Page 1 Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume. (i) After this expansion, what is the gas volume? (ii) Determine the gas temperature after this step. In the next process, the gas pressure is decreased at constant volume until the original temperature is reached. (iii) After this decrease in gas pressure, what is the value of the pressure? In the final process, the gas is retured to its initial volume by isothermally compressing it. (iv) Determine the final gas pressure. (v) Using appropriate scales on both axes, show the full three-step process on a p - V diagram. Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Description: Practice using the ideal gas law with a series of questions in which all but two gas parameters are held fixed. Learning Goal: To understand the ideal gas law and be able to apply it to a wide variety of situations. Page 2 Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume. (i) After this expansion, what is the gas volume? (ii) Determine the gas temperature after this step. In the next process, the gas pressure is decreased at constant volume until the original temperature is reached. (iii) After this decrease in gas pressure, what is the value of the pressure? In the final process, the gas is retured to its initial volume by isothermally compressing it. (iv) Determine the final gas pressure. (v) Using appropriate scales on both axes, show the full three-step process on a p - V diagram. Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Description: Practice using the ideal gas law with a series of questions in which all but two gas parameters are held fixed. Learning Goal: To understand the ideal gas law and be able to apply it to a wide variety of situations. The absolute temperature , volume , and pressure of a gas sample are related by the ideal gas law, which states that . Here is the number of moles in the gas sample and is a gas constant that applies to all gases. This empirical law describes gases well only if they are sufficiently dilute and at a sufficiently high temperature that they are not on the verge of condensing. In applying the ideal gas law, must be the absolute pressure, measured with respect to vacuum and not with respect to atmospheric pressure, and must be the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins (that is, with respect to absolute zero). If is in pascals and is in cubic meters, use . If is in atmospheres and is in liters, use instead. Part A A gas sample enclosed in a rigid metal container at room temperature (20 ) has an absolute pressure . The container is immersed in hot water until it warms to 40 . What is the new absolute pressure ? Part A.1 How to approach the problem To find the final pressure, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now manipulate the ideal gas law ( ) so that , , and , the constants in this situation, are isolated on the right side of the equation: . Since the right side of the equation is a constant in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of Page 3 Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume. (i) After this expansion, what is the gas volume? (ii) Determine the gas temperature after this step. In the next process, the gas pressure is decreased at constant volume until the original temperature is reached. (iii) After this decrease in gas pressure, what is the value of the pressure? In the final process, the gas is retured to its initial volume by isothermally compressing it. (iv) Determine the final gas pressure. (v) Using appropriate scales on both axes, show the full three-step process on a p - V diagram. Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Description: Practice using the ideal gas law with a series of questions in which all but two gas parameters are held fixed. Learning Goal: To understand the ideal gas law and be able to apply it to a wide variety of situations. The absolute temperature , volume , and pressure of a gas sample are related by the ideal gas law, which states that . Here is the number of moles in the gas sample and is a gas constant that applies to all gases. This empirical law describes gases well only if they are sufficiently dilute and at a sufficiently high temperature that they are not on the verge of condensing. In applying the ideal gas law, must be the absolute pressure, measured with respect to vacuum and not with respect to atmospheric pressure, and must be the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins (that is, with respect to absolute zero). If is in pascals and is in cubic meters, use . If is in atmospheres and is in liters, use instead. Part A A gas sample enclosed in a rigid metal container at room temperature (20 ) has an absolute pressure . The container is immersed in hot water until it warms to 40 . What is the new absolute pressure ? Part A.1 How to approach the problem To find the final pressure, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now manipulate the ideal gas law ( ) so that , , and , the constants in this situation, are isolated on the right side of the equation: . Since the right side of the equation is a constant in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final pressure. Part A.2 Convert temperatures to kelvins To apply the ideal gas law, all temperatures must be in absolute units (i.e., in kelvins). What is the initial temperature in kelvins? ANSWER: = 0 20 100 273 293 The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales have the same unit size, so to convert from degrees Celsius to kelvins, just add 273. Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = This modest temperature increase (in absolute terms) leads to a pressure increase of just a few percent. Note that it is critical for the temperatures to be converted to absolute units. If you had used Celsius temperatures, you would have predicted that the pressure should double, which is far greater than the actual increase. Part B Nitrogen gas is introduced into a large deflated plastic bag. No gas is allowed to escape, but as more and more nitrogen is added, the bag inflates to accommodate it. The pressure of the gas within the bag remains at 1 and its temperature remains at room temperature (20 ). How many moles have been introduced into the bag by the time its volume reaches 22.4 ? