GMAT & CAT Test Preparation 8th Edition by Jerry Bobrow GMAT Notes | EduRev

GMAT : GMAT & CAT Test Preparation 8th Edition by Jerry Bobrow GMAT Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


GMAT
®
CAT
8th Edition Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Test-prep essentials from the experts at 
Test-taking tips and tricks at cliffsnotes.com
The fast track to
your best score 
Proven test-taking 
strategies
Focused reviews 
and exercises 
Computer adaptive-
style practice test
TEAMFLY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Team-Fly
®
 
Page 2


GMAT
®
CAT
8th Edition Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Test-prep essentials from the experts at 
Test-taking tips and tricks at cliffsnotes.com
The fast track to
your best score 
Proven test-taking 
strategies
Focused reviews 
and exercises 
Computer adaptive-
style practice test
TEAMFLY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Team-Fly
®
 
Page 3


GMAT
®
CAT
8th Edition Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Test-prep essentials from the experts at 
Test-taking tips and tricks at cliffsnotes.com
The fast track to
your best score 
Proven test-taking 
strategies
Focused reviews 
and exercises 
Computer adaptive-
style practice test
TEAMFLY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Team-Fly
®
 
CliffsTestPrep
™
GMAT
®
CAT (Computer-Adaptive
Graduate Management
Admission Test)
8th Edition
by
Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Contributing Authors/Consultants
Allan Casson, Ph.D.
Jean Eggenschwiler, M.A.
Rajiv Rimal, Ph.D.
Peter Z Orton, Ph.D.
William A. Covino, Ph.D.
Michele Spence, M.A.
Harold Nathan, Ph.D.
David A. Kay, M.S.
Dale Johnson, M.A.
IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
An International Data Group Company
Foster City, CA

Chicago, IL

Indianapolis, IN 

New York, NY
Page 4


GMAT
®
CAT
8th Edition Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Test-prep essentials from the experts at 
Test-taking tips and tricks at cliffsnotes.com
The fast track to
your best score 
Proven test-taking 
strategies
Focused reviews 
and exercises 
Computer adaptive-
style practice test
TEAMFLY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Team-Fly
®
 
CliffsTestPrep
™
GMAT
®
CAT (Computer-Adaptive
Graduate Management
Admission Test)
8th Edition
by
Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Contributing Authors/Consultants
Allan Casson, Ph.D.
Jean Eggenschwiler, M.A.
Rajiv Rimal, Ph.D.
Peter Z Orton, Ph.D.
William A. Covino, Ph.D.
Michele Spence, M.A.
Harold Nathan, Ph.D.
David A. Kay, M.S.
Dale Johnson, M.A.
IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
An International Data Group Company
Foster City, CA

