Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes | EduRev

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Class 10 : Forest and Wildlife Resources Class 10 Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 
 
Remember These Points 
? Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area 
is called biodiversity. 
? Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. 
? Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. 
? IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of 
Nature. 
? Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological 
diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are 
protected for future generation. Example – Nandadevi 
Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. 
 
Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India 
 
? India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of 
plants and animals found in our country. 
? India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in 
the world. 
? About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species 
of flora [plants] are found in India. 
? India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, 
snakes, peacock etc. 
 
Biodiversity and Its Importance 
 
Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, 
birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are 
good natural resources. They are important because: 
a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. 
b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. 
Page 2


CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 
 
Remember These Points 
? Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area 
is called biodiversity. 
? Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. 
? Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. 
? IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of 
Nature. 
? Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological 
diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are 
protected for future generation. Example – Nandadevi 
Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. 
 
Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India 
 
? India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of 
plants and animals found in our country. 
? India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in 
the world. 
? About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species 
of flora [plants] are found in India. 
? India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, 
snakes, peacock etc. 
 
Biodiversity and Its Importance 
 
Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, 
birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are 
good natural resources. They are important because: 
a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. 
b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. 
c) Some plants are of medicinal use e.g. tulsi, neem, 
sarpgandha, aawla etc. 
d) Leaves, roots, fruits, lac, rasin etc are collected from forest. 
e) Animals provides us meat, fur, skin, bone etc. 
f) Combine, plants and animals maintain food chain in the 
ecosystem. 
 
Importance of Forest in Our Lives 
a) Forest provides timber for furniture and construction work. 
b) It absorbs CO
2 
and provides us with oxygen. 
c) Branches, leaves and roots of trees protect soil from erosion. 
d) Forests are natural habitat for variety of wildlife. 
e) Forest maintains ecological balance and food chain. 
f) It provides fuel wood to rural people. 
g) Lac, honey, herbs etc are collected from forest for 
commercial use. 
 
Classification of Species by IUCN 
 
Many species of plants and animals are under threat due to over 
exploitation by the human being. International Union for 
Conservation of Nature [IUCN] has classified the species into 
following category: 
a) Normal Species: There is no threat to these species, their 
population is sufficient in the environment. 
b) Rare Species: Species with small population is called rare. 
They are rarely seen in the forest. Example – Himalayan 
brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox etc. 
c) Vulnerable Species: Population of these species decreases to 
such an extent that they may become endangered. Example 
– blue sheep, Asiatic elephant etc. 
d) Endangered Species: Population of these species become so 
small that they come under danger of extinction. If negative 
Page 3


CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 
 
Remember These Points 
? Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area 
is called biodiversity. 
? Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. 
? Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. 
? IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of 
Nature. 
? Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological 
diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are 
protected for future generation. Example – Nandadevi 
Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. 
 
Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India 
 
? India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of 
plants and animals found in our country. 
? India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in 
the world. 
? About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species 
of flora [plants] are found in India. 
? India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, 
snakes, peacock etc. 
 
Biodiversity and Its Importance 
 
Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, 
birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are 
good natural resources. They are important because: 
a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. 
b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. 
c) Some plants are of medicinal use e.g. tulsi, neem, 
sarpgandha, aawla etc. 
d) Leaves, roots, fruits, lac, rasin etc are collected from forest. 
e) Animals provides us meat, fur, skin, bone etc. 
f) Combine, plants and animals maintain food chain in the 
ecosystem. 
 
Importance of Forest in Our Lives 
a) Forest provides timber for furniture and construction work. 
b) It absorbs CO
2 
and provides us with oxygen. 
c) Branches, leaves and roots of trees protect soil from erosion. 
d) Forests are natural habitat for variety of wildlife. 
e) Forest maintains ecological balance and food chain. 
f) It provides fuel wood to rural people. 
g) Lac, honey, herbs etc are collected from forest for 
commercial use. 
 
