46) How did the British suppress the revolt of Bastar?
Answer:(i) The British sent troops to suppress the rebellion.
(ii) The adivasi leaders tried to negotiate but the British surrounded their camps and fired on them.
(iii) Then they marched through the villages flogging and punishing those who had taken part in the rebellion.
(iv) Most villages were deserted as people fled into the jungle out of fear.
(v) The British could regain control over Bastar people in three months.
47) Give a brief description about the woodcutter community of Java?the Kalangs.
Answer: (i) The Kalangs of Java were skilled forest cutters and they practised shifting cultivation.
(ii) They were so valuable that when the kingdom of Java split, the Kalang families were equally divided between two kingdoms.
(iii) Without them, it was difficult to harvest teak and build kings' palaces.
(iv) The Dutch tried to make the Kalangs work under them.
(v) In 1770, the Kalangs resisted by attacking a Dutch fort but they were suppressed.
48) How were forest laws enacted in Java?
Answer:(i) The Dutch enacted forest laws in Java to restrict villagers' access to forests. (ii) Now wood cutting was done only for specific purposes like making boats, constructing houses under close supervision, etc.
(iii) Villagers were punished for grazing cattle, transporting wood without a permit or travelling through forests with horse carts or cattle. Two Indonesian workers cutting a tree for timber
49) What was the Blandongdiensten system?
Answer: (i) The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from paying these rents, if they provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber.
(ii) This system was known as Blandongdiensten system.
(iii) Later, instead of rent exemption forest villagers were given small wages, but their right to cultivate forest land was restricted.
50) What do you know about Samin's challenge?
Answer:(i) Surontiko Samin of a teak forest village began questioning state ownership of forests.
(ii) He argued that the state had not created the wind, water, Earth and wood, so it could not own it.
(iii) Soon, he organised a widespread movement with the support of his sons-in-law and other families in his village. Some Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes or fines or perform labour.
51) What was the impact of World Wars on the forests? Or The First World War and the Second World War had major impact on forests. Explain this statement with reference to India and Java.
Answer: (i) In India, working plans were abandoned.
(ii) In India, the forest department cut trees freely to meet British war needs. -
(iii) In Java, before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed 'a scorched Earth policy', by destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of teaks logs, so that it would not fall into the hands of Japanese.
(iv) The Japanese also exploited the forests recklessly for their own war industries and forced villagers to cut down forests. (Any three points)
52) What was the effect of laying down of railway lines on forests?
Answer: (i) As early as the 1850s, in the Madras Presidency alone 35,000 trees were being cut annually for sleepers.
(ii) The government gave out contracts to individuals to supply the required quantities. (iii) These contractors began cutting trees indiscriminately. Forests around the railway tracks started disappearing fast.
53) Why did the British appoint the first Inspector General of Forests in India?
Answer: (i) British needed forests in order to build ships and railways.
(ii) They were worried that the use of forests by local people and the reckless felling of trees by traders would destroy forests.
(iii) So, they decided to invite a German expert, Dietrich Brandis, for advice and made him the first Inspector General of Forests in India.
54) How forest dwellers' lives changed after new forest laws were imposed?
Answer: (i) The new forest laws changed the lives of forest dwellers in yet another way. (ii) Before the forest laws, many people who lived in or near forests had survived by hunting deer, partridges and a variety of small animals.
(iii) This customary practice was prohibited by the forest laws. Those who were caught hunting were now punished for poaching.
55) How were people benefitted with the trade in forest products?
Answer:(i) Many communities left their traditional occupations and started trading in forest products.
(ii) This happened not only in India but across the world. For example, with the growing demand for rubber in the mid-19th century, the Mundurucu people of Brazilian Amazon who lived in villages on high ground, began to collect latex from wild rubber trees for supplying to traders.
(iii) Gradually, they descended to live in trading ports and became completely dependent on traders.
56) Where is Bastar located?
Answer: (i) Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra.
(ii) The central part of Bastar is on a plateau.
(iii) To the north of this plateau is the Chhattisgarh plain and to its south is the Godavari plain. The river Indrawati winds across Bastar east to west.
57) Which tribes live in Bastar?
Answer: (i) A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria, Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras and Halbas.
(ii) They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.
(iii) The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.
58) What is shifting cultivation? Why did the Europeans decide to ban it?
Answer:In shifting cultivation, parts of forests are cut and burnt in rotation. Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains. The following prompted Europeans to ban it.
(i) They regarded this practice as harmful for forests.
(ii) They felt that the land which was used for cultivation every few years could not grow trees for railway timber.