Chicago, IL

Indianapolis, IN 

New York, NY
CliffsTestPrep
™
GMAT
®
CAT, 8th Edition
Published by
IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
An International Data Group Company 
919 E. Hillsdale Blvd. Suite 400 
Foster City, CA 94404
www.idgbooks.com (IDG Books Worldwide Web Site) 
www.cliffsnotes.com (CliffsNotes Web Site)
Copyright © 2000 Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including interior design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form, by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 00-105679
ISBN: 0-7645-8610-6
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
8X/SQ/QX/QQ/IN 
Distributed in the United States by IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
Distributed by CDG Books Canada Inc. for Canada; by Transworld Publishers Limited in the United Kingdom; by IDG Norge Books for Norway; by IDG Sweden
Books for Sweden; by IDG Books Australia Publishing Corporation Pty. Ltd. for Australia and New Zealand; by TransQuest Publishers Pte Ltd. for Singapore,
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Hong Kong; by Gotop Information Inc. for Taiwan; by ICG Muse, Inc. for Japan; by Intersoft for South Africa; by Eyrolles
for France; by International Thomson Publishing for Germany, Austria and Switzerland; by Distribuidora Cuspide for Argentina; by LR International for Brazil;
by Galileo Libros for Chile; by Ediciones ZETA S.C.R. Ltda. for Peru; by WS Computer Publishing Corporation, Inc., for the Philippines; by Contemporanea de
Ediciones for Venezuela; by Express Computer Distributors for the Caribbean and West Indies; by Micronesia Media Distributor, Inc. for Micronesia; by Chips
Computadoras S.A. de C.V . for Mexico; by Editorial Norma de Panama S.A. for Panama; by American Bookshops for Finland. 
For general information on IDG Books Worldwide’s books in the U.S., please call our Consumer Customer Service department at 800-762-2974. For reseller 
information, including discounts and premium sales, please call our Reseller Customer Service department at 800-434-3422.
For information on where to purchase IDG Books Worldwide’s books outside the U.S., please contact our International Sales department at 317-596-5530 or fax
317-572-4002.
For consumer information on foreign language translations, please contact our Customer Service department at 1-800-434-3422, fax 317-572-4002, or e-mail
rights@idgbooks.com.
For information on licensing foreign or domestic rights, please phone +1-650-653-7098.
For sales inquiries and special prices for bulk quantities, please contact our Order Services department at 800-434-3422 or write to the address above.
For information on using IDG Books Worldwide’s books in the classroom or for ordering examination copies, please contact our Educational Sales department at
800-434-2086 or fax 317-572-4005.
For press review copies, author interviews, or other publicity information, please contact our Public Relations department at 650-653-7000 or fax 650-653-7500.
For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, personal, or educational use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA
01923, or fax 978-750-4470.
LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR HAVE USED THEIR BEST EFFORTS IN PREPARING THIS
BOOK. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETE-
NESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND THE DESCRIPTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS PARA-
GRAPH. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES REPRESENTATIVES OR WRITTEN SALES MATERIALS. THE ACCURACY
AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS STATED HEREIN ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WAR-
RANTED TO PRODUCE ANY PARTICULAR RESULTS, AND THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR
EVERY INDIVIDUAL. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL
DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES. 
NOTE: THIS BOOK IS INTENDED TO OFFER GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE GMAT CAT. THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER ARE NOT ENGAGED
IN RENDERING LEGAL, TAX, ACCOUNTING, INVESTMENT, REAL ESTATE, OR SIMILAR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. ALTHOUGH LEGAL, TAX,
ACCOUNTING, INVESTMENT, REAL ESTATE, AND SIMILAR ISSUES ADDRESSED BY THIS BOOK HAVE BEEN CHECKED WITH SOURCES BE-
LIEVED TO BE RELIABLE, SOME MATERIAL MAY BE AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN THE LAWS AND/OR INTERPRETATION OF LAWS SINCE THE
MANUSCRIPT IN THIS BOOK WAS COMPLETED. THEREFORE, THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED
HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS THAT HA VE BEEN GENERATED ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WARRANTED TO PRODUCE PARTICULAR RESULTS,
AND THE STRATEGIES OUTLINED IN THIS BOOK MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY INDIVIDUAL. IF LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, TAX, INVEST-
MENT, REAL ESTATE, OR OTHER EXPERT ADVICE IS NEEDED OR APPROPRIATE, THE READER IS STRONGLY ENCOURAGED TO OBTAIN THE
SERVICES OF A PROFESSIONAL EXPERT.
Trademarks: GMAT is a registered trademark of Graduate Management Admission Council. Cliffs, CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, CliffsNotes, and all related
logos and trade dress are registered trademarks or trademarks of IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners. IDG Books Worldwide is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
is a registered trademark under exclusive license 
to IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., from 
International Data Group, Inc. 
About the Author
Dr. Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D., is a national authority in the field
of test preparation. As executive director of Bobrow Test
Preparation Services, he has been administering the test
preparation programs at over 25 California institutions for
the past 27 years. Dr. Bobrow has authored over 30 national
best-selling test preparation books, and his books and pro-
grams have assisted over two million test-takers. Each year,
Dr. Bobrow personally lectures to thousands of students on
preparing for graduate, college, and teacher credentialing
exams.
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
Editorial
Project Editor: Joan Friedman
Copy Editor: Corey Dalton, Janet M. Withers
Editorial Assistant: Carol Strickland
Production
Proofreader: Vicki Broyles
IDG Books Indianapolis Production Department
Note: If you purchased this book without a cover,
you should be aware that this book is stolen prop-
erty. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the
publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher
has received any payment for this “stripped book.”
Page 5


GMAT
®
CAT
8th Edition Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Test-prep essentials from the experts at 
Test-taking tips and tricks at cliffsnotes.com
The fast track to
your best score 
Proven test-taking 
strategies
Focused reviews 
and exercises 
Computer adaptive-
style practice test
TEAMFLY
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Team-Fly
®
 
