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General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 1 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

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Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 29 to Question 31. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Education, without a doubt, has an important functional, instrumental and utilitarian dimension. This is revealed when one asks questions such as ‘what is the purpose of education?’. The answers, too often, are ‘to acquire qualifications for employment/ upward mobility’, ‘wider/higher (in terms of income) opportunities’, and ‘to meet the needs for trained human power in diverse fields for national development’. But in its deepest sense education is not instrumentalist. That is to say, it is not to be justified outside of itself because it leads to the acquisition of formal skills or of certain desired psychological – social attributes. It must be respected in itself. Education is thus not a commodity to be acquired or possessed and then used, but a process of inestimable importance to individuals and society, although it can and does have enormous use value. Education then, is a process of expansion and conversion, not in the sense of converting or turning students into doctors or engineers, but the widening and turning out of the mind—the creation, sustenance and development of self-critical awareness and independence of thought. It is an inner process of moral-intellectual development.    [2012 - II]


Question 1: What do you understand by the ‘instrumentalist’ view of education? 
(a) Education is functional and utilitarian in its purposes. 
(b) Education is meant to fulfil human needs. 
(c) The purpose of education is to train the human intellect.
(d) Education is meant to achieve moral development.

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The passage clearly suggests that education is not instrumentalist in its deepest sense. But the opening sentence calls it to be functional, instrumental and utilitarian. Thus the instrumentalist view of education is the functional and utilitarian dimension in its purposes.


Question 2: According to the passage, education must be respected in itself because 
(a) it helps to acquire qualifications for employment 
(b) it helps in upward mobility and acquiring social status 
(c) it is an inner process of moral and intellectual development 
(d) All the (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The second part of the passage clearly states education is not a commodity but a process of expansion and conversion of the mind – the moral and intellectual development. Acquiring qualifications, upward mobility and social status are the basic utility values of education.


Question 3: Education is a process in which 
(a) students are converted into trained professionals. 
(b) opportunities for higher income are generated. 
(c) individuals develop self-critical awareness and independence of thought. 
(d) qualifications for upward mobility are acquired.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Again the second part clearly states the answer. a, b & d are the utilitarian dimensions of education. But ultimately education leads to self-critical awareness and independence of thought.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 32 to Question 37. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Chemical pesticides lose their role in sustainable agriculture if the pests evolve resistance. The evolution of pesticide resistance is simply natural selection in action. It is almost certain to occur when vast numbers of a genetically variable population are killed. One or a few individuals may be unusually resistant (perhaps because they possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide). If the pesticide is applied repeatedly, each successive generation of the pest will contain a larger proportion of resistant individuals. Pests typically have a high intrinsic rate of reproduction, and so a few individuals in one generation may give rise to hundreds or thousands in the next, and resistance spreads very rapidly in a population.
This problem was often ignored in the past, even though the first case of DDT (dichlorodiphenyltrichloroethane) resistance was reported early as 1946. There is exponential increase in the numbers of invertebrates that have evolved resistance and in the number of pesticides against which resistance has evolved. Resistance has been recorded in every family of arthropod pests (including dipterans such as mosquitoes and house flies, as well as beetles, moths, wasps, fleas, lice and mites) as well as in weeds and plant pathogens. Take the Alabama leaf-worm, a moth pest of cotton, as an example. It has developed resistance in one or more regions of the world to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin, lindane and toxaphene.
If chemical pesticides brought nothing but, problems, — if their use was intrinsically and acutely unsustainable — then they would already have fallen out of widespread use. This has not happened. Instead, their rate of production has increased rapidly. The ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use. In the USA, insecticides have been estimated to benefit the agricultural products to the tune of around $5 for every $1 spent.
Moreover, in many poorer countries, the prospect of imminent mass starvation, or of an epidemic disease, are so frightening that the social and health costs of using pesticides have to be ignored. In general the use of pesticides is justified by objective measures such as ‘lives saved’, ‘economic efficiency of food production’ and ‘total food produced’. In these very fundamental senses, their use may be described as sustainable. In practice, sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides that keep at least one step ahead of the pests – pesticides that are less persistent, biodegradable and more accurately targeted all the pests. [2012 - II]


Question 4: “The evolution of pesticide resistance is natural selection in action.” What does it actually imply? 
(a) It is very natural for many organisms to have pesticide resistance. 
(b) Pesticide resistance among organisms is a universal phenomenon. 
(c) Some individuals in any given population show resistance after the application of pesticides. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The sixth lines of the passage states, "one or few individuals may be usually resistant...". Hence, option (c) is correct.


