1) State the main features of democracy.
Ans: The main features of democracy are:
2) How can you say that Pakistan was not exercising democracy when General Musharraf was ruling?
Ans: In Pakistan, General Musharraf led a military coup in October 1999.
3) Giving an example of Zimbabwe, show how laws were made by one single ruler.
Ans: Since Zimbabwe got independence in 1980, it is being ruled by ZANU-PF which led to the freedom struggle.
4) How did Musharraf establish his rule in Pakistan?
Ans: Musharraf came to power after attempting a military coup. He overthrew a democratically elected government and declared himself the Chief Executive of the country. Later he changed his designation to President and in 2002 held a referendum in the country that granted him a five-year extension. Pakistani media, human right organisations and democracy activists said that the referendum was based on malpractices and fraud. In August 2002, he issued a 'Legal Framework Order' that amended the constitution of Pakistan. According to this order, the President can dismiss the national or provincial assemblies. The work of the civilian cabinet is supervised by a National Security Council which is dominated by military officers.
5) Why Pakistan may not be called a democracy under General Musharraf?
Ans: Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy. People may have elected their representatives to the national and provincial assemblies but those elected representatives are not really rulers. They cannot make the final decisions. The power to take final decision rests with army officials and with General Musharraf, and none of them is elected by the people. This happens in many dictatorships or monarchies. They formally have an elected parliament and government but the real power is with those who are not elected.
6) How did China establish a Communist Government?
Ans: In China, elections are regularly held after every five years for electing the country's parliament, called the National People's Congress. The National People's Congress has the power to appoint the President of the country. It has nearly 3,000 members elected from all over China. Some members are elected by the army. Before contesting the elections, a candidate needs the approval of the Chinese Communist Party. Only those who are members of the Chinese Communist Party or eight smaller parties allied to it were allowed to contest elections held in 2002 -2003. The government is always formed by the communist party.
Symbol of Chinese Communist Party
7) What was PRI? What dirty tricks did it play to win elections in Mexico?
Ans: PRI was a party called the Institutional Revolutionary Party of Mexico. All those who were employed in government offices had to attend its party meetings. Even the teachers of government schools used to force parents to vote for the PRI. The media largely ignored the activities of opposition political parties except to criticise them. Sometimes the polling booths were shifted from one place to another at the last minute, which made it difficult for people to cast their votes. The PRI spent a large sum of money on the campaign for its candidates.
8) How did Robert Mugabe establish his dictatorial rule in Zimbabwe, after Independence?
Ans: After Independence, the country has been ruled by ZANU-PF, the part that led the freedom struggle. Its leader Mugabe had been ruling since Independence. Elections have been held regularly and always won by ZANU- PF. President Mugabe is popular but also uses unfair practices in elections. Over the years, his government has changed the constitution several times to increase the powers of the President and make him less accountable. Opposition party workers are harassed and their meetings disrupted. Public protests and demonstrations against the government are declared illegal. There is a law that limits the right to criticise the President. Television and radio are controlled by the government and give only the ruling party's version. There are independent newspapers but the government harasses those journalists who go against it. The government has ignored some court judgements that went against it and has pressurised judges.
9) Under what conditions is a government-run after the elections?
Ans: A democratic government cannot do whatever it likes simply because it has won the elections. It has to respect some basic rules. In particular, it has to provide some guarantees to the minorities. Every major decision has to go through a series of consultations. Every office bearer has certain rights and responsibilities assigned by the constitution and the law. Each of these is accountable not only to the people but also to other independent officials.
10) Which Pakistan General led a military coup in October 1999?
(a) Nawaz Sharif
(b) Parvez Musharraf
(c) Ayub Khan
(d) None of these
11) The famous political party of Mexico was:
(a) People's party
(b) Institutional Revolutionary party
(c) Revolutionary party
(d) Chinese Communist party
12) Who did not have the right to vote in Saudi Arabia?
(a) Non-propertied men
(d) Propertied men
13) Which party of Zimbabwe helped its country to gain independence?
(b) Popular party
(c) Zimbabwe party
(d) None of these
14) During which period did China record its worst famines in the world's history?
15) The head of the government in Nepal is the:
(b) Prime Minister
(d) Vice President
16) How many members are elected to the National People’s Congress from all over China?
17) Which party always won elections in Mexico since its independence in 1930 until 2000?
(a) Revolutionary Party
(b) Mexican Revolutionary Party
(c) Institutional Revolutionary Party
(d) Institutional Party
18) which of these features is/are necessary to provide the basic rights to the citizens?
(a) Citizens should be free to think
(b) should be free to form associations
(c) Should be free to raise protest
(d) All the above
19) Some of the drawbacks of democracy is
(a) Instability and delays
(b) corruption and hypocrisy
(c) Politicians fighting among themselves
(d) all the above
20) Why do we need to define democracy accurately?
21) Why Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called democracy as stated by President Musharraf?
Ans: Pakistan under General Musharraf should not be called a democracy due to the following reasons:
22) In which countries, even today, there is a denial of equal right to vote?
Ans: The principle of the universal adult franchise has been accepted almost all over the world, yet there are many instances of denial of equal right to vote.
23) Once elected by the people, what kind of duties are needed to be performed by the office-bearers?