CliffsTestPrep
™
GMAT
®
CAT (Computer-Adaptive
Graduate Management
Admission Test)
8th Edition
by
Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D.
Contributing Authors/Consultants
Allan Casson, Ph.D.
Jean Eggenschwiler, M.A.
Rajiv Rimal, Ph.D.
Peter Z Orton, Ph.D.
William A. Covino, Ph.D.
Michele Spence, M.A.
Harold Nathan, Ph.D.
David A. Kay, M.S.
Dale Johnson, M.A.
IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
An International Data Group Company
Foster City, CA

Chicago, IL

Indianapolis, IN 

New York, NY
CliffsTestPrep
™
GMAT
®
CAT, 8th Edition
Published by
IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
An International Data Group Company 
919 E. Hillsdale Blvd. Suite 400 
Foster City, CA 94404
www.idgbooks.com (IDG Books Worldwide Web Site) 
www.cliffsnotes.com (CliffsNotes Web Site)
Copyright © 2000 Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D. All rights reserved. No part of this book, including interior design, cover design, and icons, may be reproduced or transmitted
in any form, by any means (electronic, photocopying, recording, or otherwise) without the prior written permission of the publisher.
Library of Congress Control Number: 00-105679
ISBN: 0-7645-8610-6
Printed in the United States of America
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1
8X/SQ/QX/QQ/IN 
Distributed in the United States by IDG Books Worldwide, Inc.
Distributed by CDG Books Canada Inc. for Canada; by Transworld Publishers Limited in the United Kingdom; by IDG Norge Books for Norway; by IDG Sweden
Books for Sweden; by IDG Books Australia Publishing Corporation Pty. Ltd. for Australia and New Zealand; by TransQuest Publishers Pte Ltd. for Singapore,
Malaysia, Thailand, Indonesia, and Hong Kong; by Gotop Information Inc. for Taiwan; by ICG Muse, Inc. for Japan; by Intersoft for South Africa; by Eyrolles
for France; by International Thomson Publishing for Germany, Austria and Switzerland; by Distribuidora Cuspide for Argentina; by LR International for Brazil;
by Galileo Libros for Chile; by Ediciones ZETA S.C.R. Ltda. for Peru; by WS Computer Publishing Corporation, Inc., for the Philippines; by Contemporanea de
Ediciones for Venezuela; by Express Computer Distributors for the Caribbean and West Indies; by Micronesia Media Distributor, Inc. for Micronesia; by Chips
Computadoras S.A. de C.V . for Mexico; by Editorial Norma de Panama S.A. for Panama; by American Bookshops for Finland. 
For general information on IDG Books Worldwide’s books in the U.S., please call our Consumer Customer Service department at 800-762-2974. For reseller 
information, including discounts and premium sales, please call our Reseller Customer Service department at 800-434-3422.
For information on where to purchase IDG Books Worldwide’s books outside the U.S., please contact our International Sales department at 317-596-5530 or fax
317-572-4002.
For consumer information on foreign language translations, please contact our Customer Service department at 1-800-434-3422, fax 317-572-4002, or e-mail
rights@idgbooks.com.
For information on licensing foreign or domestic rights, please phone +1-650-653-7098.
For sales inquiries and special prices for bulk quantities, please contact our Order Services department at 800-434-3422 or write to the address above.
For information on using IDG Books Worldwide’s books in the classroom or for ordering examination copies, please contact our Educational Sales department at
800-434-2086 or fax 317-572-4005.
For press review copies, author interviews, or other publicity information, please contact our Public Relations department at 650-653-7000 or fax 650-653-7500.
For authorization to photocopy items for corporate, personal, or educational use, please contact Copyright Clearance Center, 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA
01923, or fax 978-750-4470.
LIMIT OF LIABILITY/DISCLAIMER OF WARRANTY: THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR HAVE USED THEIR BEST EFFORTS IN PREPARING THIS
BOOK. THE PUBLISHER AND AUTHOR MAKE NO REPRESENTATIONS OR WARRANTIES WITH RESPECT TO THE ACCURACY OR COMPLETE-