Question 5: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements: 
1. Use of chemical pesticides has become imperative in all the poor countries of the world. 
2. Chemical pesticides should not have any role in sustainable agriculture. 
3. One pest can develop resistance to many pesticides. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (b)

1 is not correct because the passage does not talk about all the poor countries. 2 is not correct because the passage talks about the role of pesticides in sustainable agriculture especially in poor countries. 3 is correct as the 2nd para clearly illustrates Alabama leaf-worm developing resistance to aldrin, DDT, dieldrin, endrin,lindane and toxaphene.


Question 6: Though the problems associated with the use of chemical pesticides is known for a long time, their widespread use has not waned. Why?

(a) Alternatives to chemical pesticides do not exist at all. 
(b) New pesticides are not invented at all. 
(c) Pesticides are biodegradable. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The widespread use of pesticides has not waned because the ratio of cost to benefit for the individual agricultural producer has remained in favour of pesticide use.


Question 7: How do pesticides act as agents for the selection of resistant individuals in any pest population? 
1. It is possible that in a pest population the individuals will behave differently due to their genetic makeup. 
2. Pests do possess the ability to detoxify the pesticides. 
3. Evolution of pesticide resistance is equally distributed in pest population. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 only 
(c) 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Statement 1 finds in the paragraph 1. Statement 2 is mentioned in the paragraph which mentions pests may possess an enzyme that can detoxify the pesticide.


Question 8: Why is the use of chemical pesticides generally justified by giving the examples of poor and developing countries? 
1. Development countries can afford to do away with use of pesticides by adapting to organic farming, but it is imperative for poor and developing countries to use chemical pesticides. 
2. In poor and developing countries, the pesticide addresses the problem of epidemic diseases of crops and eases the food problem. 
3. The social and health costs of pesticide use are generally ignored in poor and developing countries. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 only 
(c) 2 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (c)

1 is not correct as organic farming is not mentioned in the passage. Further the passage justifies the cost benefit to developed countries like USA. 

2 is correct. Because of this problem it becomes imperative to use pesticides. 

3 is wrong as the social and health costs have to be ignored because of the frightening prospects of the epidemic diseases.


Question 9: What does the passage imply? 

(a) Alternative options to chemical pesticides should be promoted. 
(b) Too much use of chemicals is not good for the ecosystem. 
(c) There is no scope for the improvement of pesticides and making their use sustainable. 
(d) Both the statements (a) and (b) above are correct.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The last paragraph states that sustainability depends on continually developing new pesticides. Option (b) states in last line of last paragraph that pesticides are more biodegrade. Therefore, option (a) and (b) both imply.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 38 to Question 43. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Today's developing economices use much less energy per capita than developed countries such as the United States did at similar incomes, showing the potential for lower-carbon growth. Adaptation and mitigation need to be integrated into a climatesmart development strategy that increases resilience, reduces the threat of further global warming, and improves development outcomes. Adaptation and mitigation measures can advance development, and prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions. A healthier population living in better-built houses and with access to bank loans and social security is better equipped to deal with a changing climate and its consequences. Advancing robust, resilient development policies that promote adaptation is needed today because changes in the climate, already begun, will increase even in the short term.
The spread of economic prosperity has always been interwined with adaptation to changing ecological conditions. But as growth has altered the environment and as environmental change has accelerated, sustaining growth and adaptability demands greater capacity to understand our environment, generate new adaptive technologies and practices, and diffuse them widely. As economic historians have explained, much of humankind's creative potential has been directed at adapting to the changing world. But adaptation cannot cope with all the impacts related to climate change, especially as larger changes unfold in the long term.
Countries cannot grow out of harm's way fast enough to match the changing climate. And some growth strategies, whether driven by the government or the market, can also add to vulnerability — particularly if they overexploit natural resources. Under the Soviet development plan, irrigated cotton cultivation expanded in water-stressed Central Asia and led to the near disappearance of the Aral Sea, threatening the livelihoods of fishermen, herders and farmers. And clearing mangroves — the natural coastal buffers against storm surges — to make way for intensive farming or housing development , increases the physical vulnerability of coastal settlements, whether in Guinea or in Louisiana. [2012 - II]


Question 10: Which of the following conditions of growth can add to vulnerability?
1. When the growth occurs due to excessive exploitation of mineral resources and forests. 
2. When the growth brings about a change in humankind's creative potential. 
3. When the growth is envisaged only for providing houses and social security to the people. 
4. When the growth occurs due to emphasis on farming only. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only 
(c) 1 and 4 only 
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Only 1 makes sense. According to the 3rd paragraph second line, ‘And some growth ........................... natural resources.’ 2, 3 & 4 are irrelevant statements.


