Fashion design and merchandising, Home Science, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev

Class 12 : Fashion design and merchandising, Home Science, Class 12 Class 12 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


€?
Learning Objectives
After completing this section the learner will be able to:
 l explain the significance of fashion design and merchandising in 
garment industry
 l describe the fundamentals of fashion 
 l explain the knowledge and skills required to be in fashion business 
 l discuss how a student can prepare for a career in fashion industry
Introduction
Fashion design and merchandising are among the most exciting career 
options in today’s world. In a country like India, where textile industries 
have been thriving for ages, the recent boom in fashion designing has led 
to new prospects in the existing domain of garment and accessory design. 
The fashion industry satisfies both the creative urge and the materialistic 
needs of people. You hear the term Fashion merchandising many times. 
Did you ever think what goes into it? Let us understand merchandising 
from its origin. You can recall from your early history lessons that barter 
of products and crafts was the start of trading practices. Slowly trading 
moved to ‘what was available was saleable’, so there were no complications 
Fashion Design and 
Merchandising
Chapter
12
Chapters.indd   234 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Page 2


€?
Learning Objectives
After completing this section the learner will be able to:
 l explain the significance of fashion design and merchandising in 
garment industry
 l describe the fundamentals of fashion 
 l explain the knowledge and skills required to be in fashion business 
 l discuss how a student can prepare for a career in fashion industry
Introduction
Fashion design and merchandising are among the most exciting career 
options in today’s world. In a country like India, where textile industries 
have been thriving for ages, the recent boom in fashion designing has led 
to new prospects in the existing domain of garment and accessory design. 
The fashion industry satisfies both the creative urge and the materialistic 
needs of people. You hear the term Fashion merchandising many times. 
Did you ever think what goes into it? Let us understand merchandising 
from its origin. You can recall from your early history lessons that barter 
of products and crafts was the start of trading practices. Slowly trading 
moved to ‘what was available was saleable’, so there were no complications 
Fashion Design and 
Merchandising
Chapter
12
Chapters.indd   234 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
in distribution system. However, the year 1920 gave birth to ‘ready-to- wear’ 
and soon retailers realised that sale of such garments was big business. 
In a very short span of time, fashion apparel became the most important 
type of merchandise in department stores. As a result of the economic 
opportunities of fashion, a new specialisation came into being – Fashion 
merchandising. 
Significance 
Fashion design and merchandising will enable you to understand how 
the fashion business works. It includes all the processes involved with 
producing raw material, apparel and accessories, and the retail stores that 
sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is a part of the fashion business 
where you also learn about textiles (fabrics and the fibers used to make 
them). Fashion merchandising equips to 
first respond to what, why and when a 
style becomes a fashion, and then helps to 
determine its suitability for the particular 
retail operation and for what length of time. 
So simply put, it encompasses ‘planning, 
buying and selling’.
Basic concepts 
Fashion today is a big business employing millions of people in 
design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, 
communications, publishing and consulting. To understand fashion 
design, one needs to understand the nature of fashion and how it works. 
The fundamentals of fashion and the relationships between fashion and 
the factors that affect it are also essential concepts to be understood. 
FASHION TERMINOLOGY
Fashion is a complex subject and certain words and phrases are often 
used to discuss various aspects of fashion. These should be understood 
in order to understand the concepts of fashion industry. These include -
 l Fashion is the style or styles most popular at a given time.
 l Style is any particular look or characteristic in apparel or accessories. 
A style may come and go in fashion but the specific style always 
remains.
Did You Know?
Women did not start 
wearing jeans until the 
1950s.
Chapters.indd   235 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Page 3


€?
Learning Objectives
After completing this section the learner will be able to:
 l explain the significance of fashion design and merchandising in 
garment industry
 l describe the fundamentals of fashion 
 l explain the knowledge and skills required to be in fashion business 
 l discuss how a student can prepare for a career in fashion industry
Introduction
Fashion design and merchandising are among the most exciting career 
options in today’s world. In a country like India, where textile industries 
have been thriving for ages, the recent boom in fashion designing has led 
to new prospects in the existing domain of garment and accessory design. 
