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Families of Angiosperm, Chapter Notes, Class 11, Biology Notes - Class 11

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FAMILIES OF ANIOSPERM

 

      +    The symbols used in Floral Formula -

            Bracteate                                            =      Br

            Ebracteate                                          =      Ebr

            Actinomorphic                                   =      Å

            Zyomorphic                                     =      % or 

            Bisexual                                             =      Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

            Unisexual male (staminate)                =  Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology    

            Unisexual female (Pistillate)              =  Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology    

            Epicalyx                                            =      Epi

            Calyx                                                 =      K or if joined = K( )

            Corolla                                               =      C or if joined = C( )

            Perianth                                             =      P or if joined = P( )

            Androecium                                       =      A or if joined = A( )

           ynoecium                                        =      or if joined =( )

            Superior ovary / Hypoynous flower   =     Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

            Inferior ovary / Epiynous flower        =      Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology 

            Ovary half inferior or half superior /   =        Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology                    

            Periynous flower

      +    Adhesion

            Epiphyllous                                       =    Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology  

            Epipetalous                                       =     Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology  

 

CRUCIFERAE (BRASSICACECEAE)

 (Mustard family)

        +    Distinuishin Features of Cruciferae -

                The plant orans have punent odour. This odour is due to presence of sulphur containinlucosides compound. Myrosin enzyme (present in secondary cells) hydrolyse then intolucose & different isothiocyanates (Various oils).

               Inflorescence – Typical raceme.  

            Exception :-

                lberis amara = Candytuft (chandni) has corymb type of inflorescence.

                The compound corymb inflorescence is present in cauliflower.

                Corymbose raceme inflorescence is present in mustard.

        +    The common Characteristics of flower -

                    Flower Ebracteate

                 Bisexual or hermaphrodite

                Actinomorphic but some time zyomorphic e.. lberis amara

                Hypoynous and tetramerous,

                Calyx- Sepals 4, polysepalous, sepals arraned in two whorls 2 outer and 2 inner. Imbricate or valvate or quincuncial aestivation.

                Out of their four sepals two lower sepals are small and upper two are bi in size

                Corolla- Petals 4, polypetalous, valvate aestivation and cruciform.

                  ?    The each petal in cruciferae is divided into two parts-lon claw and broader lamina-limb.

                  ?    The corolla is absent in Lepidium and Coronopus.

                  ?    The corolla is transformed into stamens in Capsella.

                Androecium :- Stamens 6 (2 + 4), Tetradynamous. Nactaries are present at the base of the anthers

                  *     Exception :- 2 stamens in Coronopus, 4 stamens in Lepidium and Cardamine, and 16 stamens in Meacarpea.

               ynoecium :- Bicarpellary, syncarpous.

                  ?    The ovary is unilocular in the beinnin but it becomes bilocular due to the formation of a false septum (replum),

                  *    Placentation is parietal.

                  *    Both the carpels arraned transversely.

                  ** ynoecium is tricarpellary in Lepidium, and tetracarpellaryynoecium in Nasturtium

                Fruit - Usually siliqua which is solitary dry and dehiscent.

                  Silicula fruit is found in Capsella, Iberis, Lepidium and Alyssum.

                Seed - Non endospermic

                Floral Formula -

                  Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

                Diaram –

 

 

Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

+    Economic Importance -

      +      Food Stuff

               Radish                               =      Raphanus sativus-fusiform root and unripe fruit

               Turnip                               =      Brassica rapa-Napiform root

               Cauliflower                               =             Brassica oleracea var. botrytis inflorescence

               Cabbae                            =      Brassica oleracea var. capitata-Fleshy leaves./condensed bud

               Knol-Khol                         =      Brassica oleracea var. caulorapa/onilodes-thickened stem.

               Mustard                             =      Brassica campestris (yellow).

               Black Mustard                   =      Brassica napus

               Black Rai                           =      Brassica nira

               Local Rai                           =      Brassica juncea

                Taramira                            =      Eruca sativa

               White Rai                          =      Brassica Alba

      +    Medicinal uses :-

                    Halima                          =      Lepidium sativumarden cress-its seeds are used in liver  

                                                                                   diseases, asthma, couh and bleedin piles 

                    Khoob Kalan                =      Sisymbrium irio - Its leaves are used in scurvy disease

                    Wall flower                          =             Cheiranthus cheiri-Its seeds are used in fever, couh, paralysis,      

                                                                                   bronchits.

                    Tarha                            =      Nasturtium indicaIts  seed are very useful in asthma disease.

                    Chandni (Candy tuft)   =      Iberis amaraIt is used in rheumatism.

      +    Ornamental :-

                    Chandni (Candy tuft)   =      Iberis amara

                    Wall Flower                  =      Cheiranthus cheiri

                    Shepherd's purse          =      Capsella bursa-pestoris

                    Basket ofold              =      Alyssum sexatile

                    Honesty                        =      Luneria annue

 

 

(Chinarose family)

      +      Dianostic feature of malvaceae :-

               The mucilae is present in various plant orans like flower, fruit etc. in this family. Stellate (star shaped) hairs present on the shoot.

