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**Question 1. Two identical pipes (i.e., having the same length, same diameter, and same roughness) are used to withdraw water from a reservoir. In the first case, they are attached in series and discharge freely into the atmosphere. In the second case, they are attached in parallel and also discharge freely into the atmosphere. Neglecting all minor losses, and assuming that the friction factor is same in both the cases, the ratio of the discharge in the parallel arrangement to that in the series arrangement (round off to 2 decimal places) is _______ [2019 : 2 Marks, Set-II]Solution: **Given: Two identical pipes of same length (L), diameter (D) and roughness (k

1st case (Series)

Assume height of reservoir = H

By eq. (i) and (ii)

=2.83 (round off to 2 decimal place)

The inlet leg length of the siphon to its summit is 2000 m. The difference in the water surface levels of the two reservoirs is 5 m. Assume the permissible minimum absolute pressure at the summit of siphon to be 2.5 m of water when running full. Given: friction factor, f = 0.02 throughout, atmospheric pressure — 10.3 m of water and acceleration due to gravity g = 9.81 m/s

Solution:

Consider only major losses

Apply energy equation between (1) and (2)

Apply energy equation between (1) and (S)

10.3 = 2.505 + H + 2

H = 5.795

H = 5.8 m (upto 1 decimal place)

Solution:

Head loss due to frictions,

The head loss in each pipe is given by h

Solution:

Because of the given condition of equal discharge distribution in pipe AB & AC, the discharge in AB and AC will be 50 and 50. Now satisfy continuity at point Band C, discharge from C to B will be 20.

For close Loop ABCA,

Solution:

Solution:

Given:

f = 0.03, L = 930 m, D = 0.3 m , g = 10m/s2

Apply energy equation between A and B,

(a) from higher to lower elevation

(b) from higher to lower pressure

(c) from higher to lower velocity

(d) from higher to lower piezometric head

Answer:

Solution:

Solution:

Solution:

(a) 0.63

(b) 0.35

(c) 2.52

(d) 1.25

Answer:

Solution:

(a) 3

(b) 4

(c) 5

(d) 6

Answer:

Solution:

=> 16 = 4 V

=> V

(a) 37.5 cm

(b) 40.0 cm

(c) 45.0 cm

(d) 50.0 cm

Answer:

Solution:

For single pipe,

In case of double pipe discharge is increased by 25% than that of previous case hence,

From eq. (i) and (ii), we get,

d = 49.7 cm = 50 cm

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