The fashion industry satisfies both the creative urge and the materialistic 
needs of people. You hear the term Fashion merchandising many times. 
Did you ever think what goes into it? Let us understand merchandising 
from its origin. You can recall from your early history lessons that barter 
of products and crafts was the start of trading practices. Slowly trading 
moved to ‘what was available was saleable’, so there were no complications 
Fashion Design and 
Merchandising
Chapter
12
Chapters.indd   234 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
in distribution system. However, the year 1920 gave birth to ‘ready-to- wear’ 
and soon retailers realised that sale of such garments was big business. 
In a very short span of time, fashion apparel became the most important 
type of merchandise in department stores. As a result of the economic 
opportunities of fashion, a new specialisation came into being – Fashion 
merchandising. 
Significance 
Fashion design and merchandising will enable you to understand how 
the fashion business works. It includes all the processes involved with 
producing raw material, apparel and accessories, and the retail stores that 
sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is a part of the fashion business 
where you also learn about textiles (fabrics and the fibers used to make 
them). Fashion merchandising equips to 
first respond to what, why and when a 
style becomes a fashion, and then helps to 
determine its suitability for the particular 
retail operation and for what length of time. 
So simply put, it encompasses ‘planning, 
buying and selling’.
Basic concepts 
Fashion today is a big business employing millions of people in 
design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, 
communications, publishing and consulting. To understand fashion 
design, one needs to understand the nature of fashion and how it works. 
The fundamentals of fashion and the relationships between fashion and 
the factors that affect it are also essential concepts to be understood. 
FASHION TERMINOLOGY
Fashion is a complex subject and certain words and phrases are often 
used to discuss various aspects of fashion. These should be understood 
in order to understand the concepts of fashion industry. These include -
 l Fashion is the style or styles most popular at a given time.
 l Style is any particular look or characteristic in apparel or accessories. 
A style may come and go in fashion but the specific style always 
remains.
Did You Know?
Women did not start 
wearing jeans until the 
1950s.
Chapters.indd   235 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
€?
Human Ecology and Family Sciences – Part 
 l Fads or short lived fashions, can come and go in a single season. 
They lack the design strength to hold consumer attention for long. 
For example, hot pants, baggy pants and unmatched buttons.
 l Classic or styles that never become completely obsolete, but instead 
remain more or less accepted for an extended period. Classic is 
characterised by simplicity of design, which keeps it from being easily 
dated. Examples of classics include blazer jackets, polo shirts, and 
Chanel suit. 
FASHION DEVELOPMENT
To understand the working of the fashion industry, one has to have 
knowledge of Fashion Fundamentals. First in the sequence is to know 
how the fashion business developed. Thus the history of fashion helps the 
designers to make decisions for the present day and future fashions. Ideas 
from the past are often reinterpreted for today’s fashion. 
Fashion, as we know it, is relatively new. In ancient and medieval 
times, styles remained practically unchanged for a century at a time. 
During Renaissance, Western civilisation discovered different cultures, 
customs and costumes leading to acceleration in fashion change. With the 
availability of new fabrics and ideas, people yearned for more new things.
FRANCE – THE CENTRE OF FASHION 
France’s dominance over international fashion began in early 18
th
 century.
Until Industrial Revolution, people belonged to two main classes: 
wealthy and poor. Only the wealthy could afford fashionable clothes. By 
the turn of 18
th
 century, King Louis XIV’s court members became the 
trendsetters of taste, making Paris the fashion capital of Europe. Many of 
the French cities were supplying the court with silk fabrics, ribbons and 
laces. At this time intricate seaming of fashion required painstaking hand 
sewing. All the clothes were hand made and custom made i.e. made to fit 
the customer’s exact measurements. 
France became the centre of fashion due to support from the royal 
court and the development of the silk industry there. Couture (koo-tour’) 
was the term used for the art of dress making. A male designer was a 
couturier and his female counterpart was a couturiere. 
