GMAT Official Guide Critical Reasoning GMAT Notes | EduRev

GMAT : GMAT Official Guide Critical Reasoning GMAT Notes | EduRev

 Page 1


2
CRITICAL REASONING 
1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? 
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may 
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. 
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest 
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest 
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest 
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly 
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? 
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average 
Louisianan’s life. 
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. 
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. 
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United 
States. 
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the 
passage? 
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised 
downward. 
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. 
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. 
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. 
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly 
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who 
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. 
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the 
claims that would be made. 
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? 
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. 
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children 
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost 
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 
Page 2


2
CRITICAL REASONING 
1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? 
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may 
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. 
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest 
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest 
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest 
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly 
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? 
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average 
Louisianan’s life. 
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. 
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. 
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United 
States. 
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the 
passage? 
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised 
downward. 
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. 
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. 
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. 
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly 
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who 
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. 
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the 
claims that would be made. 
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? 
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. 
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children 
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost 
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 
3
E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services 
5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at 
current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in 
which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their 
children’s college education.  
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program? 
A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend. 
B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today 
will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls. 
C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the 
annual increase in the cost of living.  
D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.  
E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges.  
6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for 
flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they 
would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.  
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the  
A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year 
B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families 
C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday 
D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued 
E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons 
7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice 
melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the 
front windshield, was turned on full force.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which 
the ice melted? 
A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them 
B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did 
the ice on the front windshield. 
C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window 
increases 
D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the 
rest of the car. 
E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces 
of the driver and passengers, is on. 
8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting 
positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, 
however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials 
from earning a livelihood for three years.  
The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions? 
A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.  
B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials. 
C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service. 
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2
CRITICAL REASONING 
1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? 
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may 
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. 
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest 
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest 
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest 
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly 
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? 
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average 
Louisianan’s life. 
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. 
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. 
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United 
States. 
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the 
passage? 
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised 
downward. 
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. 
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. 
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. 
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly 
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who 
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. 
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the 
claims that would be made. 
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? 
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. 
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children 
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost 
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 
3
E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services 
5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at 
current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in 
which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their 
children’s college education.  
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program? 
A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend. 
B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today 
will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls. 
C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the 
annual increase in the cost of living.  
D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.  
E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges.  
6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for 
flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they 
would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.  
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the  
A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year 
B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families 
C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday 
D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued 
E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons 
7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice 
melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the 
front windshield, was turned on full force.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which 
the ice melted? 
A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them 
B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did 
the ice on the front windshield. 
C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window 
increases 
D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the 
rest of the car. 
E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces 
of the driver and passengers, is on. 
8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting 
positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, 
however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials 
from earning a livelihood for three years.  
The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions? 
A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.  
B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials. 
C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service. 
4
D. High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as 
lobbyists.  
E. High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for 
only three years.  
9. A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening 
creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are 
active only at night.  
Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group’s contention? 
A. Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more 
developed areas for roosting.  
B. Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more 
pleasant for humans.  
C. Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South 
America.  
D. Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted. 
E. People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and 
greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.  
10. Meteorite explosions in the Earth’s atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with 
approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.  
The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected 
circumstances is unpredictable. 
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly 
automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program? 
A. Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a 
nuclear war. 
B. The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth’s atmosphere.  
C. It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a 
nuclear weapon.  
D. Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on 
the location of the blast. 
E. It is not certain what the system’s response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers 
did not plan for such a contingency. 
11. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who 
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service 
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one 
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if 
the state retains its current restrictions.  
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true? 
A. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee 
arrangements in the advertisements. 
B. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal service. 
C. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will 
advertise their services. 
D. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also 
Page 4


2
CRITICAL REASONING 
1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? 
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may 
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. 
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest 
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest 
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest 
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly 
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? 
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average 
Louisianan’s life. 
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. 
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. 
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United 
States. 
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the 
passage? 
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised 
downward. 
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. 
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. 
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. 
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly 
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who 
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. 
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the 
claims that would be made. 
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? 
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. 