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Rearrange the ideal gas law to isolate . Be sure to use the value for in units that are consistent with the rest of the problem and hence will cancel out to leave moles at the end. Express your answer in moles. ANSWER: = One mole of gas occupies 22.4 at STP (standard temperature and pressure: 0 and 1 ). This fact may be worth memorizing. In this problem, the temperature is slightly higher than STP, so the gas expands and 22.4 can be filled by slightly less than 1 of gas. Page 4 Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume. (i) After this expansion, what is the gas volume? (ii) Determine the gas temperature after this step. In the next process, the gas pressure is decreased at constant volume until the original temperature is reached. (iii) After this decrease in gas pressure, what is the value of the pressure? In the final process, the gas is retured to its initial volume by isothermally compressing it. (iv) Determine the final gas pressure. (v) Using appropriate scales on both axes, show the full three-step process on a p - V diagram. Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Description: Practice using the ideal gas law with a series of questions in which all but two gas parameters are held fixed. Learning Goal: To understand the ideal gas law and be able to apply it to a wide variety of situations. The absolute temperature , volume , and pressure of a gas sample are related by the ideal gas law, which states that . Here is the number of moles in the gas sample and is a gas constant that applies to all gases. This empirical law describes gases well only if they are sufficiently dilute and at a sufficiently high temperature that they are not on the verge of condensing. In applying the ideal gas law, must be the absolute pressure, measured with respect to vacuum and not with respect to atmospheric pressure, and must be the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins (that is, with respect to absolute zero). If is in pascals and is in cubic meters, use . If is in atmospheres and is in liters, use instead. Part A A gas sample enclosed in a rigid metal container at room temperature (20 ) has an absolute pressure . The container is immersed in hot water until it warms to 40 . What is the new absolute pressure ? Part A.1 How to approach the problem To find the final pressure, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now manipulate the ideal gas law ( ) so that , , and , the constants in this situation, are isolated on the right side of the equation: . Since the right side of the equation is a constant in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final pressure. Part A.2 Convert temperatures to kelvins To apply the ideal gas law, all temperatures must be in absolute units (i.e., in kelvins). What is the initial temperature in kelvins? ANSWER: = 0 20 100 273 293 The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales have the same unit size, so to convert from degrees Celsius to kelvins, just add 273. Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = This modest temperature increase (in absolute terms) leads to a pressure increase of just a few percent. Note that it is critical for the temperatures to be converted to absolute units. If you had used Celsius temperatures, you would have predicted that the pressure should double, which is far greater than the actual increase. Part B Nitrogen gas is introduced into a large deflated plastic bag. No gas is allowed to escape, but as more and more nitrogen is added, the bag inflates to accommodate it. The pressure of the gas within the bag remains at 1 and its temperature remains at room temperature (20 ). How many moles have been introduced into the bag by the time its volume reaches 22.4 ? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Rearrange the ideal gas law to isolate . Be sure to use the value for in units that are consistent with the rest of the problem and hence will cancel out to leave moles at the end. Express your answer in moles. ANSWER: = One mole of gas occupies 22.4 at STP (standard temperature and pressure: 0 and 1 ). This fact may be worth memorizing. In this problem, the temperature is slightly higher than STP, so the gas expands and 22.4 can be filled by slightly less than 1 of gas. Part C Some hydrogen gas is enclosed within a chamber being held at 200 with a volume of 0.025 . The chamber is fitted with a movable piston. Initially, the pressure in the gas is (about 1.5 ). The piston is slowly extracted until the pressure in the gas falls to . What is the final volume of the container? Assume that no gas escapes and that the temperature remains at 200 . Part C.1 How to approach the problem To find the final volume, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now look at the ideal gas law: . Since , , and are all constants in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final volume. Enter your answer numerically in cubic meters. ANSWER: = Notice how is not needed to answer this problem and neither is , although you do make use of the fact that is a constant. Part D Some hydrogen gas is enclosed within a chamber being held at 200 whose volume is 0.025 . Initially, the pressure in the gas is (about 15 ). The chamber is removed from the heat source and allowed to cool until the pressure in the gas falls to . At what temperature does this occur? Part D.1 How to approach the problem To find the final temperature, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Page 5 Course PHYSICS260 Assignment 5 Consider ten grams of nitrogen gas at an initial pressure of 6.0 atm and at room temperature. It undergoes an isobaric expansion resulting in a quadrupling of its volume. (i) After this expansion, what is the gas volume? (ii) Determine the gas temperature after this step. In the next process, the gas pressure is decreased at constant volume until the original temperature is reached. (iii) After this decrease in