NESS OF THE CONTENTS OF THIS BOOK AND SPECIFICALLY DISCLAIM ANY IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS
FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. THERE ARE NO WARRANTIES WHICH EXTEND BEYOND THE DESCRIPTIONS CONTAINED IN THIS PARA-
GRAPH. NO WARRANTY MAY BE CREATED OR EXTENDED BY SALES REPRESENTATIVES OR WRITTEN SALES MATERIALS. THE ACCURACY
AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS STATED HEREIN ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WAR-
RANTED TO PRODUCE ANY PARTICULAR RESULTS, AND THE ADVICE AND STRATEGIES CONTAINED HEREIN MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR
EVERY INDIVIDUAL. NEITHER THE PUBLISHER NOR AUTHOR SHALL BE LIABLE FOR ANY LOSS OF PROFIT OR ANY OTHER COMMERCIAL
DAMAGES, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO SPECIAL, INCIDENTAL, CONSEQUENTIAL, OR OTHER DAMAGES. 
NOTE: THIS BOOK IS INTENDED TO OFFER GENERAL INFORMATION ON THE GMAT CAT. THE AUTHOR AND PUBLISHER ARE NOT ENGAGED
IN RENDERING LEGAL, TAX, ACCOUNTING, INVESTMENT, REAL ESTATE, OR SIMILAR PROFESSIONAL SERVICES. ALTHOUGH LEGAL, TAX,
ACCOUNTING, INVESTMENT, REAL ESTATE, AND SIMILAR ISSUES ADDRESSED BY THIS BOOK HAVE BEEN CHECKED WITH SOURCES BE-
LIEVED TO BE RELIABLE, SOME MATERIAL MAY BE AFFECTED BY CHANGES IN THE LAWS AND/OR INTERPRETATION OF LAWS SINCE THE
MANUSCRIPT IN THIS BOOK WAS COMPLETED. THEREFORE, THE ACCURACY AND COMPLETENESS OF THE INFORMATION PROVIDED
HEREIN AND THE OPINIONS THAT HA VE BEEN GENERATED ARE NOT GUARANTEED OR WARRANTED TO PRODUCE PARTICULAR RESULTS,
AND THE STRATEGIES OUTLINED IN THIS BOOK MAY NOT BE SUITABLE FOR EVERY INDIVIDUAL. IF LEGAL, ACCOUNTING, TAX, INVEST-
MENT, REAL ESTATE, OR OTHER EXPERT ADVICE IS NEEDED OR APPROPRIATE, THE READER IS STRONGLY ENCOURAGED TO OBTAIN THE
SERVICES OF A PROFESSIONAL EXPERT.
Trademarks: GMAT is a registered trademark of Graduate Management Admission Council. Cliffs, CliffsTestPrep, CliffsNote-a-Day, CliffsNotes, and all related
logos and trade dress are registered trademarks or trademarks of IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., in the United States and other countries. All other trademarks are the
property of their respective owners. IDG Books Worldwide is not associated with any product or vendor mentioned in this book.
is a registered trademark under exclusive license 
to IDG Books Worldwide, Inc., from 
International Data Group, Inc. 
About the Author
Dr. Jerry Bobrow, Ph.D., is a national authority in the field
of test preparation. As executive director of Bobrow Test
Preparation Services, he has been administering the test
preparation programs at over 25 California institutions for
the past 27 years. Dr. Bobrow has authored over 30 national
best-selling test preparation books, and his books and pro-
grams have assisted over two million test-takers. Each year,
Dr. Bobrow personally lectures to thousands of students on
preparing for graduate, college, and teacher credentialing
exams.
Publisher’s Acknowledgments
Editorial
Project Editor: Joan Friedman
Copy Editor: Corey Dalton, Janet M. Withers
Editorial Assistant: Carol Strickland
Production
Proofreader: Vicki Broyles
IDG Books Indianapolis Production Department
Note: If you purchased this book without a cover,
you should be aware that this book is stolen prop-
erty. It was reported as “unsold and destroyed” to the
publisher, and neither the author nor the publisher
has received any payment for this “stripped book.”
Author’s Acknowledgments
I would like to thank former Cliffs Notes Editor Michele Spence for her meticulous
editing of the original manuscript and Joan Friedman and the IDG editorial staff for
reviewing and editing this newest edition of my work.
I would also like to extend my sincere appreciation to the following authors and
publications for permission to use excerpts from their fine writings:
Dr. Albert Upton, Design for Thinking, Stanford University Press.
Sy Montgomery, “Sharks,” Los Angeles Times, February 23, 1991, p. B-3.
And finally, I would like to thank my wife Susan, daughter Jennifer (22), and sons
Adam (19) and Jonathan (15) for their patience, moral support, and comic relief.
iii
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