       +    Inflorescence :- Cymose or solitary axillary (Hibiscus,ossypium) or solitary terminal (Abutilon).

               Exception :- The raceme inflorescence is present in Althaea (holly hock). Penicle inflorescence is present in kydia

      +   eneral characters of flower:-

               Flower :- Bracteate-Bracts are bi andreen in colour. Flowers are bisexual, actinomorphic, hypoynous and pentamerous.

                  Polyamous flower are present in Kydia and unisexual flower is present in Napaea.

                Epicalyx :- Epicalyx are 3-7; free andreen in colour. Valvate aestivation.

                   Epicalyx is absent in someenera of the malvaceae such as Abutilon, sida and Bombax.

                Calyx :- sepals-5amosepalous valvate aestivation but in some of the plants persistant calyx are present, it means present on fruit also as in Abelmoschus andossypium.

                   The odd sepal is posterior in malvaceae.

                  * odd sepal in Malvastrum are anterior

                Corolla :- Petal 5, polypetalous twisted aestivation mucilainous and attractive.

                Andorecium :- Stamens indefinite, monoadelphous The filament are united toether to form a lon staminal canal or tube around styles, epipetalous.

                  ?    The stamens are monothecous, kidney shaped, anther dorsifixed.

                  ?    The stamens are extrose.

                   ?    Exception : Julostylis contains 10 stamens in which 5 stamens are sterile and remainin 5 are normal.

               ynoecium :- Penta carpellary or poly carpellary syncarpus.

                   The number of locules are equal to the number of carpels so ovary is penta locular or multilcular.

                   The ovary and style are enclosed by staminal tube but stima remains out side. Axile placentation

                   Exception :- Three carpels are present in the flower of kydia.

                Fruit :- Loculicidal capsule, which is solitary, dry dehiscent multilocular and multi seeded fruit each locules breaks from the wall of the locule durin the dehiscence e. Lady's finer, cotton

                   Exception :- The carcerulus fruit is found in Althaea, Abutilon, Sida. Hooked-schizocarpic in Urena & Pavonia

                   Some times berry is present e.. Malva Viscus.

                Seed :- Non endospermic. A dense hairy seed coat is present on cotton seed [ossypium]

                Floral formula -

Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

                  

                Diaram –

Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

+    Economic importance -

      +    Food - Okra (Lady's finer) = Abelmoschus esculentus or Hibiscus esculentus used as veetable.

        +    Oils- Cotton seeds –ossypiumenera. The seed ofossypium are used for obtainin oils which is hydroenated to prepare veetable hee.

      +    Volatile oil known as Musk seed oil used in perfumery is obtained from Hibiscus abelmoschus seeds.

        +    Fibres – Surface fiber

              Cotton = ossypium.

            The seeds of ossypium are used for obtainin cotton fibres -

          ossypium arboreum and .herbaceum are known as old world cotton while ossypium hirsutum and .barbedense is called as new world cotton.

            Salmalia malabaricum                        =         Red Silk cotton  

            Eriodendron or Ceiba                         =          White Silk cotton [Kapok]       

        +      Soft fibre or Bast fibers :-

            Hibiscus sabdariffa (Rosella hemp)    =          Patua/Roma     

            Sida rhombifolia                                  =          Queen's land hemp

            Abutilon asiaticum = Indian mallow     =           China Jute      

                Hibiscus cannabinus                       =          Pastsan [Deccan hemp]                                   

            Hibiscus elatus                                     =          Cuba bast        

            Urena lobata                                         =          Vilayati Sunn/Forein hemp

        +      Timber :-

            Ochroma laopus                               =          Balsa wood, lihtest wood

            Malva sylvestrils                                  =          Mallow wood

                Hibiscus elatus                                 =         

        +      Medicine :-

                Urena repanda                                 =         These roots are useful in hydrophobia

            Adansonia diitata                              =         Monkey bread tree-Quinine like medicine is obtained from its roots.

            Abelmoschus moschatus                   =         Musk mallow- Its root is used for abdominal pain.

            Abutilon indicum                                 =         Luxative seed – Their seeds are used in constipation and root are used for fever.

            Thespesia populnea                           =         It is used as purative.

            Sida acuta                                           =         Its roots are used in neural and urinal diseases.

            Sida rhombifolia                                 =         It is used in rheumatism diseases.

        +    Ornamental : -

            China rose [Shoeflower]                      =         Hibiscus rosasinensisRed shoes polish is obtained form the petals of this  flower.

            Holly hock [ul-e-khera]                    =         Althaea rosea (Blue colour is obtained from its leaves)

            Pula                                                     =         Kydia calycina

            Cotton rose                                          =         Hibiscus mutabilis (Chaneable rose -  It chane its colour)

            Mallow [Khatmi]                                 =         Malva sylvestris

            Umbrella tree                                       =         Thespesia populnea

      +    Pavonia odorata - from roots hina perfume is manufactured.

        +      Vitamins:-ossypium seeds are rich in vitamin A,D,E and B- complex.