(iii) When a forest was burnt, there was the added danger of the flames spreading and burning valuable timber.
(iv) Shifting cultivation also made it harder for the government to calculate taxes. Therefore, the government decided to ban shifting cultivation.
59) Give a brief account of the people of Bastar.
Answer: (i) Bastar is located in the southernmost part of Chhattisgarh.
(ii) Different communities live in Bastar such as Maria and Muria Gonds, Dhurwas, Bhatras, etc.
(iii) They speak different languages but share common customs and beliefs.
(iv) They believe that each village was given its land by the Earth and in return, they look after the Earth by making offerings during the festivals.
(v) In addition to the Earth, they pay respect to the spirits of river, the forest and the mountain.
(vi) Since each village knows its boundaries, they look after their natural resources within that boundary.
(vii) If they want to take some wood from another village, they pay a small fee called 'devsari' in exchange.
(viii) Some villages protect their forests by keeping watchmen and each house contributes grains to pay them. They meet once in a year to discuss issues of concern, including forests.
60) Describe the events that led to the revolt in Bastar against the British.
Answer: (i) People began to discuss their issues in their village councils or bazars, wherever the headmen of several villages assembled.
(ii) Although there was no single leader but Gunda Dhur from village Nethanar became an important figure.
(iii) In 1910, mango boughs, a lump of Earth, chillies and arrows began circulating between villages. They were actually messages inviting villagers to rebel against the British.
(iv) Every village contributed something to the rebellion expenses.
(v) Bazars were looted, the houses of officials and traders, schools and police stations were burnt and robbed, and grain redistributed. (vi) Most of those who were attacked were associated with the British and their oppressive laws.
61) How was forest conservation carried out by the Asian and African countries later on?
Answer: (i) Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber became a more important goal.
(ii) The government realised that in order to meet this goal, the people who live near the forests must be involved.
(iii) In many cases, such as from Mizoram to Kerala, 'dense forests have survived only because villages protected them in 'sacred groves'.
(iv) Some villages have been patrolling their own forests, with each household taking it in turns, instead of leaving it to the forest guards.
(v) Local forest communities and environmentalists are thinking of different forms of forest management. Many movements like the Chipko Movement were started to save trees from the ruthless cutting down for commercial purposes.
62) How were forest products used by the villagers in their day-to-day lives?
Answer: (i) In forest areas, people used forest products?roots, leaves, fruits and tubers?for many things.
(ii) Fruits and tubers were nutritious to eat, especially during monsoons before the harvest.
(iii) Herbs were used for medicine, wood for agricultural implements like yokes and ploughs, bamboo makes excellent fences and is abscessed to make baskets and umbrellas.
(iv) A dried scooped-out gourd was used as a portable water bottle.
(v) Almost everything was available in the forest?leaves could be stitched together to make disposable plates and cups, creepers could be used to make ropes, and the thorny bark of the tree was used to grate vegetables.
63) What kind of life is led by the tribals of Bastar?
Answer: (i) The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth, and in return, they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.
(ii) In addition to the Earth, they show respect to the spirits of the river, the forests and the mountains as well.
(iii) Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary.
(iv) If people from a village want to take some wood from the forest of another village, they pay a small fee called devsari, dand or man in exchange.
(v) Some villagers also protect their forests by engaging watchmen and each household contributes some grain to pay them.
(vi) Every year, there is a big hunt where the headmen of villages in apargana meet and discuss issues of concern, including forests.
64) Explain any five ways in which the lives of the villagers were affected by the Forest Acts.
Answer: The lives of the villagers were affected by the forest laws:
(i) Now the villagers were deprived of their customary practices like hunting, cutting, grazing their cattle, collecting fruits etc.
(ii) One of the major impacts was on the practice of shifting cultivations or swidden agriculture.
(iii) People were now forced to steal wood from the forests and if they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards who would take bribes from them.
(iv) Women who collected fuel woods were especially worried.
(v) It was common for police, constables and forest guards to harass people by demanding free food from them.
65) Explain some of the common customs and beliefs of the Bastar people.
Answer: Common customs and beliefs of the Bastar people
(i) Believed that land is given by mother earth.
(ii) Respect shown to the spirits of river, forest and mountain.
(iii) All natural resources to be looked after
(iv) Anyone seen cutting forests has to pay a fee.
66) Explain any five causes of deforestation in India under the colonial rule.
Answer: (i) Population increased, the demand for food went up.
(ii) British encouraged the production of commercial crops.
(iii) Forest were unproductive.
(iv) The spread of railways from 1850s.
(v) By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy.