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children 
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost 
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 
3
E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services 
5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at 
current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in 
which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their 
children’s college education.  
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program? 
A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend. 
B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today 
will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls. 
C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the 
annual increase in the cost of living.  
D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.  
E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges.  
6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for 
flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they 
would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.  
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the  
A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year 
B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families 
C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday 
D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued 
E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons 
7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice 
melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the 
front windshield, was turned on full force.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which 
the ice melted? 
A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them 
B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did 
the ice on the front windshield. 
C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window 
increases 
D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the 
rest of the car. 
E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces 
of the driver and passengers, is on. 
8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting 
positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, 
however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials 
from earning a livelihood for three years.  
The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions? 
A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.  
B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials. 
C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service. 
4
D. High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as 
lobbyists.  
E. High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for 
only three years.  
9. A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening 
creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are 
active only at night.  
Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group’s contention? 
A. Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more 
developed areas for roosting.  
B. Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more 
pleasant for humans.  
C. Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South 
America.  
D. Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted. 
E. People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and 
greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.  
10. Meteorite explosions in the Earth’s atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with 
approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.  
The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected 
circumstances is unpredictable. 
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly 
automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program? 
A. Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a 
nuclear war. 
B. The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth’s atmosphere.  
C. It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a 
nuclear weapon.  
D. Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on 
the location of the blast. 
E. It is not certain what the system’s response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers 
did not plan for such a contingency. 
11. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who 
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service 
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one 
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if 
the state retains its current restrictions.  
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true? 
A. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee 
arrangements in the advertisements. 
B. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal service. 
C. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will 
advertise their services. 
D. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also 
5
charge less than they currently charge for those services.  
E. If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, 
most lawyers would advertise their services. 
12. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who 
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service 
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one 
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if 
the state retains its current restrictions. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal 
costs? 
A. The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services. 
B. The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services. 
C. Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by 
lawyers who do advertise.  
D. Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the 
specification were not required. 
E. Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to 
advertise. 
13. Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a prolonged war would be 
seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base shrinks further. Before the Defense Department 
publicly connected this security issue with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the 
national security issue in its petition for import quotas.  
Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool industry’s raising the issue 
above regarding national security? 
A. When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for too builders. 
B. The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the 
machine-tool industry.  
C. The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on 
grounds other than defense. 
D. A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive machining.  
E. Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic machine-tool 
manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers. 
14. Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free 
society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm other as a result of taking the risks. 
As a result, they conclude that it should be each person’s decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above? 
A. Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat. 
B. Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the 
increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts. 
C. Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings. 
D. The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat belt laws is greater than the rate 
of fatalities in states that do have such laws. 
E. In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are 
passengers who do wear seat belts. 
Page 5


2
CRITICAL REASONING 
1. Which of the following best completes the passage below? 
In a survey of job applicants, two-fifths admitted to being at least a little dishonest. However, the survey may 
underestimate the proportion of job applicants who are dishonest, because____. 
A. some dishonest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be honest 
B. some generally honest people taking the survey might have claimed on the survey to be dishonest 
C. some people who claimed on the survey to be at least a little dishonest may be very dishonest 
D. some people who claimed on the survey to be dishonest may have been answering honestly 
E. some people who are not job applicants are probably at least a little dishonest 
2. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the conclusion drawn in the passage? 
A. Insurance company statisticians do not believe that moving to Hawaii will significantly lengthen the average 
Louisianan’s life. 
B. The governor of Louisiana has falsely alleged that statistics for his state are inaccurate. 
C. The longevity ascribed to Hawaii’s current population is attributable mostly to genetically determined factors. 
D. Thirty percent of all Louisianans can expect to live longer than 77 years. 
E. Most of the Hawaiian Islands have levels of air pollution well below the national average for the United 
States. 
3. The average life expectancy for the United States population as a whole is 73.9 years, but children born in 
Hawaii will live an average of 77 years, and those born in Louisiana, 71.7 years. If a newlywed couple from 
Louisiana were to begin their family in Hawaii, therefore, their children would be expected to live longer than 
would be the case if the family remained in Louisiana. 