The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of technological 
advances in textile and apparel production. Due to the developments more 
fabrics were produced in less time. During this time spinning jenny and 
power looms were invented. This gave rise to development of American textile 
Chapters.indd   236 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Page 4


€?
Learning Objectives
After completing this section the learner will be able to:
 l explain the significance of fashion design and merchandising in 
garment industry
 l describe the fundamentals of fashion 
 l explain the knowledge and skills required to be in fashion business 
 l discuss how a student can prepare for a career in fashion industry
Introduction
Fashion design and merchandising are among the most exciting career 
options in today’s world. In a country like India, where textile industries 
have been thriving for ages, the recent boom in fashion designing has led 
to new prospects in the existing domain of garment and accessory design. 
The fashion industry satisfies both the creative urge and the materialistic 
needs of people. You hear the term Fashion merchandising many times. 
Did you ever think what goes into it? Let us understand merchandising 
from its origin. You can recall from your early history lessons that barter 
of products and crafts was the start of trading practices. Slowly trading 
moved to ‘what was available was saleable’, so there were no complications 
Fashion Design and 
Merchandising
Chapter
12
Chapters.indd   234 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
in distribution system. However, the year 1920 gave birth to ‘ready-to- wear’ 
and soon retailers realised that sale of such garments was big business. 
In a very short span of time, fashion apparel became the most important 
type of merchandise in department stores. As a result of the economic 
opportunities of fashion, a new specialisation came into being – Fashion 
merchandising. 
Significance 
Fashion design and merchandising will enable you to understand how 
the fashion business works. It includes all the processes involved with 
producing raw material, apparel and accessories, and the retail stores that 
sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is a part of the fashion business 
where you also learn about textiles (fabrics and the fibers used to make 
them). Fashion merchandising equips to 
first respond to what, why and when a 
style becomes a fashion, and then helps to 
determine its suitability for the particular 
retail operation and for what length of time. 
So simply put, it encompasses ‘planning, 
buying and selling’.
Basic concepts 
Fashion today is a big business employing millions of people in 
design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, 
communications, publishing and consulting. To understand fashion 
design, one needs to understand the nature of fashion and how it works. 
The fundamentals of fashion and the relationships between fashion and 
the factors that affect it are also essential concepts to be understood. 
FASHION TERMINOLOGY
Fashion is a complex subject and certain words and phrases are often 
used to discuss various aspects of fashion. These should be understood 
in order to understand the concepts of fashion industry. These include -
 l Fashion is the style or styles most popular at a given time.
 l Style is any particular look or characteristic in apparel or accessories. 
A style may come and go in fashion but the specific style always 
remains.
Did You Know?
Women did not start 
wearing jeans until the 
1950s.
Chapters.indd   235 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
€?
Human Ecology and Family Sciences – Part 
 l Fads or short lived fashions, can come and go in a single season. 
They lack the design strength to hold consumer attention for long. 
For example, hot pants, baggy pants and unmatched buttons.
 l Classic or styles that never become completely obsolete, but instead 
remain more or less accepted for an extended period. Classic is 
characterised by simplicity of design, which keeps it from being easily 
dated. Examples of classics include blazer jackets, polo shirts, and 
Chanel suit. 
FASHION DEVELOPMENT
To understand the working of the fashion industry, one has to have 
knowledge of Fashion Fundamentals. First in the sequence is to know 
how the fashion business developed. Thus the history of fashion helps the 
designers to make decisions for the present day and future fashions. Ideas 
from the past are often reinterpreted for today’s fashion. 
Fashion, as we know it, is relatively new. In ancient and medieval 
times, styles remained practically unchanged for a century at a time. 
During Renaissance, Western civilisation discovered different cultures, 
customs and costumes leading to acceleration in fashion change. With the 
availability of new fabrics and ideas, people yearned for more new things.
FRANCE – THE CENTRE OF FASHION 
France’s dominance over international fashion began in early 18
th
 century.