 

(Potato Family)

                Many ovules are present in the ovary so many seed are formed as in tomato, Brinjal etc.

                Most of plants of this family are herbs, some of them are shrubs, rarely trees.

                Stem herbaceous rarely woody, aerial, erect cylindrical branched solid or hollow, hairy or labrous.

                The tap root system is present in these plants.

                Leaves are alternate simple and exstipulate.

        +    Inflorescence :- Solitary axillary or cymose inflorescence.

            Monochasical cyme is of two types :-

                Helicoid cyme : Solanum. 

                Scorpioid Cyme : Atropa

        +    Flower :- Flowers are bracteate or ebracteate, bisexual, complete, hypoynous, pentamerous and actinomorphic but in few of them is zyomorphic such as in Henbane (Hyoscyamus) and Salpilossis, Schizanthus.

        +    Calyx - Sepals 5, amosepalous, valvate aestivation and persistent.

                The sepals in some of the plants chaned into membranous balloon like structure which help in dispersal of fruits. e.. Physalis (Raspberry). The sepal rows with the rowth of the fruit and becomes thickened and elonated. They are known as accrescent such as in Brinjal.

                The odd sepal in solanaceae is in posterior condition.

        +    Corolla - Petals-5 amopetalous, aestivation valvate or imbricate with various shapes of corolla.

        +    Androecium - Stamens-5, polyandrous, epipetalous.

                Exceptions:- 4-Stamens are present in Salpilossis in which two are elonated means didynamous in condition. 2-Stamens are present in Schizanthus.

        +    ynoecium :- Bicarpellary, syncarpous, bilocular and axile placentation, superior.

                Special features :- Swollen placenta is present. Ovaries arraned obliquely on thalamus carpels move at Ð45° in clock wise direction. posterior carpal turns on riht side and anterior carpal turns on left side.

                Multilocular ovary is formed in tomato and Datura due to formation of false septum.

                  * Unilocular is present in Henoonia.

                  * The ovary is bilocular at the base and unilocular on the upper side in Capsicum (chilli)

        +    Fruit :- Fleshy fruits – berry such as Tomato, Brinjal, chilli, Physalis etc.

            The fruit of the Datura is septifraal capsule in which dehiscence takes place throuh the septa.

        +    Seed :- Endospermic

        +    Floral formula :

            

       Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

+    Diaram :

Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

+    Economic Importance :-

      +      Food (Veetable) :-

                 Potato                               =          Solanum tuberosum – edible part = under round stem-tuber

                 Tomato                             =          (loveapple) Lycopersicon esculentum/Solanum lycoperscium

                 Brinjal (E plant)             =          Solanum melonena

                 Makoi                               =          Solanum nirum

                 Chilli                                 =          Capsicum annuum

                 Shimala Mirch                  =          Capsicum frutescence

                 Raspberry (oose berry) =          Physalis peruviana (fruit are eaten)

                 Physalis ixocarpa

                 Cyphomandra betacea [tree tomato]

        +    Medicines :-

                Atropa belladona (Deadly niht shade) The roots are used in the manufacture of belladonna. Atropine alkaloids is obtained from the roots. Atropine is used to dialate the pupil of the eye.

                Withania somnifera = Asvaandh/Ashwaandha-Its root used as nerve tonic, leaves used in fever

                Stramonium is obtained form the seeds of Datura (Thorn apple) in which Scopolamine alkaloid is present. It is pain reliever and sedative.

                Henbane medicine (containin hyoscyamine alkaloid) obtained from the leaves of Hyscyamus nier. It is used in the treatment of asthama and whoopin couh.

                Nicotine & anabasin alkaloid obtain from the leaves of Nicotiana tabacum (Tobacco) & N. rustica It is nerve stimulant and are also used as insecticide. Its leaves are used as fumiatory.

                Solanum xanthocarpum = (Nelee Kanteli) the juice of its used in rheumatism and couh.

                Solanum nirum = (Makoi) = The fruit are laxative.

         +    Ornamental Plants – Many plants of the family are cultivated for their beautiful flower and frarance as follows-

                Petunia alba and petunia hybrida.

                Cestrum nocturnum = Rat-Ki-Rani

                 Cestrum diurnum = Din-ka-Raja

                Schizanthus = Poor man's orchids

                Brunfelsia hopeana = Kal-Aaj-Kal

                Salpilossis sinvata

                Solanum dulcamara = Janli-lata

                Solanum randiflorum

                Nicandra physaloides

 

        +      Main characteristics

            Flower         -     Periynous -/Hypoynous

            ynoecium  -     Monocarpellary

             Ovary          -     Unilocular

            Placentation -     Marinal

                       Dissimilarities are found in the remainin characters. On the basis of dissimilarities, (inflorescence and floral characters) Leuminosae family is divided into 3 subfamilies

              Papilionatae             Caesalpinoideae         Mimosoideae

 

(Pea Family)

+     Important features

       Sleepin movements commonly occurs in this family.

         +   Roots :- Roots are branched and tap root system is present. Root nodules are present. In root nodules N2 fixin becterium Rhizobium leuminosarum is present.