Classification of Species by IUCN 
 
Many species of plants and animals are under threat due to over 
exploitation by the human being. International Union for 
Conservation of Nature [IUCN] has classified the species into 
following category: 
a) Normal Species: There is no threat to these species, their 
population is sufficient in the environment. 
b) Rare Species: Species with small population is called rare. 
They are rarely seen in the forest. Example – Himalayan 
brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox etc. 
c) Vulnerable Species: Population of these species decreases to 
such an extent that they may become endangered. Example 
– blue sheep, Asiatic elephant etc. 
d) Endangered Species: Population of these species become so 
small that they come under danger of extinction. If negative 
factors continue, they may become extinction. Example – 
Indian rhino, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass etc. 
e) Extinct Species: These species are not found anywhere in 
the world. They have gone from our earth for forever. 
Example – Asiatic Cheetah, pink head duck etc. 
 
Reasons for Depletion of Biodiversity [Flora and Fauna] 
Human activities are mainly responsible for depletion of 
biodiversity. Followings are the reasons or causes behind loss of 
flora and fauna. 
a) Deforestation, illegal cutting of trees, and forest fire 
b) Hunting and poaching of wild animals for skin, tusk, bone 
etc. 
c) Construction of dam, road, railways in the forest 
d) Pollution and global warming leading to climatic change 
e) Increasing human population pressure on the forest 
resources 
 
Methods or Measures to Conserve Biodiversity 
 
a) Deforestation should be totally stopped. Instead, trees 
should be planted on degraded land and on land where was 
forest earlier. 
b) People should start movement against tree cutting such as 
‘Chipko Movement’. 
c) ‘Vanmahotsava’ and similar kind of events should be 
celebrated to conserve forest. 
d) Mass media, e.g. TV, radio, newspapers etc, should used for 
creating awareness. 
e) Govt. should pass and implement [Indian Wildlife 
[Protection] Act – 1972] strict laws against illegal cutting of 
trees, hunting and poaching. 
Page 4


CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 
 
Remember These Points 
? Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area 
is called biodiversity. 
? Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. 
? Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. 
? IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of 
Nature. 
? Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological 
diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are 
protected for future generation. Example – Nandadevi 
Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. 
 
Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India 
 
? India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of 
plants and animals found in our country. 
? India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in 
the world. 
? About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species 
of flora [plants] are found in India. 
? India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, 
snakes, peacock etc. 
 
Biodiversity and Its Importance 
 
Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, 
birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are 
good natural resources. They are important because: 
a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. 
b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. 
c) Some plants are of medicinal use e.g. tulsi, neem, 
sarpgandha, aawla etc. 
d) Leaves, roots, fruits, lac, rasin etc are collected from forest. 
e) Animals provides us meat, fur, skin, bone etc. 
f) Combine, plants and animals maintain food chain in the 
ecosystem. 
 
Importance of Forest in Our Lives 
a) Forest provides timber for furniture and construction work. 
b) It absorbs CO
2 
and provides us with oxygen. 
c) Branches, leaves and roots of trees protect soil from erosion. 
d) Forests are natural habitat for variety of wildlife. 
e) Forest maintains ecological balance and food chain. 
f) It provides fuel wood to rural people. 
g) Lac, honey, herbs etc are collected from forest for 
commercial use. 
 
Classification of Species by IUCN 
 
Many species of plants and animals are under threat due to over 
exploitation by the human being. International Union for 
Conservation of Nature [IUCN] has classified the species into 
following category: 
a) Normal Species: There is no threat to these species, their 
population is sufficient in the environment. 
b) Rare Species: Species with small population is called rare. 
They are rarely seen in the forest. Example – Himalayan 
brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox etc. 
c) Vulnerable Species: Population of these species decreases to 
such an extent that they may become endangered. Example 
– blue sheep, Asiatic elephant etc. 
d) Endangered Species: Population of these species become so 
small that they come under danger of extinction. If negative 
factors continue, they may become extinction. Example – 
Indian rhino, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass etc. 
e) Extinct Species: These species are not found anywhere in 
the world. They have gone from our earth for forever. 
Example – Asiatic Cheetah, pink head duck etc. 
 