Until Industrial Revolution, people belonged to two main classes: 
wealthy and poor. Only the wealthy could afford fashionable clothes. By 
the turn of 18
th
 century, King Louis XIV’s court members became the 
trendsetters of taste, making Paris the fashion capital of Europe. Many of 
the French cities were supplying the court with silk fabrics, ribbons and 
laces. At this time intricate seaming of fashion required painstaking hand 
sewing. All the clothes were hand made and custom made i.e. made to fit 
the customer’s exact measurements. 
France became the centre of fashion due to support from the royal 
court and the development of the silk industry there. Couture (koo-tour’) 
was the term used for the art of dress making. A male designer was a 
couturier and his female counterpart was a couturiere. 
The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of technological 
advances in textile and apparel production. Due to the developments more 
fabrics were produced in less time. During this time spinning jenny and 
power looms were invented. This gave rise to development of American textile 
Chapters.indd   236 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
industry. Rapidly increasing trade and industry in return created a middle 
class with money to spend on the luxuries of life, including better clothing.
The invention of sewing machine turned the handcraft into an industry. 
This democratised fashion and made it accessible for everyone. In 1859, 
Issac Singer developed the foot treadle for the sewing machine which left 
the hands free to guide the fabric. An early use for sewing machines was 
to make Civil War uniforms.
In 1849, fabric intended for tents and wagon covers was used to make 
long wearing pants with pockets for tools by a young boy Levi Strauss. Later 
these became popular and were called denims. This was the beginning of 
clothes specially made for labourers. This is the only apparel that has 
remained same for the last nearly 150 years!
Women started wearing separate skirts and blouses in 1880s. This was 
a step towards manufacture of ready-to-wear clothes for women. Lengths 
and waistlines could be easily adjusted and this made it possible for the 
working class to add variety to their wardrobe simply by mixing separates.
By 19
th
 century affordable fashions were made available to the general 
public through fairs and bazaars. The travelling merchants brought clothes 
to these markets, and both buyers and sellers usually bargained. As large 
number of people settled in towns, general stores were established to cater 
to their demands. With the growing demand for a variety of goods, retail 
stores grew in cities.
FASHION EVOLUTION
Fashion cycle – The way in which fashion changes is usually described as 
a fashion cycle or a period of time or life span during which the fashion 
exists, moving through five stages from introduction through obsolescence. 
 l Introduction of a Style – Designers interpret their research and 
creative ideas into apparel and then offer the new styles to the public. 
Designs are created by changing elements such as line, colour, shape, 
fabric and details, and their relationship to one another.
 l Increase in Popularity – As the new fashion is purchased, worn and 
seen by many people, it may begin to rise in popularity.
 l Peak of Popularity - When a fashion is at the height of its popularity, it 
may be in such demand that many manufacturers copy it or produce 
adaptations of it at different price levels.
 l Decline in Popularity – Eventually so many copies are mass produced 
that fashion–conscious people tire of the style and begin to look for 
something new. These declining styles are put on sale racks in the 
retail stores.
Chapters.indd   237 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Page 5


€?
Learning Objectives
After completing this section the learner will be able to:
 l explain the significance of fashion design and merchandising in 
garment industry
 l describe the fundamentals of fashion 
 l explain the knowledge and skills required to be in fashion business 
 l discuss how a student can prepare for a career in fashion industry
Introduction
Fashion design and merchandising are among the most exciting career 
options in today’s world. In a country like India, where textile industries 
have been thriving for ages, the recent boom in fashion designing has led 
to new prospects in the existing domain of garment and accessory design. 
The fashion industry satisfies both the creative urge and the materialistic 
needs of people. You hear the term Fashion merchandising many times. 
Did you ever think what goes into it? Let us understand merchandising 
from its origin. You can recall from your early history lessons that barter 
of products and crafts was the start of trading practices. Slowly trading 
moved to ‘what was available was saleable’, so there were no complications 
Fashion Design and 
Merchandising
Chapter
12
Chapters.indd   234 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
in distribution system. However, the year 1920 gave birth to ‘ready-to- wear’ 
and soon retailers realised that sale of such garments was big business. 
