Ques 1: Mention the levels on which marginalization can take place.
Ans: Marginalization can take place on three levels.
They are Individual Community Global .
Ques 2: Mention the Names of the communities which experience marginalization in India?
Ans: The major communities which experience marginalization in India are the Adivasis, Dalits and Muslims.
Ques 3: What are the reasons why a community is marginalized, and how does it affect the community?
Ans: The reasons for a community to be socially marginalized are Different language
Economic, social, cultural and political factors work together to make certain groups in society feel marginalised. Marginalized groups are viewed with hostility and deprived of opportunities that are available to other communities. They experience a sense of disadvantage and powerlessness against more powerful and dominant sections of society.
Ques 4: Write a brief note on Adivasis.
Ans: The Adivasis are indigenous peoples and are believed to be the first inhabitants of India. Adivasis have distinct languages, religions and forms of self-government, together with a deep bond to their land and respect for nature. 8 per cent of India’s population are Adivasis. There are over 500 different Adivasi groups in India.
Adivasi communities do not have any hierarchy among them. They are totally different from communities organised around principles of the caste system.
The religion of Adivasis is different from Islam, Hinduism or Christianity. The Adivasis worship their ancestral, village or nature spirits.
During the nineteenth century, substantial numbers of Adivasis converted to Christianity, which has emerged as a very important religion in modern Adivasi history. Adivasis have their own languages which may be as old as Sanskrit. The Adivasi language has influenced the formation of Indian languages, like Bengali.
Ques 5: How are Adivasis portrayed today?
Ans: Today, Adivasis are portrayed as exotic, primitive and backward people. Cultural shows are presented with Adivasis dances. They are represented through colourful costumes and headgears.
Adivasis are blamed for their lack of advancement as they are believed to be resistant to change or new ideas.
This negative portrayal of the Adivasis has led to the marginalization of this community in modern India.
Ques 6: What were the hardships faced by the Adivasis?
Ans: The Adivasis were pushed out of the forests of Jharkhand and they had to migrate to other parts of India and the world. The Adivasis experienced hardship and death during the migration. Five lakh Adivasis had perished in these migrations.
When forests were cleared for mining a majority of tribals are displaced. Wide areas of forest land were submerged under water when many dams were built in India after 1947. Due to this many Adivasis were displaced from the States of Andhra Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa and Jharkhand.
In the North east, Adivasi lands are war-torn and occupied by the military.
There are 54 national parks and 372 wildlife sanctuaries in India. These Parks cover an area of 1, 09,652 sq km. of forest land. The Adivasis were evicted from these forests.
Ques 7: Who headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India?
Ans: Justice Rajindar Sachar headed the Committee set up by the government to look into the social, economic and educational status of the Muslim Community in India.
Ques 8: What was the conclusion reached by the Justice Rajindar Sachar Committee?
Ans: The committee came to the conclusion that on a range of social, economic and educational indicators the situation of the Muslim community is comparable to that of other marginalised communities like Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes.
Ques 9: How can we tackle marginalization?
Ans: Marginalization is a complex and delicate issue and has to be handled by the Government very carefully. To rectify marginalization a variety of strategies, measures and safeguards have to be undertaken.
It is the duty of every citizen of this country to ensure that the Fundamental Rights of all citizen, whether they belong to the majority community or the minority community is protected. It is only the effort of everyone that will protect the diversity that makes our country unique and promote equality for all.
Ques 10: What are the consequences of marginalisation?
Ans: Marginalisation results in having a low social status and not having equal access to education and other resources enjoyed by the majority communities.