gas pressure, what is the value of the pressure? In the final process, the gas is retured to its initial volume by isothermally compressing it. (iv) Determine the final gas pressure. (v) Using appropriate scales on both axes, show the full three-step process on a p - V diagram. Introduction to the Ideal Gas Law Description: Practice using the ideal gas law with a series of questions in which all but two gas parameters are held fixed. Learning Goal: To understand the ideal gas law and be able to apply it to a wide variety of situations. The absolute temperature , volume , and pressure of a gas sample are related by the ideal gas law, which states that . Here is the number of moles in the gas sample and is a gas constant that applies to all gases. This empirical law describes gases well only if they are sufficiently dilute and at a sufficiently high temperature that they are not on the verge of condensing. In applying the ideal gas law, must be the absolute pressure, measured with respect to vacuum and not with respect to atmospheric pressure, and must be the absolute temperature, measured in kelvins (that is, with respect to absolute zero). If is in pascals and is in cubic meters, use . If is in atmospheres and is in liters, use instead. Part A A gas sample enclosed in a rigid metal container at room temperature (20 ) has an absolute pressure . The container is immersed in hot water until it warms to 40 . What is the new absolute pressure ? Part A.1 How to approach the problem To find the final pressure, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now manipulate the ideal gas law ( ) so that , , and , the constants in this situation, are isolated on the right side of the equation: . Since the right side of the equation is a constant in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final pressure. Part A.2 Convert temperatures to kelvins To apply the ideal gas law, all temperatures must be in absolute units (i.e., in kelvins). What is the initial temperature in kelvins? ANSWER: = 0 20 100 273 293 The Celsius and Kelvin temperature scales have the same unit size, so to convert from degrees Celsius to kelvins, just add 273. Express your answer in terms of . ANSWER: = This modest temperature increase (in absolute terms) leads to a pressure increase of just a few percent. Note that it is critical for the temperatures to be converted to absolute units. If you had used Celsius temperatures, you would have predicted that the pressure should double, which is far greater than the actual increase. Part B Nitrogen gas is introduced into a large deflated plastic bag. No gas is allowed to escape, but as more and more nitrogen is added, the bag inflates to accommodate it. The pressure of the gas within the bag remains at 1 and its temperature remains at room temperature (20 ). How many moles have been introduced into the bag by the time its volume reaches 22.4 ? Hint B.1 How to approach the problem Rearrange the ideal gas law to isolate . Be sure to use the value for in units that are consistent with the rest of the problem and hence will cancel out to leave moles at the end. Express your answer in moles. ANSWER: = One mole of gas occupies 22.4 at STP (standard temperature and pressure: 0 and 1 ). This fact may be worth memorizing. In this problem, the temperature is slightly higher than STP, so the gas expands and 22.4 can be filled by slightly less than 1 of gas. Part C Some hydrogen gas is enclosed within a chamber being held at 200 with a volume of 0.025 . The chamber is fitted with a movable piston. Initially, the pressure in the gas is (about 1.5 ). The piston is slowly extracted until the pressure in the gas falls to . What is the final volume of the container? Assume that no gas escapes and that the temperature remains at 200 . Part C.1 How to approach the problem To find the final volume, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now look at the ideal gas law: . Since , , and are all constants in this situation, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final volume. Enter your answer numerically in cubic meters. ANSWER: = Notice how is not needed to answer this problem and neither is , although you do make use of the fact that is a constant. Part D Some hydrogen gas is enclosed within a chamber being held at 200 whose volume is 0.025 . Initially, the pressure in the gas is (about 15 ). The chamber is removed from the heat source and allowed to cool until the pressure in the gas falls to . At what temperature does this occur? Part D.1 How to approach the problem To find the final temperature, you must first determine which quantities in the ideal gas law remain constant in the given situation. Note that is always a constant. Determine which of the other four quantities are constant for the process described in this part. Check all that apply. ANSWER: Now manipulate the ideal gas law ( ) so that , , and , the constants in this situation, are isolated on the right side of the equation: . Since the right side of the equation is a constant in this part, the quantity , which is always equal to , must be the same at the beginning and the end of the process. Therefore, set . Plug in the values given in this part and then solve for , the final temperature. Enter your answer in degrees Celsius. ANSWER: = This final temperature happens to be close to room temperature. Hydrogen remains a gas to temperatures well below that, but if this question had been about water vapor, for example, the gas would have condensed to liquid water at 100 and the ideal gas law would no longer have applied. Understanding pV Diagrams Description: Several qualitative and conceptual questions related to pV-diagrams. Learning Goal: To understand the meaning and the basic applications of pV diagrams for an ideal gas. As you know, the parameters of an ideal gas are described by the equation , where is the pressure of the gas, is the volume of the gas, is the number of moles, is the universal gas constant, and is the absolute temperature of the gas. It follows that, for a portion of an ideal gas,Read More

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