         +   Leaves :- Stipulate, unipinnate, imparipinnate, Leaf base Pulluinus

            Many modification are found in leaves as follows -

                Some of the leaflets of compound leaves of Pea are modified into tendrils for climbin.

                All the leaflets of Lathyrus odoratus are transformed into the tendrils.

                The stipules of leaves in both Pea and Lathyrus odoratus become foliaceous.

         +   Inflorescence :- Typical raceme or sometimes solitary axillary as-Lathyrus aphaca

  • eneral features of Flower :- Bracteate, bisexual, Periynous/hypoynous, penta merous and Zyomorphic symmetry. The zyomorphic symmetry is due to presence of different (odd) petals (dissimilar petals & androecium) - Cleistoamous flower
  • Calyx :- Sepals 5, amosepalous, aestivation valvate or imbricate and anterior sepals is odd.
  • Corolla :- Petals 5, papilionaceous (main feature) polypetalous, one petal is odd out of 5-petals.

            Exception

            Petals are absent in Lespedeza.

        +    Androecium

            Stamens – 10; diadelphous- (9) + 1 ;

            Exception 

            10 – stamens are free in Sophora

            10 – stamens are monoadelphous in Ponamia, Crotalaria, Lupinus cymopsis. (10)

            The posterior stamen is absent in Arachis, Dalberia and Abrus. 9-stamens are present in them in monoadelphous condition. (9)

         +   ynoecium :- ynoecium is monocarpellary, unilocular, with many ovule superior and marinal placentation.

        +    Fruit - Leume or pod, dry, dehiscent, one chambered fruit.

            Sometimes lomentum is also found as in Arachis

        +    Seed - Nonendospermic

        +      Floral formula -

            Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

        +      Diaram -

Important,Chapter,Notes,Families,of,Aniosperm,Class,11,Biology

+    Economic importance

        +    Food plant

                Arhar (Pieon pea)            =           Cajanus cajan (Indicus)

                Chana (ram)                    =           Cicer arietinum   

                Mattar (Pea)                       =           Pisum sativum

                Urad (Black ram)             =           Phaseolus muno or vina muno

                Mun (reen ram)            =           Pheseolus radiatus  or vina radiatus

                Masoor                              =           Lens esculenta or L. culinaris

                French been                                    =         Vina/Phaseolus vularis

                   or kidney bean (Rajma)

                Soyabean                           =           lycine max (. soja)

                war (cluster bean)           =           Cymopsis tetraonoloba

                Methi                                 =           Trionella foenum raecum

                Munphali (round nut)    =           Arachis hypoea.

                Sem                                   =           Dolichos lablab

                Horse ram                        =           Dolichos bifolras

                Aast tree                          =           Sesbania randiflora (Flower are edible)

                Kasoori Methi                    =           Medicao flacata

                Moth                                  =           Phaseolus aconitifolia or vina aconitifolia

                Cowpea (chowla)              =           Vina sinensis

                Asparaous bean               =           Vina catian

                Khaseri dal                        =           Lathyrus sativus

                                                                         The lathyrism disease is occurred by the use of this dal.

                Lima beam (Lobia)            =           Phaseolus lunatus

        +      Fooder

                Dhaincha                           =           Sesbania (used as reen manure)

                Berseem                            =           Trifolium alexandrium. Used as reen mannure

                Alfalfa                               =           Medicao sativa

                Van Methi (Sweet colver) =           Meliolotus indicus

        +    Fibres

               Sunnhemp                         =           Crotalaria juncea

                Erythrina suberosa

      +    Timber            

                Shisham                             =           Dalberia sissoo (Indian Red Wood)

                Kala shisham                     =           Dalberia latifolia = Indian rose wood

                African black wood           =           Dalberia melanoxylon

                Red sandal wood               =           Pterocarpus santalinus

                Indian kino tree                 =           Pterocarpus marsupium

                Hard sola                           =           Aeschynoment aspara

      +    Dyes                                       

                Neel (Blue dye)                 =          Indiofera tinctoria (dye is obtained from leaves)

                Red colour                                     =         Pterocarpus santalinus

                Yellow dye                        =          Butea monosperma orane, yellow dye is obtained from the flower

      +    Medicinal plants

                     lycyrrhiza labra       =          Mulathi (Liquoric)

                                                                                   Its roots are used in couhs & cold.

                     Krameria traindra        =          The medicine for diarrhoea ® ''krameria'' is obtained

                    Ponamia pinnata        =             Oil of the seed is used for rheumatism.

                Abrus precatoris               =          Ointment made from leaves is used for Treatment of leucoderma

        +    Ornamental

                     Clitoria ternatea           =          Butterfly pea

                     Cannavalia ladiata     =          Sword bean                 

                     Erythrina indica           =          Indian coral tree

                     Desmodium yrans      =          Indian teleraph plant 

                     Clianthus                                  =         lory pea

                     Lathyrus odoratus        =          Phool matar (sweet pea)          

                    Lupinus albus              

                    Sophora japonica         =          Japanese paoda tree

                    Ponamia pinnata       

                     Butea monosperma                 

      +    Insecticides     

                     Derris elliptica             =           Rotenone insecticide

            +     um

                     Benal kino                  =           It is obtained from the butea (dhak).