Which of the following statements, if true, would most significantly strengthen the conclusion drawn in the 
passage? 
A. As population density increases in Hawaii, life expectancy figures for that state are likely to be revised 
downward. 
B. Environmental factors tending to favor longevity are abundant in Hawaii and less numerous in Louisiana. 
C. Twenty-five percent of all Louisianans who move to Hawaii live longer than 77 years. 
D. Over the last decade, average life expectancy has risen at a higher rate for Louisianans than for Hawaiians. 
E. Studies show that the average life expectancy for Hawaiians who move permanently to Louisiana is roughly 
equal to that of Hawaiians who remain in Hawaii. 
4. Insurance Company X is considering issuing a new policy to cover services required by elderly people who 
suffer from diseases that afflict the elderly. Premiums for the policy must be low enough to attract customers. 
Therefore, Company X is concerned that the income from the policies would not be sufficient to pay for the 
claims that would be made. 
Which of the following strategies would be most likely to minimize Company X’s losses on the policies? 
A. Attracting middle-aged customers unlikely to submit claims for benefits for many years. 
B. Insuring only those individuals who did not suffer any serious diseases as children 
C. Including a greater number of services in the policy than are included in other policies of lower cost 
D. Insuring only those individuals who were rejected by other companies for similar policies 
3
E. Insuring only those individuals who are wealthy enough to pay for the medical services 
5. A program instituted in a particular state allows parents to prepay their children’s future college tuition at 
current rates. The program then pays the tuition annually for the child at any of the state’s public colleges in 
which the child enrolls. Parents should participate in the program as a means of decreasing the cost for their 
children’s college education.  
Which of the following, if true, is the most appropriate reason for parents NOT to participate in the program? 
A. the parents are unsure about which public college in the state the child will attend. 
B. The amount of money accumulated by putting the prepayment funds in an interest-bearing account today 
will be greater than the total cost of tuition for any of the public colleges when the child enrolls. 
C. The annual cost of tuition at the state’s public colleges is expected to increase at a faster rate than the 
annual increase in the cost of living.  
D. Some of the state’s public colleges are contemplating large increases in tuition next year.  
E. The prepayment plan would not cover the cost of room and board at any of the state’s public colleges.  
6. Company Alpha buys free-travel coupons from people who are awarded the coupons by Bravo Airlines for 
flying frequently on Bravo airplanes. The coupons are sold to people who pay les for the coupons than they 
would pay by purchasing tickets from Bravo. This making of coupons results in lost revenue for Bravo.  
To discourage the buying and selling of free-travel coupons, it would be best for Bravo Airlines to restrict the  
A. number of coupons that a person can be awarded in a particular year 
B. use of the coupons to those who were awarded the coupons and members of their immediate families 
C. days that the coupons can be used to Monday through Friday 
D. amount of time that the coupons can be used after they are issued 
E. number of routes on which travelers can use the coupons 
7. The ice on the front windshield of the car had formed when moisture condensed during the night. The ice 
melted quickly after the car was warmed up the next morning because the defrosting vent, which blows on the 
front windshield, was turned on full force.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously jeopardizes the validity of the explanation for the speed with which 
the ice melted? 
A. The side windows had no ice condensation on them 
B. Even though no attempt was made to defrost the back window, the ice there melted at the same rate as did 
the ice on the front windshield. 
C. The speed at which ice on a window melts increases as the temperature of the air blown on the window 
increases 
D. The warm air from the defrosting vent for the front windshield cools rapidly as it dissipates throughout the 
rest of the car. 
E. The defrosting vent operates efficiently even when the heater, which blows warm air toward the feet or faces 
of the driver and passengers, is on. 
8. To prevent some conflicts of interest, Congress could prohibit high-level government officials from accepting 
positions as lobbyists for three years after such officials leave government service. One such official concluded, 
however, that such a prohibition would be unfortunate because it would prevent high-level government officials 
from earning a livelihood for three years.  
The official’s conclusion logically depends on which of the following assumptions? 