Reasons for Depletion of Biodiversity [Flora and Fauna] 
Human activities are mainly responsible for depletion of 
biodiversity. Followings are the reasons or causes behind loss of 
flora and fauna. 
a) Deforestation, illegal cutting of trees, and forest fire 
b) Hunting and poaching of wild animals for skin, tusk, bone 
etc. 
c) Construction of dam, road, railways in the forest 
d) Pollution and global warming leading to climatic change 
e) Increasing human population pressure on the forest 
resources 
 
Methods or Measures to Conserve Biodiversity 
 
a) Deforestation should be totally stopped. Instead, trees 
should be planted on degraded land and on land where was 
forest earlier. 
b) People should start movement against tree cutting such as 
‘Chipko Movement’. 
c) ‘Vanmahotsava’ and similar kind of events should be 
celebrated to conserve forest. 
d) Mass media, e.g. TV, radio, newspapers etc, should used for 
creating awareness. 
e) Govt. should pass and implement [Indian Wildlife 
[Protection] Act – 1972] strict laws against illegal cutting of 
trees, hunting and poaching. 
f) Various project like Project Tiger; Project Rhine etc should 
be started. 
g) More National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserve 
should be identified. 
h) There should be frequent survey and census to count 
population of different species found in the forest. 
 
Role of Community [local people] in Conserving Forest 
and Wildlife 
 
Community or local people are very helpful in conserving 
biodiversity i.e. plants and animals. Many communities live in the 
forest. Forest is home of many traditional people. 
a) In Rajasthan, local people came forward to stop mining 
activities to protect Sariska Tiger Reserve. 
b) People of Alwar District of Rajasthan have declared 1200 
hectares of land as ‘Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri’ in which they 
don’t allow hunting. 
c) In Jharkhand, Munda tribe worship Mahua and Kadamb 
trees and they protect them from cutting. 
d) Famous Chipko Movement in Himalaya was started by local 
community only. Beej Bachao Andolan and Navdanya 
movements have also been started in Himalaya. 
e) Joint Forest Management [JFM] stated in India is good 
method of involving local community in forest conservation. 
 
Types of Forests in India 
 
a) Reserved Forests: These forests are earmarked only for 
production of timber. Grazing of animals and cultivation of 
crops are not allowed in these forests. About 54% forests 
are grouped under reserved forests. 
Page 5


CHAPTER 2: FOREST AND WILDLIFE RESOURCES 
 
Remember These Points 
? Biodiversity: Variety of plants and animals found in an area 
is called biodiversity. 
? Flora: It refers to grasses, plants, trees etc of an area. 
? Fauna: It means birds, animals, reptiles, insects of an area. 
? IUCN: It full name is International Union for Conservation of 
Nature. 
? Biosphere Reserve: It is vast area having great biological 
diversity. In these areas, natural plants and animals are 
protected for future generation. Example – Nandadevi 
Biosphere Reserve in Uttranchal. 
 
Biodiversity [Flora & Fauna] in India 
 
? India is very rich in biological diversity. There are variety of 
plants and animals found in our country. 
? India has nearly 8% of the total number of species found in 
the world. 
? About 81,000 species of fauna [animals] and 47,000 species 
of flora [plants] are found in India. 
? India is famous for rhino, elephant, tiger, lion, monkey, 
snakes, peacock etc. 
 
Biodiversity and Its Importance 
 
Meaning of Biodiversity: Various species of plants, trees, animals, 
birds, reptiles etc. found in an area is called biodiversity. They are 
good natural resources. They are important because: 
a) Plants and trees give us oxygen. 
b) Woods for furniture and construction are provided by forest. 
c) Some plants are of medicinal use e.g. tulsi, neem, 
sarpgandha, aawla etc. 
d) Leaves, roots, fruits, lac, rasin etc are collected from forest. 
e) Animals provides us meat, fur, skin, bone etc. 
f) Combine, plants and animals maintain food chain in the 
ecosystem. 
 
Importance of Forest in Our Lives 
a) Forest provides timber for furniture and construction work. 
b) It absorbs CO
2 
and provides us with oxygen. 
c) Branches, leaves and roots of trees protect soil from erosion. 
d) Forests are natural habitat for variety of wildlife. 
e) Forest maintains ecological balance and food chain. 
f) It provides fuel wood to rural people. 
g) Lac, honey, herbs etc are collected from forest for 
commercial use. 
 