                     Balsam of Peru             =           Myroxylon balsemum

                    war um                      =           Edible um obtained from the war (cyamopsis tetraonoloba)

                     Indian um                  =           Pterocarpous marsupium.                                           

            +     Other uses :-

                Abrus precatorius = Ratti = Jeweller's weiht – jeweller's use it's seeds as weiht

               Aeschynomeni indica ''Omfosm pith Plant'' ® Its wood is spony. Toys are made from this.

               Dalberia latifolia – Its bark is used in tannin.

              Alhai pseudoalhai = Camel's fodder. From its twis screens (chiks) are manufactured

 

        +    Root - Tap root system.

        +    Leaves -

                  Usually compound,  unipinnate, paripinnate. Palvinus leaf base present

                  Bipinnate in Delonix Phyllode is found in Parkinsonia.

        +    Inflorescence – Panicle or raceme of racemes or compound raceme 

                  *   In Bauhinia cymose inflorescence is present

        +    eneral character of flower -

                   Bracteate, bisexual, periynous/ hypoynous, pentamerous and zyomorphic symmetry of the flower is due to the presence of sterile stamens.

        +    Calyx -

                  Sepals 5, polysepalous imbricate aestivation, odd sepal is anterior one.

        +    Corolla -

                  Petals 5, all alike, polypetalous, ascendin imbricate aestivation (posterior petal is the innermost.)

                  *   Exception ®

                  Petals are absent in Ashok (Saraca)

                  Only 3-petals are present in Imli (Tamarindus), two petals are modified scales

        +    Androecium -

            Stamens 10, free, arraned in two whorls/(Circles) 5 + 5, some of them are sterile called as staminodes. Most of the enera have 3 staminodes.

                  *   7 Stamens are present in Tamarindus, monoadelphous, out of them 4 are staminodes.

                  *   5-8 normal stamens are present in Saraca (Ashok)

                  *   5- normal stamens are found in Bauhinia varieata (Kachnar).

                  All 10 stamens are fertile in parkinsonia,

 

        +    ynoecium -

            Monocarpellary, ovary half inferior/superior, unilocular, style lon, stima is simple and marinal placentation.

        +    Fruit-

                  Leume or pod is present.

                  *   Lomentum is present in Tamarindus.

        +    Seed :- Nonendospermic

 

+   Economic importance

        +    Food

                     Tamarindus indica                =             Imli

                     Bauhinia varieata               =             Kachnar (Camel's foot tree)

                     Bauhinia purpurea                =             Rawal

        +    Ornamental    

                     Cassia fistula                         =             Amaltas

                     Delonix reia                        =             ulmohar

                     Bauhinia anuinia                =             Naput (Snake climber)

                     Saraca indica                        =             Ashok

                     Caesalpinia pulcherima        =             Peacock flower

                     Parkinsonia aculeata            =             Vilayti kikar (Jeruselam Thorn)

                     Bauhinia varieata               =             Kachnar          

              +     Timber

                     Caesalpinia sappan               =             Brazil wood

                     Haematoxylon compechianum            =                      Lo wood

                                                                                                            It yields a dye haematoxylin.

                     Hardwickia binata                =             Hardest wood

                     Tamarindus indica                =             Imli                             

        +    Medicines

                     The raw fruits of amaltas (Cassia fistula) are used as luxative.

                     Ashokarist is obtained from the bark of ashok tree (ayurvedic medicine)

                The leaves and seed Cassia occidentails and Cassia obtusifolia (also purative) are used in skin diseases.

                     The bark and leaves of Cassia lauca are used in diabetes and onorrhoea.

                     A tonic is prepared from the bark Bauhinia varieata.

        +    Other uses

                     Caesalpinia sappan – 'ulal' is obtained from its heart wood.

                     Bauhinia purpurea and Ceratonia silqua are used as fodder.

        +    Tannin :

                     Bark of Bauhinia purpurea

        +    Root -

                  Tap root system and branched.

                +     Leaves -

                  Usually bipinnate paripinnate-pulvinus leaf base

                  The stipule is modified into thorn as in Acacia.

                  Phyllode is found in Australian Acacia

        +    Inflorescence -

                  Two types of inflorescences are found in Mimosoidae family -

    Capitate (Cymose Capitulum) - Acacia.

    Spike - Prosopis

        +      eneral floral character -

                  Bracteate, bisexual, Actinomorphic symmetry, periynous/hypoynous, tetramerous or pentamerous.

        +    Calyx -

                  Sepals 4 or 5, amosepalous, valvate aestivation.

                +     Corolla -

                  Petals 4 or 5, polypetalous.

                  amopetalous corolla is present in Acacia & Albizzia

        +    Androecium -

                  Many stamens. free, polyandrous

                  *   Monoadelphous stamens are present in Albizzia.

                  *   4 stamens which are free-found in Mimosa.

                  *   In prosopis 10 stamens are free

 

        +    ynoecium -

                  Monocarpellary, unilocular, half inferior/superior, marinal placentation.

