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Formula Sheet: Applied Thermodynamics Notes | Study Formula Sheets of Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering

Mechanical Engineering: Formula Sheet: Applied Thermodynamics Notes | Study Formula Sheets of Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering

The document Formula Sheet: Applied Thermodynamics Notes | Study Formula Sheets of Mechanical Engineering - Mechanical Engineering is a part of the Mechanical Engineering Course Formula Sheets of Mechanical Engineering.
All you need of Mechanical Engineering at this link: Mechanical Engineering
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Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

I.C Engine
• Mean Effective Pressure MEP:- Wnet=PMEP?V
=MEP?? Piston area?? Stroke
= MEP?? Displacement
MEP= Wnet/Displacement= Wnet/Vmax-Vmin
• Otto Cycle Efficiency:-   ?th,Otto = 1 - (1/r
k-1
)
where r = compression ratio k = cp/cv for air at room T
• Diesel Efficiency:-  ?th,Diesel = 1 -(1/r
k
-1)[(rc)
k
- 1/k(rc-1)]
r = compression ratio, rc = cutoff ratio (rc = V3/V2 = v3/v2) k = cp/cv for air at
room T.
• Indicated Thermal Efficiency:-
?
???????? =
?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Here, Ip = Indicated power, Cv = Calorific value of fuel, and Mf = Mass of
fuel/second
• Brake Thermal Efficiency:- ?
?????????? =
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Psychrometry
•  Partial Pressure of Water Vapour:-

pv = partial pressure of water vapour
ps = partial pressure of dry air
where, (pvs)wb = saturation pressure of water vapour corresponding to wet bulb
temperature
p = atmospheric pressure of moist air
Twb = wet bulb temperature
Tdb = dry bulb temperature
• Absolute Humidity:-
=
???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ( ?????????????? )

• Specific Humidity(w):-
=
???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????
Page 2

Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

I.C Engine
• Mean Effective Pressure MEP:- Wnet=PMEP?V
=MEP?? Piston area?? Stroke
= MEP?? Displacement
MEP= Wnet/Displacement= Wnet/Vmax-Vmin
• Otto Cycle Efficiency:-   ?th,Otto = 1 - (1/r
k-1
)
where r = compression ratio k = cp/cv for air at room T
• Diesel Efficiency:-  ?th,Diesel = 1 -(1/r
k
-1)[(rc)
k
- 1/k(rc-1)]
r = compression ratio, rc = cutoff ratio (rc = V3/V2 = v3/v2) k = cp/cv for air at
room T.
• Indicated Thermal Efficiency:-
?
???????? =
?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Here, Ip = Indicated power, Cv = Calorific value of fuel, and Mf = Mass of
fuel/second
• Brake Thermal Efficiency:- ?
?????????? =
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Psychrometry
•  Partial Pressure of Water Vapour:-

pv = partial pressure of water vapour
ps = partial pressure of dry air
where, (pvs)wb = saturation pressure of water vapour corresponding to wet bulb
temperature
p = atmospheric pressure of moist air
Twb = wet bulb temperature
Tdb = dry bulb temperature
• Absolute Humidity:-
=
???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ( ?????????????? )

• Specific Humidity(w):-
=
???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????
Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

?? = ?? . ??????
?? ?? ?? -?? ?? Kg water vapour/kg of dry air
• Relative Humidity :-
Ø =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ????

• Degree of Saturation (µ):-
µ =
Specific humidity of air
Specific humidity of Saturated air
=
?
?
s

• Dew Point Depression:-
DPD = DBT – DPT
• Enthalpy of Air (h):-
h = Cpm tab + w(hg – Cpv tdb)
• Sensible Heat Factor-
=
?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ??
• By Pass Factor:-
?? =
?? ?? - ?? ???????? ?? ?? - ?? ????????
Air temperature at entry and exit is t1 and t2 respectively

