Explain the statement with examples.
Answer: Following are the ways in which location and relief features affect the climate of a place
(i) Location The amount of solar energy varies according to latitude. Air temperature generally decreases on moving from equator to poles. This is why, Antarctic is the coldest region. When we move from the surface of the earth to higher altitudes, the atmosphere becomes less dense and temperature decreases. The hills, therefore, are cooler during summers.
(ii) Relief High mountains act as barriers for cold and hot winds. They may also cause precipitation if they are high enough and lie in the path of rain-bearing winds. For example, the leeward side of mountains remains relatively dry.
129) Why is the distribution of rainfall in India not uniform? Explain any three reasons.
Answer: The reasons for the uneven distribution of rainfall in India are
(i) Relief and Topography The windward side of mountains and hills receive more rainfall than leeward side.
(ii) Latitudinal and Longitudinal Extent The tropical and coastal regions and plains receive more rainfall than the plateau and desert regions in the interior.
(iii) Vagaries of Monsoon The unpredictability of the monsoon along with phenomena like monsoon troughs and depressions lead to uneven distribution of rainfall.
130) What are Western disturbances? How do they affect the climate of India?
Answer:The Western disturbances are weather phenomena of the winter months. These are the temperate cyclones which originate over Mediterranean Sea and Western Asia and move into India, along with the Westerly flow of jet streams. They disturb the calm and quiet weather of the North and North-Western India by causing cyclonic rains over the plains and snowfall in the mountains. Winter rainfall caused by them locally known as 'Mahawat' is of immense importance for the cultivation of rahi crops.
131) How does the change in pressure conditions over the Southern oceans affect the monsoons?
Answer: Southern oceans affects the monsoon over the conditions because
(i) When the tropical Eastern South Pacific Ocean experiences high pressure, the tropical Eastern Indian Ocean experiences low pressure. In this condition the monsoon rainfall will be average.
(ii) In some years, it is reverse when pressure differences is negative ? means below average and late monsoon.
(iii) The change in pressure conditions is connected to the El Nino.
132) What are jet streams and how do they affect the climate of India?
Answer:Jet streams are a narrow belt of high-altitude winds in the troposphere. The sub-tropical Westerly jet stream blowing South of the Himalayas are responsible for the Western cyclonic disturbances experienced in the North and North-Western parts of the country during the winter months. The sub-tropical Easterly jet stream blowing over peninsular India is responsible for the tropical cyclones that affect the Eastern coastal regions of India during the monsoon as well as during the October to November period.
133) Why are the delta regions of Eastern India struck by cyclones?
Answer: Owing to transfer of low pressure conditions over Bay of Bengal, this shift generate cyclonic depressions over Andaman sea. These cyclone coming under influence of retreating monsoon winds generally cross the Eastern coast and struck the thickly populated delta region of Godavari, Krishna and Kaveri rivers. These are often destructive and cause great damage to life and property.
134) How do the following factors influence the climate of India? (a) Latitude (b) Altitude (c) Distance from the sea
Answer:Following factors influence the climate of India are mention below (a) Latitude The part lying to the South of the Tropic of Cancer experiences the vertical rays of the sun but the part lying beyond the Tropic of Cancer experiences the slanting rays of the sun therefore, India's climate has the characteristics of tropical as well as sub-tropical. (b) Altitude The Himalayas do not allow the cold Arctic winds to enter India, hence, it experiences milder winters. High mountains act as barriers and obstruct the winds to cause precipitation and the leeward side remains dry. (c) Distance from the Sea India has a long coastline and the sea exerts a moderating influence on the coastal areas.
135) Why is monsoon considered as a unifying bond?
Answer: The seasonal alteration of the wind systems and the associated weather conditions provide a rhythmic cycle of seasons. Monsoon rains are unevenly distributed and typically uncertain. The Indian landscape, plant and animal life, agriculture, the people and their festivities, all revolve around the monsoon. They eagerly wait for its arrival and when it arrives, it binds the whole country by providing water to kick-start agricultural activities. That is why the monsoon is considered as a unifying bond.