A. Laws should not restrict the behavior of former government officials.  
B. Lobbyists are typically people who have previously been high-level government officials. 
C. Low-level government officials do not often become lobbyists when they leave government service. 
4
D. High-level government officials who leave government service are capable of earning a livelihood only as 
lobbyists.  
E. High-level government officials who leave government service are currently permitted to act as lobbyists for 
only three years.  
9. A conservation group in the United States is trying to change the long-standing image of bats as frightening 
creatures. The group contends that bats are feared and persecuted solely because they are shy animals that are 
active only at night.  
Which of the following, if true, would cast the most serious doubt on the accuracy of the group’s contention? 
A. Bats are steadily losing natural roosting places such as caves and hollow trees and are thus turning to more 
developed areas for roosting.  
B. Bats are the chief consumers of nocturnal insects and thus can help make their hunting territory more 
pleasant for humans.  
C. Bats are regarded as frightening creatures not only in the United States but also in Europe, Africa, and South 
America.  
D. Raccoons and owls are shy and active only at night; yet they are not generally feared and persecuted. 
E. People know more about the behavior of other greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and 
greatly feared animal species, such as lions, alligators, and snakes, than they do about the behavior of bats.  
10. Meteorite explosions in the Earth’s atmosphere as large as the one that destroyed forests in Siberia, with 
approximately the force of a twelve-megaton nuclear blast, occur about once a century.  
The response of highly automated systems controlled by complex computer programs to unexpected 
circumstances is unpredictable. 
Which of the following conclusions can most properly be drawn, if the statements above are true, about a highly 
automated nuclear-missile defense system controlled by a complex computer program? 
A. Within a century after its construction, the system would react inappropriately and might accidentally start a 
nuclear war. 
B. The system would be destroyed if an explosion of a large meteorite occurred in the Earth’s atmosphere.  
C. It would be impossible for the system to distinguish the explosion of a large meteorite from the explosion of a 
nuclear weapon.  
D. Whether the system would respond inappropriately to the explosion of a large meteorite would depend on 
the location of the blast. 
E. It is not certain what the system’s response to the explosion of a large meteorite would be, if its designers 
did not plan for such a contingency. 
11. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who 
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service 
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one 
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if 
the state retains its current restrictions.  
If the statements in the passage are true, which of the following must be true? 
A. Some lawyers who now advertise will charge more for specific services if they do not have to specify fee 
arrangements in the advertisements. 
B. More consumers will use legal services if there are fewer restrictions on the advertising of legal service. 
C. If the restriction against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements is removed, more lawyers will 
advertise their services. 
D. If more lawyers advertise lower prices for specific services, some lawyers who do not advertise will also 
5
charge less than they currently charge for those services.  
E. If the only restrictions on the advertising of legal services were those that apply to every type of advertising, 
most lawyers would advertise their services. 
12. The fewer restrictions there are on the advertising of legal services, the more lawyers there are who 
advertise their services, and the lawyers who advertise a specific service usually charge less for that service 
than lawyers who do not advertise. Therefore, if the state removes any of its current restrictions, such as the one 
against advertisements that do not specify fee arrangements, overall consumer legal costs will be lower than if 
the state retains its current restrictions. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the argument concerning overall consumer legal 
costs? 
A. The state has recently removed some other restrictions that had limited the advertising of legal services. 
B. The state is unlikely to remove all of the restrictions that apply solely to the advertising of legal services. 
C. Lawyers who do not advertise generally provide legal services of the same quality as those provided by 
lawyers who do advertise.  
D. Most lawyers who now specify fee arrangements in their advertisements would continue to do so even if the 
specification were not required. 
E. Most lawyers who advertise specific services do not lower their fees for those services when they begin to 
advertise. 
13. Defense Department analysts worry that the ability of the United States to wage a prolonged war would be 
seriously endangered if the machine-tool manufacturing base shrinks further. Before the Defense Department 
publicly connected this security issue with the import quota issue, however, the machine-tool industry raised the 
national security issue in its petition for import quotas.  
Which of the following, if true, contributes most to an explanation of the machine-tool industry’s raising the issue 
above regarding national security? 
A. When the aircraft industries retooled, they provided a large amount of work for too builders. 
B. The Defense Department is only marginally concerned with the effects of foreign competition on the 
machine-tool industry.  