                +     Fruit -        Lomentum

      +    Seed -  Non endospermic

       

+   Economic importance

      +    Timber & fuel : -

                     Acacia arabica             =        Desi Babool. (Black wood)

                     Prosopis juliflora          =        Australian Babool

                     Xylia dolabini formis    =        Iron wood (Jamboo)

                     Prosopis cineraria        =        Khejari (state tree of Rajasthan)

                     Albizzia lebbek             =        Siris

                     Acacia sundra              =        Heaviest wood in India

                    Xylia xylocarpa            =        Indian ironwood. Wood is used for makin sleepers 

        +    Food & fodder                       

                     Pithecolobium dulce     =        Junle Jalebi (Aril)

                    Albizzia lebbek             =        Siris – Pods are edible and used as fodder.

                     Neptunia oleracea        =        Lajalu – Fruits are edible

              +     Ornamental

                     Mimosa pudica            =        Sensitive plant = ''Touch me not''

                     Neptunia oleracea        =        Lajwanti ''Kiss me quick''

                     Pithecolobium dulce     =        Hede plant

                     Leucaena leucopholea

      +    Other uses :-

                     Acacia fornesiana        =        Cassie perfume is obtained from the flowers.

                     Acacia concinna          =        Shikakai-Its pods are used for head bath.

                     Acacia catechu             =        Kattha is obtained from its heart wood.

                     Many species of Acacia yield um.

                     Albizzia (Siris) produces special type of um called ''Sresh''

                     The pods of shikakai are also used as insecticides.

                     um arabic is obtained from the Acacia seneal.

Lily Family

+   Dianostic features

        +    Habit -       Mostly Herbs some climbers

                  sometimes abnormal secondary rowth is found in trees such as – Dracaena, Yucca.

      +    Root -

                  Usually adventitous/fibrous. Fasciculated root is found in Asparaus (satawar)

        +    Stem- The aerial stem is present in few plants.

                  Majority of the plants have underround stem. It is of two type-

                     Bulbs

                       Example – Onion, arlic.

                     Corm

                       Example – Colchicum,

                     Rhizome – Aloe vera

      +      Modification of aerial stem -

                     Cladode – in Asparaus, Ruscus

            +     Leaves – Mostly basal, alternate linear, exstipulate.

                  *   In Allium three different type of leaves are found scale, Foliar and Fleshy.

                  *   Perallel venation

                  *   Reticulate venation is found in Smilax, Paris

            +     Inflorescence -

                  It is of many types as follows :-

                     Solitory terminal ® Tulipa

                     Solitary axiliary – loriosa

                     Scapierous umbel or Cymose umbel – e.. Onion and arlic

                     Spadix – e.. Aloe

                     Scorpioid cyme – e.. Haemorcoalis

                     Panicle :- Compound raceme e.. Yucca and Dracaena

            +     eneral characters of flower -

                  Bracteate, bisexual, complete, actinomorphic symmetry, Hypoynous and Trimerous, epiphyllous.

                  *   The flowers in Ruscus and Smilax are unisexual and incomplete.

                  *   Zyomorphic flower present in Lilium

                  *   Aspidiastra, Paris and Mianthimum contain tetramerous flowers.

            +     Perianth-

            Tapals 6 (perianth), polyphyllous, arraned in two whorls 3 + 3, often united into tube. Valvate or imbricate aestivation. May be polytepalous. amotepalous flower ® Aloe,  Asparaous

                  *   Eiht (8) tepals are present in Paris and Mianthimum and arraned in two whorls 4 + 4.

            +     Andoroecium -

                  6 stamens, arraned in two whorls 3 + 3, free polyandrous.

                  *   Only 3 stamens are found in ruscus. 8 stemens are found in Paris arraned in 4 + 4.

      +    ynoecium -

                  Tricarpellary, syncarpous, trilocular with many ovule, stima trifid, axile placentation, superior ovary.

      +    Fruit -

                  Some have berry as in Lily and normally capsule as in onion.

      +    Seed - Endospermic

     

+   Economic importance -

        +    Food -

                Allium cepa = Onion

                A. sativum = arlic

               Asparaus = Satawar - Fasciculated roots

              +     Ornamental plants -

                     Lilium bulbiferum = Lily

                     loriosa superba = lory lily

                     Tulipa = Tulip

                     Convalaria majlis = Lily of the valley

                     Sensiviera trifasiata – ''Mother in Law's tonue''.

                     Ruscus aculeatus – Butcher's boom''

                    Fritillaria tenella ; F. melaris = snakes head  

        +    Medicinal uses -

                Sarasprilla = Smilax zeylamicumroots yield sarasaprilla which is used in veneral disease dysentery and skin disease

                     Sudarshan = Crinum asiaticum

                     The juice of leaves is used in rheumatism and ear pain.

                     var patha = Aloe vera – the juice of the leaves is used as skin tonic and increase the eye siht.

                     Asphodelus tennuifolius – Its seeds are used in peptic ulcer.

                     Urinea (wild onion) and Scilla rat killer medicine is prepared from their bulb.

