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# Forward Biasing Experiment - Notes | Study Physics Class 12 - NEET

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Forward biased p-n junction diode

The process by which, a p-n junction diode allows the electric current in the presence of applied voltage is called forward biased p-n junction diode.

In forward biased p-n junction diode, the positive terminal of the battery is connected to the p-type semiconductor material and the negative terminal of the battery is connected to the n-type semiconductor material.

## Electron and hole current

• ### Electron currentIf the p-n junction diode is forward biased with approximately 0.7 volts for silicon diode or 0.3 volts for germanium diode, the p-n junction diode starts allowing the electric current. Under this condition, the negative terminal of the battery supplies large number of free electrons to the n-type semiconductor and attracts or accepts large number of holes from the p-type semiconductor. In other words, the large number of free electrons begins their journey at the negative terminal whereas the large number of holes finishes their journey at the negative terminal.

The free electrons, which begin their journey from the negative terminal, produce a large negative electric field. The direction of this negative electric field is apposite to the direction of positive electric field of depletion region (positive ions) near the p-n junction.

Due to the large number of free electrons at n-type semiconductor, they get repelled from each other and try to move from higher concentration region (n-type semiconductor) to a lower concentration region (p-type semiconductor). However, before crossing the depletion region, free electrons finds the positive ions and fills the holes. The free electrons, which fills the holes in positive ions becomes valence electrons. Thus, the free electrons are disappeared.

The positive ions, which gain the electrons, become neutral atoms. Thus, the depletion region (positive electric field) at n-type semiconductor near the p-n junction decreases until it disappears.

The remaining free electrons will cross the depletion region and then enters into the p-semiconductor. The free electrons, which cross the depletion region finds the large number of holes or vacancies in the p-type semiconductor and fills them with electrons. The free electrons which occupy the holes or vacancies will becomes valence electrons and then these electrons get attracted towards the positive terminal of battery or terminates at the positive terminal of battery. Thus, the negative charge carriers (free electrons) that are crossing the depletion region carry the electric current from one point to another point in the p-n junction diode.

• ### Hole current

• The positive terminal of the battery supplies large number of holes to the p-type semiconductor and attracts or accepts large number of free electrons from the n-type semiconductor. In other words, the large number of holes begins their journey at the positive terminal whereas the large number of free electrons finishes their journey at the positive terminal.

The holes, which begin their journey from the positive terminal, produce a large positive electric field at p-type semiconductor. The direction this positive electric field is opposite to the direction of negative electric field of depletion region (negative ions) near the p-n junction.

Due to the large number of positive charge carriers (holes) at p-type semiconductor, they get repelled from each other and try to move from higher concentration region (p-type semiconductor) to a lower concentration region (n-type semiconductor). However, before crossing the depletion region, some of the holes finds the negative ions and replaces the electrons position with holes. Thus, the holes are disappeared.

The negative ions, which lose the electrons, become neutral atoms. Thus, the depletion region or negative ions (negative electric field) at p-type semiconductor near the p-n junction decreases until it disappears.

The remaining holes will cross the depletion region and attracted to the negative terminal of battery or terminate at the negative terminal of battery. Thus, the positive charge carriers (holes) that are crossing the depletion region carry the electric current from one point to another point in the p-n junction diode.

## Types of Diodes

The various types of diodes are as follows:

1. Zener diode
2. Avalanche diode
3. Photodiode
4. Light Emitting Diode
5. Laser diode
6. Tunnel diode
7. Schottky diode
8. Varactor diode
9. P-N junction diode
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## Physics Class 12

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