In a very short span of time, fashion apparel became the most important 
type of merchandise in department stores. As a result of the economic 
opportunities of fashion, a new specialisation came into being – Fashion 
merchandising. 
Significance 
Fashion design and merchandising will enable you to understand how 
the fashion business works. It includes all the processes involved with 
producing raw material, apparel and accessories, and the retail stores that 
sell fashion merchandise to the public. It is a part of the fashion business 
where you also learn about textiles (fabrics and the fibers used to make 
them). Fashion merchandising equips to 
first respond to what, why and when a 
style becomes a fashion, and then helps to 
determine its suitability for the particular 
retail operation and for what length of time. 
So simply put, it encompasses ‘planning, 
buying and selling’.
Basic concepts 
Fashion today is a big business employing millions of people in 
design, manufacturing, distribution, marketing, retailing, advertising, 
communications, publishing and consulting. To understand fashion 
design, one needs to understand the nature of fashion and how it works. 
The fundamentals of fashion and the relationships between fashion and 
the factors that affect it are also essential concepts to be understood. 
FASHION TERMINOLOGY
Fashion is a complex subject and certain words and phrases are often 
used to discuss various aspects of fashion. These should be understood 
in order to understand the concepts of fashion industry. These include -
 l Fashion is the style or styles most popular at a given time.
 l Style is any particular look or characteristic in apparel or accessories. 
A style may come and go in fashion but the specific style always 
remains.
Did You Know?
Women did not start 
wearing jeans until the 
1950s.
Chapters.indd   235 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
€?
Human Ecology and Family Sciences – Part 
 l Fads or short lived fashions, can come and go in a single season. 
They lack the design strength to hold consumer attention for long. 
For example, hot pants, baggy pants and unmatched buttons.
 l Classic or styles that never become completely obsolete, but instead 
remain more or less accepted for an extended period. Classic is 
characterised by simplicity of design, which keeps it from being easily 
dated. Examples of classics include blazer jackets, polo shirts, and 
Chanel suit. 
FASHION DEVELOPMENT
To understand the working of the fashion industry, one has to have 
knowledge of Fashion Fundamentals. First in the sequence is to know 
how the fashion business developed. Thus the history of fashion helps the 
designers to make decisions for the present day and future fashions. Ideas 
from the past are often reinterpreted for today’s fashion. 
Fashion, as we know it, is relatively new. In ancient and medieval 
times, styles remained practically unchanged for a century at a time. 
During Renaissance, Western civilisation discovered different cultures, 
customs and costumes leading to acceleration in fashion change. With the 
availability of new fabrics and ideas, people yearned for more new things.
FRANCE – THE CENTRE OF FASHION 
France’s dominance over international fashion began in early 18
th
 century.
Until Industrial Revolution, people belonged to two main classes: 
wealthy and poor. Only the wealthy could afford fashionable clothes. By 
the turn of 18
th
 century, King Louis XIV’s court members became the 
trendsetters of taste, making Paris the fashion capital of Europe. Many of 
the French cities were supplying the court with silk fabrics, ribbons and 
laces. At this time intricate seaming of fashion required painstaking hand 
sewing. All the clothes were hand made and custom made i.e. made to fit 
the customer’s exact measurements. 
France became the centre of fashion due to support from the royal 
court and the development of the silk industry there. Couture (koo-tour’) 
was the term used for the art of dress making. A male designer was a 
couturier and his female counterpart was a couturiere. 
The Industrial Revolution marked the beginning of technological 
advances in textile and apparel production. Due to the developments more 
fabrics were produced in less time. During this time spinning jenny and 
power looms were invented. This gave rise to development of American textile 
Chapters.indd   236 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
Unit IV - Fabric And Apparel
!"#
industry. Rapidly increasing trade and industry in return created a middle 
class with money to spend on the luxuries of life, including better clothing.