C. The machine-tool industry encountered difficulty in obtaining governmental protection against imports on 
grounds other than defense. 
D. A few weapons important for defense consist of parts that do not require extensive machining.  
E. Several federal government programs have been designed which will enable domestic machine-tool 
manufacturing firms to compete successfully with foreign toolmakers. 
14. Opponents of laws that require automobile drivers and passengers to wear seat belts argue that in a free 
society people have the right to take risks as long as the people do not harm other as a result of taking the risks. 
As a result, they conclude that it should be each person’s decision whether or not to wear a seat belt.  
Which of the following, if true, most seriously weakens the conclusion drawn above? 
A. Many new cars are built with seat belts that automatically fasten when someone sits in the front seat. 
B. Automobile insurance rates for all automobile owners are higher because of the need to pay for the 
increased injuries or deaths of people not wearing seat belts. 
C. Passengers in airplanes are required to wear seat belts during takeoffs and landings. 
D. The rate of automobile fatalities in states that do not have mandatory seat belt laws is greater than the rate 
of fatalities in states that do have such laws. 
E. In automobile accidents, a greater number of passengers who do not wear seat belts are injured than are 
passengers who do wear seat belts. 
6
15. The cost of producing radios in Country Q is ten percent less than the cost of producing radios in Country Y. 
even after transportation fees and tariff charges are added, it is still cheaper for a company to import radios from 
Country Q to Country Y than to produce radios in Country Y.  
The statements above, if true, best support which of the following assertions? 
A. labor costs in Country Q are ten percent below those in Country Y.  
B. importing radios from Country Q to Country Y will eliminate ten percent of the manufacturing jobs in Country 
Y. 
C. the tariff on a radio imported from Country Q to Country Y is less than ten percent of the cost of 
manufacturing the radio in Country Y. 
D. the fee for transporting a radio from Country Q to Country Y is more than ten percent of the cost of 
manufacturing the radio in Country Q. 
E. it takes ten percent less time to manufacture a radios in Country Q than it does in Country Y. 
16. During the Second World War, about 375,000 civilians died in the United States and about 408,000 members 
of the United States armed forces died overseas. On the basis the those figures, it can be concluded that it was 
not much more dangerous to be overseas in the armed forces during the Second World War than it was to stay 
at home as a civilian.  
Which of the following would reveal most clearly the absurdity of the conclusion drawn above? 
A. Counting deaths among members of the armed forces who served in the United State in addition to deaths 
among members of the armed forces serving overseas 
B. Expressing the difference between the numbers of deaths among civilians and members of the armed 
forces as a percentage of the total number of deaths 
C. Separating deaths caused by accidents during service in the armed forces from deaths caused by combat 
injuries 
D. Comparing death rates per thousand members of each group rather than comparing total numbers of deaths 
E. Comparing deaths caused by accidents in the United States to deaths caused by combat in the armed 
forces 
17. Toughened hiring standards have not been the primary cause of the present staffing shortage in public 
schools. The shortage of teachers is primarily caused by the fact that in recent years teachers have not 
experienced any improvements in working conditions and their salaries have not kept pace with salaries in other 
professions. 
Which of the following, if true, would most support the claims above? 
A. Many teachers already in the profession would not have been hired under the new hiring standards. 
B. Today more teachers are entering the profession with a higher educational level than in the past. 
C. Some teachers have cited higher standards for hiring as a reason for the current staffing shortage. 
D. Many teachers have cited low pay and lack of professional freedom as reasons for their leaving the 
profession. 
E. Many prospective teachers have cited the new hiring standards as a reason for not entering the profession.  
18. A proposed ordinance requires the installation in new homes of sprinklers automatically triggered by the 
presence of a fire. However, a home builder argued that because more than ninety percent of residential fires 
are extinguished by a household member, residential sprinklers would only marginally decrease property 
damage caused by residential fires. 
Which of the following, if true, would most seriously weaken the home builder’s argument? 
A. most individuals have no formal training in how to extinguish fires. 
B. Since new homes are only a tiny percentage of available housing in the city, the new ordinance would be 
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