                     Lahasun = Allium sativum = It is very useful in heart disease, rheumatism & diabetes.

                loriosa superbaIt is used in leprosy and piles, it is also very useful in bitin of snake or scorpion.

      +    Other uses :-

                Draon plant = Dracenena dracaRed colour resin is obtained from the stem, Thus it is known as ''Draon's blood''

                Draer plant = Yucca alolifolia, Y. filamentosa- Fibres are ontained from the stem.

                Colchicum automnale-Colchicine is obtained from this plant which is used to induce polyploids in plants.

                C. luteum = corm is laxative

                Phormium tenax – It is used for preparin oil paints and varnishes.

                Sansevieria roxburhiana = ''Indian Bowstrin hemp'' Bowstrin hemp'' and Sansevieria trifasciana = ''African Bowstrin hemp'' – fibers are obtained which are used for makin ropes and nets.

 

      Special character : Inflorescence mostly head or capitulum.

      +      Calyx usually represented by hairy structure called pappus or represented by minute scales. It is persistant & attached on fruit & helps in its dispersal.

      +      Petals 5, amopetalous, valvate aestivation.

      +      Stamens-5 epipetalous, synenesious.

      +      Bicarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovary, unilocular basal placentation, one style and two stima or bifurcated stima

      +      Fruit is cypsela with hairy pappus.

      +      In Dehlia fasciculated roots are present.

+    Floral formula -

            +     Ray florets → Br %  KP C(5) A0 

            +     Disc florets  

        +    Sterile florets → Br  KP C(5) A0 0

 

+   Economic importance -

        +    Food -

                 Lactuca sativa = Salad (arden lettuce).

                Cichorium intybus (Kasni) = Cichorium – chicory powder is prepared from roots which mixed in coffee powder.

                Helianthus tuberosus – Their tubers are eaten which contain inulin.

               Helianthus annus = Sunflower (Suraj mukhi) – The seeds of this yields valuable oil which is used for cookin purposes. 

                Carthamus thinctorius = Kusum (Safflower) – Oil obtainin from seeds reduced the level of cholesterol.

     +    Medicinal plants -

                Artemisia obsinthiumSantonin medicine obtains from Artemisia which is useful for removal of worms.

                Arnica montanaArnica medicine is obtained which is used in healin of wound and as hair oil.

                Eclipta alba(Bhrin Raj) – Juice is used as hair tonic.

                Anthemis nobilisCamomile named medicine is obtained from the inflorescence.

               Species of blumea produce ''Kapoor'' which is a useful medicine.

               Taraxacum officinale''Taraxacum'' medicine is obtained which is purative and diuretic.

        +     Ornamental -

               Helianthus annus = Surajmukhi

                Chrysanthemum = ul-Daudi

               Taetes = enda (mariold)

                Calendula officinalis = (Pot mariold)

        +     Other Values -

                Ambrosia artemissifolia = Rin weed – Hay fever is due to its pollen rains.

                Parthenium hysterophorus = Conress rass-skin allery develops from its pollen rains.

                Chrysanthemum cinerariefolium = uldaudi-Pyrethrum named insecticide is obtained.

      +    Special character :

                  This is the larest family of the Indian flora.

                Inflorescence spike of spikelets. Main axis is called rachilla.

Flowers sessile, bracteate, bracteolate. Two sterile or empty scales called lumes occur at the base of the main axis. A series of florets are present above the lumes with superieor and inferior palea. Inferior palea is fertile bract which is also known as fertile lume lemma. They can produce hair or awn. Superior palea is morpholoically act as a bracteole.

Flowers zyomorphic, bisexual, but in Zea and coix flowers are unisexual. Flowers are hypoynous and trimerous.

Tepals 2, free polytapelous, membranous and situated in antereo lateral position. They are called lodicules.

                Stamens 3, polyandrous,

                Monocarpellary or Tricarpellary, syncarpous, superior ovary, unilocular, placentation is basal, two style are present and stima is feathery

                Fruit is caryopsis.

                Culm stem is present.      

                Seed ® Endospermic

 

Triticum aestivum (Wheat) : A spike of spikelets, one spikelet,

and enlared spikelet, and open flower, a dissected flower and floral diaram.

+     Economic importance -

      +    Ornamental Plants :-

                       Cynodon dactylon = Doob

        +    Cereals :-

                                  Avena sativa                =         Jai/oat                          

                                  Eleusine coracena      =         Rai

                                  Hordeum vulare          =          Barely/jau – It is the oldest domesticated crop.

                                  Oryza sativa                 =          Rice

                                  Pennisetum typhoides =        Bajra

                                  Secale cereale =          Europen rye

                                  Sorhum vulare            =          Jawar

                                  Triticum aestivum       =          Wheat

                                  Zea mays                      =          Maize

        +    Suar :-

                       Saccharum officinarum           =          Suar cane

        +    Oil Yieldin Plants :-

                Cymbopoon caesius        =          iner rass oil is obtained from their leaves & is used in soap industry.

                C.flexnosus                       =          Lemon rass oil is obtained from their leaves & is used for makin scented materials.