The invention of sewing machine turned the handcraft into an industry. 
This democratised fashion and made it accessible for everyone. In 1859, 
Issac Singer developed the foot treadle for the sewing machine which left 
the hands free to guide the fabric. An early use for sewing machines was 
to make Civil War uniforms.
In 1849, fabric intended for tents and wagon covers was used to make 
long wearing pants with pockets for tools by a young boy Levi Strauss. Later 
these became popular and were called denims. This was the beginning of 
clothes specially made for labourers. This is the only apparel that has 
remained same for the last nearly 150 years!
Women started wearing separate skirts and blouses in 1880s. This was 
a step towards manufacture of ready-to-wear clothes for women. Lengths 
and waistlines could be easily adjusted and this made it possible for the 
working class to add variety to their wardrobe simply by mixing separates.
By 19
th
 century affordable fashions were made available to the general 
public through fairs and bazaars. The travelling merchants brought clothes 
to these markets, and both buyers and sellers usually bargained. As large 
number of people settled in towns, general stores were established to cater 
to their demands. With the growing demand for a variety of goods, retail 
stores grew in cities.
FASHION EVOLUTION
Fashion cycle – The way in which fashion changes is usually described as 
a fashion cycle or a period of time or life span during which the fashion 
exists, moving through five stages from introduction through obsolescence. 
 l Introduction of a Style – Designers interpret their research and 
creative ideas into apparel and then offer the new styles to the public. 
Designs are created by changing elements such as line, colour, shape, 
fabric and details, and their relationship to one another.
 l Increase in Popularity – As the new fashion is purchased, worn and 
seen by many people, it may begin to rise in popularity.
 l Peak of Popularity - When a fashion is at the height of its popularity, it 
may be in such demand that many manufacturers copy it or produce 
adaptations of it at different price levels.
 l Decline in Popularity – Eventually so many copies are mass produced 
that fashion–conscious people tire of the style and begin to look for 
something new. These declining styles are put on sale racks in the 
retail stores.
Chapters.indd   237 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
€?
Human Ecology and Family Sciences – Part 
 l Rejection of a Style or Obsolescence – In the last phase of the fashion 
cycle, some consumers have already turned to new looks, thus 
beginning a new cycle. 
FASHION MERCHANDISING
Fashion merchandising refers to the planning required to have the right 
merchandise, at the right time, at the right place, at the right price and 
with the right sales promotion.  If all these conditions are planned, one can 
achieve maximum profits. 
Fashion Merchandiser is a person who facilitates conversion of 
inspiration into design, uses technology to conceptualise and 
address the planning, production, promotion and distribution of 
products in the fashion industry, to meet the needs and demands 
of a consumer.
To understand fashion merchandising well, it is important to examine 
the role that fashion merchandising plays in manufacturing, buying, 
promoting and selling fashion items. Let us examine the role of the fashion 
merchandiser in each of these aspects.
In manufacturing, a fashion merchandiser makes significant input 
on the types of fabrics used to make a piece of clothing. Having a strong 
historical and socio-cultural understanding of the fabrics helps change a 
designer’s vision into reality. By applying the knowledge about fabric and 
clothing construction, a fashion merchandiser takes a designer’s piece 
and finds the best way to manufacture the item, at the same time taking 
things like price and target market into consideration. 
Buying becomes part of fashion merchandising when a merchandiser 
buys fashion items to be presented in a store. A fashion merchandiser 
must be aware of the target market for the fashion item and also be very 
well-versed in fashion trend analysis and forecasting. This allows for more 
accurate ordering. A fashion merchandiser working with a designer will 
once again offer expertise to the designer on textiles and fabrics.
In the event that a fashion merchandiser is working for the designer, 
promoting the designer’s product to stores that may want to buy large 
quantities is a number one priority role. Not only is the fashion merchandiser 
required to have a creative mind and strong visual merchandising skills, 
Chapters.indd   238 13-04-2016   3:41:06 PM
 
 
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