(vi) Emergence of Plantations.
67) Deforestation means (a) disappearance of forests (b) plantation of forests (c) covering of forests (d) none of these
68) Oak forests in England were used for (a) making furniture (b) building railway tracks (c) shipbuilding (d) building houses
69) British needed forests in India to (a) increase cultivation (b) hide from their enemies (c) provide a settlement for Indian tribes (d) build ships and railways
70) 'Sweden agriculture' in Sri Lanka is called (a) Milpa (b) Chena (c) Tavy (d) Lading
71) A 'cluster of villages' in Bastar was called a (a) Dand (b) Pargana (c) Kanu (d) Maria
72) 'Peepal' trees belong to which one of the following types of forest? (a) Tropical evergreen forests (b) Tropical moist deciduous forests (c) Thorn forests (d) Tropical dry deciduous forests
73) When was the Indian Forest Service set up?
Answer:The Indian Forest Service was set up in 1864
74) How much India's landmass was under cultivation in 1600?
Answer: One-sixth of India's landmass was under cultivation in 1600.
75) Which Act was passed in 1865?
Answer: Indian Forest Act was passed in 1865.
76) What do you mean by deforestation?
Answer: The disappearance of forests is referred to as deforestation.
77) Where was the Imperial Forest Research Institute set up in 1906?
Answer:The Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up in 1906 in Dehradun.
78) How many tigers were killed between 1875-1925?
Answer:Over 80000 tigers were killed between 1875-1925.
79) Which colonial power ruled Java?
Answer:Java was ruled by the Dutch.
80) Where is Bastar located?
Answer:Bastar is located in the Southernmost part of Chhattisgarh and borders of Andhra Pradesh, Odisha and Maharashtra.
81) Which country occupied Indonesia during the Second World War?
Answer:During the Second World War, Japan occupied Indonesia.
82) Between 1700 to 1995, how much area of forest cover in the World's area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, pastures and fuel wood?
Answer:Between 1700 to 1995, 13.9 million sq km area of forest cover in the World's total area was cleared for industrial uses, cultivation, pastures and fuel wood.
83) Which Forest Act divided forest into three categories, viz reserved, protected and village forests?
Answer: The Forest Act of 1878, divided forests into three categories viz reserved, protected and village forests.
84) How many sleepers were required for each mile of railway track?
Answer:Each mile at railway track required between 1760 to 2000 sleepers.
85) What is scientific forestry?
Answer:Scientific forestry means natural forests which had lots of different types of trees were cut down and in their place, one type of tree was planted in straight rows.
86) Who was the community of skilled forests cutters and shifting cultivators in Java?
Answer: The Kalangs of Java were a community of skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators.
87) Who was the leader of rebel foresters in Andhra Pradesh?
Answer: Alluri Sita Rama Raju was the leader at rebel foresters in Andhra Pradesh.
88) Which species of trees are suited for building ships and railways?
Answer:Teak and Sal trees are suited for building ships and railways.
89) From which tree, latex can be collected?
Answer:Latex can be collected from a rubber tree.
90) Where the Blandongdiensten System was introduced?
Answer: The Blandongdiensten System was introduced in Java by the colonial power Dutch to control the forest land.
91) What is the local name of shifting cultivation of South-East Asia?
Answer:Lading is the local name of shifting cultivation of South-East Asia.
92) Name some Indian communities who live in Bastar.
Answer:A number of different communities live in Bastar such as Maria, Muria Gonds, Dhurwar, Bhatras and Halbas.
93) Who was the leader of the Forest Revolt in Bastar?
Answer: Gunda Dhur was the leader of the Forest Revolt in Bastar.
94) For which product is Java famous?
Answer: Java is famous as a rice-producing island in Indonesia.
95) Who was the first Inspector-General of forests in India?
Answer: Dietrich Brandis was the first Inspector-General of Forests in India.
96) Which transport system was most essential for colonial trade and movement of goods?
Answer: Railways were most essential for colonial trade and movement of goods.
97) How was Siadi creeper used for?
Answer:Siadi creeper was used to make ropes.
98) Which trees were promoted for building ships or railways by the colonial government?
Answer:Teak and Sal trees were promoted for building ships or railways by the colonial government.
99) What were the wooden planks laid down across railway tracks to hold tracks in a position called?
Answer:The wooden planks laid down across railway tracks to hold tracks in a position is called sleepers.
100) Which forest community of Central India sent a petition against stopping of shifting cultivation in 1892?
Answer:Baigas are a forest community of Central India who sent a petition against stopping of shifting cultivation in 1892.