                     Vetiveria zizanoides     =          Khus

                       Oil obtained from their root which is used in perfumery.

        +      Fibre Yieldin Plants :-

                     Erianthus arundinaceus = Sarkanda is used in makin ropes.

                     E. munja = Moonj – Fibres obtained from stem is used for makin ropes, mats and baskets etc.

        +    Timber Yieldin Plants :-

                     Bambusa balcooa = Bamboo

                     Dendrocalamus ianteus.

      +      Other uses :-

                     Hordeum vulare is used for makin beer.

                     Thysanolaena mexima – It is used from makin brooms

                     Zea mays is used in alcohol industry.

                Vetiveria zizanoides(Khus) – It is used for preparation of on alcoholic drinks. Its root are also used in perfumery.

                     Arundinaria falcata (Bansi) : Used for makin fishin rod

      +      Special character -

               Stem Pentanular, branched, usually fistular, with bicollateral vascular bundle. They are arraned in two circles

               Inflorescence-Solitary axillary, most of the plants of this family are monoecious.

               Flowers are ebracteate, pedicellate, incomplete, unisexual, Actinomorphic symmetry, pentamerous and epiynous.

               5 Sepals, amosepalous, valvate aestivation.

               Petals 5, amopetalous, valvate or imbricate aestivation.

               Tricarpellary, syncarpous, inferior ovary, unilocular, parietal placentation but it looks like axile placentation due to swellin of placenta, style one.

               5 Stamens, usually cohesion in three roups (2) + (2) + 1. It means four stamens present in two pairs and fifth one is free, synandrous condition,

               Fruit is pepo

               The bitter taste of the fruit is due to presence of tetracyclic triterpenes.

      

+    Economic importance :

      +    Veetables and Fruits

                     Cucurbita pepo or Cucurbita maxima =    Kadoo      

                     Laenaria vularis                         =          Lauki        

                     Luffa acutanula                            =          Ride ourd                      

                     Cucumis melo                                 =          Muskmelon (Kharbooza)

                     Luffa cylindrica                              =          hia tore              

                     Cucumis melo var. utilissimus       =          Kakari                 

                     Citrullus vularis                            =          Tarbooj (water melon)      

                    Cucumis sativas                              =          Kheera                  

                     Momordica charantia                     =          Karela                   

                     Citrullus vularis var. fistulosus     =          Tinda                    

                     Benincasa  hispida                          =          Ash ourd or White ourd          

                     Trichosanthes dioeca                      =          Parval (pointed ourd)      

                    Coccinia cordifolia                         =          Kundru (lvyourd)

      +    Medicinal plants :

                Ecballium eleterium = Eleterium medicine is obtained, which is very useful in malaria and hydrophobia.

                     Bryonia rostrataIt is used in asthama and piles

                     Coccinia indicaextract of root leaf and fruit are used in treatment of diabetes

      +    Other uses :

                     Careya arborea :- Used in bidi

      +      eneral floral character :-

                Inflorescence – Inflorescence cymose. Usually dichasial cyme

                Flower-Bracteate or ebracteate, usually bracteolate, complete, tetramerous or pentamerous, bisexual, actinomorphic, epiynous

                Calyx – Sepals four or five, usually amosepalous sometimes polysepalous valvate aestivation

                Corolla – Petals four or five, amopetalous valvate or imbricate or twisted aestivation

                Androecium-Stamens four or five, epipetalous, anther dithecous, basifixed, introse and dehiscence lonitudinally, polyandrous

                ynoecium – Usually bicarpellary sometimes bicarpellary to polycarpellary syncarpous, epiynous, ovary inferior, placentation axile

                Fruit – Capsule or berry or drupe

     

+     Economic importance -

      +    Ornamental plants

                Ixora coccinea

                Mussaenda frondosa

        +    Wood  -

                Anthocephalus kadamba

                Mitrayna parviflora

        +    Coffee  -

                Coffea arabica (Arabian coffee)

                Coffea liberica (Liberian coffee)

                Coffea robusta (Cono coffee)

        +    Dye  -

                Rubia tinctoria – Red dye is obtained from its roots

        +    Medicinal plants  -

                Cinchona officinalisQuinine is obtained

                Mussaenda labrata – Bedina - It is used in fever and asthma.

        +    Food plant -

                Anthocephalus indicus / Anthocephalus kadamba – Fruit is edible  

Special points

        +    Fabaceae is the alternative name of the Papilionaceae.

        +    Compositae = Asteraceae is the larest family of aniosperms.

        +    Desmodium latifolium the member of papilionateae family which is halophyte.

        +    J.C. Bose conducted experiment of plant movement on Desmodium yrans.

        +    Pollen rains in Mimosoidae are usually present in the form of packets.

        +    Soyabean contains more protein than meat.

        +    Aloin alkaloides are obtained from Aloe plant of Liliaceae.

        +    Smilax is a monocot, havin, reticulate venation.

        +    The flowers enter into the soil after fertilization in round nut (eocarpic fruit).

        +    Pulses are rich source of proteins.

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