• Volumetric Efficiency :-
?
?? = ?? + ?? - ?? ( ?? ?? )
?? ?? /

C = Compression ratio, r
p
=
p
2
p
1
/
• Vapour Absorption System C.O.P
?? . ?? . ?? = (
?? ?? ?? ?? - ?? ?? ) × (
?? ?? - ?? ?? ?? ?? )
Te=Evaporator Temperature
Tg=Generator Temperature
TC= Condenser Temperature
• Designation of Refrigerant:-
For a hydrocarbon Chemical formula is Cr Hs F1 CIy
If S+t+y=2r+2, designation of refrigerant is R(r-1)(S+1)t
It S+t+y=2r, designation of refrigerant is R1(r-1)(S+1)t
For an Inorganic Refrigerant
Designation is R(700 + molecular weight)
Power Plant Engineering
• Ranking Cycle efficiency-
Page 3

Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

I.C Engine
• Mean Effective Pressure MEP:- Wnet=PMEP?V
=MEP?? Piston area?? Stroke
= MEP?? Displacement
MEP= Wnet/Displacement= Wnet/Vmax-Vmin
• Otto Cycle Efficiency:-   ?th,Otto = 1 - (1/r
k-1
)
where r = compression ratio k = cp/cv for air at room T
• Diesel Efficiency:-  ?th,Diesel = 1 -(1/r
k
-1)[(rc)
k
- 1/k(rc-1)]
r = compression ratio, rc = cutoff ratio (rc = V3/V2 = v3/v2) k = cp/cv for air at
room T.
• Indicated Thermal Efficiency:-
?
???????? =
?????????????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Here, Ip = Indicated power, Cv = Calorific value of fuel, and Mf = Mass of
fuel/second
• Brake Thermal Efficiency:- ?
?????????? =
?????????? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ???????? ?????? ???????????? =
?? ?? ?? ?? ×?? ??
Psychrometry
•  Partial Pressure of Water Vapour:-

pv = partial pressure of water vapour
ps = partial pressure of dry air
where, (pvs)wb = saturation pressure of water vapour corresponding to wet bulb
temperature
p = atmospheric pressure of moist air
Twb = wet bulb temperature
Tdb = dry bulb temperature
• Absolute Humidity:-
=
???????????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ( ?????????????? )

• Specific Humidity(w):-
=
???????? ???? ?????????? ???????????? ???? ?????? ???????? ???? ?????? ??????
Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

?? = ?? . ??????
?? ?? ?? -?? ?? Kg water vapour/kg of dry air
• Relative Humidity :-
Ø =
?? ?? ?? ?? =
?? ?? ?? ????

• Degree of Saturation (µ):-
µ =
Specific humidity of air
Specific humidity of Saturated air
=
?
?
s

• Dew Point Depression:-
DPD = DBT – DPT
• Enthalpy of Air (h):-
h = Cpm tab + w(hg – Cpv tdb)
• Sensible Heat Factor-
=
?? ?? ?? ?? + ?? ??
• By Pass Factor:-
?? =
?? ?? - ?? ???????? ?? ?? - ?? ????????
Air temperature at entry and exit is t1 and t2 respectively

• Volumetric Efficiency :-
?
?? = ?? + ?? - ?? ( ?? ?? )
?? ?? /

C = Compression ratio, r
p
=
p
2
p
1
/
• Vapour Absorption System C.O.P
?? . ?? . ?? = (
?? ?? ?? ?? - ?? ?? ) × (
?? ?? - ?? ?? ?? ?? )
Te=Evaporator Temperature
Tg=Generator Temperature
TC= Condenser Temperature
• Designation of Refrigerant:-
For a hydrocarbon Chemical formula is Cr Hs F1 CIy
If S+t+y=2r+2, designation of refrigerant is R(r-1)(S+1)t
It S+t+y=2r, designation of refrigerant is R1(r-1)(S+1)t
For an Inorganic Refrigerant
Designation is R(700 + molecular weight)
Power Plant Engineering
• Ranking Cycle efficiency-
Mechanical Engineering - GATE Exam

• Overall efficiency:-
=Eff. Boiler ?? Eff. of Cycle ?? Eff. of turbine ?? Eff. of generator ?? Eff. of auxiliary
• Efficiency of Brayton Cycle:-

Where rp is pressure ratio
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