Classification of Species by IUCN 
 
Many species of plants and animals are under threat due to over 
exploitation by the human being. International Union for 
Conservation of Nature [IUCN] has classified the species into 
following category: 
a) Normal Species: There is no threat to these species, their 
population is sufficient in the environment. 
b) Rare Species: Species with small population is called rare. 
They are rarely seen in the forest. Example – Himalayan 
brown bear, wild Asiatic buffalo, desert fox etc. 
c) Vulnerable Species: Population of these species decreases to 
such an extent that they may become endangered. Example 
– blue sheep, Asiatic elephant etc. 
d) Endangered Species: Population of these species become so 
small that they come under danger of extinction. If negative 
factors continue, they may become extinction. Example – 
Indian rhino, black buck, crocodile, Indian wild ass etc. 
e) Extinct Species: These species are not found anywhere in 
the world. They have gone from our earth for forever. 
Example – Asiatic Cheetah, pink head duck etc. 
 
Reasons for Depletion of Biodiversity [Flora and Fauna] 
Human activities are mainly responsible for depletion of 
biodiversity. Followings are the reasons or causes behind loss of 
flora and fauna. 
a) Deforestation, illegal cutting of trees, and forest fire 
b) Hunting and poaching of wild animals for skin, tusk, bone 
etc. 
c) Construction of dam, road, railways in the forest 
d) Pollution and global warming leading to climatic change 
e) Increasing human population pressure on the forest 
resources 
 
Methods or Measures to Conserve Biodiversity 
 
a) Deforestation should be totally stopped. Instead, trees 
should be planted on degraded land and on land where was 
forest earlier. 
b) People should start movement against tree cutting such as 
‘Chipko Movement’. 
c) ‘Vanmahotsava’ and similar kind of events should be 
celebrated to conserve forest. 
d) Mass media, e.g. TV, radio, newspapers etc, should used for 
creating awareness. 
e) Govt. should pass and implement [Indian Wildlife 
[Protection] Act – 1972] strict laws against illegal cutting of 
trees, hunting and poaching. 
f) Various project like Project Tiger; Project Rhine etc should 
be started. 
g) More National Parks, Wildlife Sanctuaries, Biosphere Reserve 
should be identified. 
h) There should be frequent survey and census to count 
population of different species found in the forest. 
 
Role of Community [local people] in Conserving Forest 
and Wildlife 
 
Community or local people are very helpful in conserving 
biodiversity i.e. plants and animals. Many communities live in the 
forest. Forest is home of many traditional people. 
a) In Rajasthan, local people came forward to stop mining 
activities to protect Sariska Tiger Reserve. 
b) People of Alwar District of Rajasthan have declared 1200 
hectares of land as ‘Bhairodev Dakav Sonchuri’ in which they 
don’t allow hunting. 
c) In Jharkhand, Munda tribe worship Mahua and Kadamb 
trees and they protect them from cutting. 
d) Famous Chipko Movement in Himalaya was started by local 
community only. Beej Bachao Andolan and Navdanya 
movements have also been started in Himalaya. 
e) Joint Forest Management [JFM] stated in India is good 
method of involving local community in forest conservation. 
 
Types of Forests in India 
 
a) Reserved Forests: These forests are earmarked only for 
production of timber. Grazing of animals and cultivation of 
crops are not allowed in these forests. About 54% forests 
are grouped under reserved forests. 
b) Protected Forests: These forests are protected from further 
depletion. Right of grazing and cultivation is allowed with 
certain restriction. About 29% forests come under protected 
forests. 
c) Unclassed Forests: There is no restriction in these forests. 
These forests belong to government and private individuals. 
About 16% forests are unclassed forests. 
 
Distribution of Forest in India 
 
? About 33% land must be under forest for ecological balance. 
But, only 23% land is under forest in India. Distribution of 
forest in India is not uniform. 
? Andman and Nicobar has about 87% [Highest] land under 
forest while in Haryana only 4% land is under forest which 
lowest in India. 
? Most of the north-eastern states like Manipur, Mizoram, 
Nagaland, Arunachal Pradesh etc. have more 60% land 
under forest. 
? But in Punjab, Haryana, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Delhi and J & K 
have less than 10% land under forest. 
? Southern states have moderately covered with forest. About 
20-30% land is under forest in these states. 
 
Short Note on Project Tiger 
 
Tiger is one of the most important species among fauna. It was 
estimated that population of tigers has decreased rapidly in the 
last one hundred years. Major reasons identified behind depletion 
of tiger were hunting and poaching, deforestation, depletion of 
prey etc. Project Tiger was started in 1973 to protect them from 
extinction. There are 27 tiger reserves in India. Project Tiger has 
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