Question 11: What does low-carbon growth imply in the present context? 
1. More emphasis on the use of renewable sources of energy. 
2. Less emphasis on manufacturing sector and more emphasis on agriculture sector. 
3. Switching over from monoculture practices to mixed farming. 
4. Less demand for goods and services. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only 
(c) 1 and 4 only 
(d) None of the above implies low-carbon growth

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Low carbon implies renewable source of energy which are low on carbon and can be used and recycled. Whole passage emphasise on use of renewable sources of energy.


Question 12: Which of the following conditions is/are necessary for sustainable economic growth? 
1. Spreading of economic prosperity more. 
2. Popularising/spreading of adaptive technologies widely. 
3. Investing on research in adaptation and mitigation technologies. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (b)

1 is not correct as economic prosperity can raise incomes and foster better institutions but it cannot foster sustainable economic growth. 2 is correct. Generating adaptive technologies can lead to a sustainable growth as discussed in para 2. 3 is correct. As investing on research in adaptation will help us in better handling of the changing climate.



Question 13: Which of the following inferences can be made from the passage? 
1. Rainfed crops should not be cultivated in irrigated areas. 
2. Farming under water-deficient areas should not be a part of development strategy. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Neither statement 1 nor 2 can be inferred from the given passage.


Question 14: Consider the following assumptions: 
1. Sustainable economic growth demands the use of creative potential of man. 
2. Intensive agriculture can lead to ecological backlash. 
3. Spread of economic prosperity can adversely affect the ecology and environment. With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Statement 1 finds support in second paragraph: As economic/historians have explained, much of humankind's.....world.
Statement 2 mentioned in last paragraph in the form of soviet development plan which led to ecological backlash.
Statement 3 also mentioned in the last paragraph. Hence, (d) is correct choice.


Question 15: Which one of the following statements constitutes the central theme of this passage? 
(a) Countries with greater economic prosperity are better equipped to deal with the consequences of climate change. 
(b) Adaptation and mitigation should be integrated with development strategies. 
(c) Rapid economic growth should not be pursued by both developed and developing economies. 
(d) Some countries resort to overexploitation of natural resources for the sake of rapid development.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The central theme of the passage is clear that adaptation and mitigation should be integrated with development strategies. The author is not against development but a sustainable development what he is talking about.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 44 to Question 48. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Invasions of exotic species into new geographic areas sometimes occur naturally and without human agency. However, human actions have increased this trickle to a flood. Human-caused introductions may occur either accidentally as a consequence of human transport, or intentionally but illegally to serve some private purpose or legitimately to procure some hoped-for public benefit by bringing a pest under control, producing new agricultural products or providing novel recreational opportunities. Many introduced species are assimilated into communities without much obvious effect. However, some have been responsible for dramatic changes to native species and natural communities. For example, the accidental introduction of the brown tree snake "Boiga irregularis" into Guam, an island in the Pacific, has through nest predation reduced 10 endemic forest bird species to the point of extinction.
One of the major reasons for the world's great biodiversity is the occurrence of centers of endemism so that similar habitats in different parts of the world are occupied by different groups of species that happen to have evolved there. If every species naturally had access to everywhere on the globe, we might expect a relatively small number of successful species to become dominant in each biome. The extent to which this homogenization can happen naturally is restricted by the limited powers of dispersal of most species in the face of the physical barriers that exist to dispersal. By virtue of the transport opportunities offered by humans, these barriers have been breached by an ever-increasing number of exotic species. The effects of introductions have been to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into something much more homogeneous.
It would be wrong, however, to conclude that introducing species to a region will inevitably cause a decline in species richness there. For example, there are numerous species of plants, invertebrates and vertebrates found in continental Europe but absent from the British Isles (many because they have so far failed to recolonize after the last glaciations). Their introduction would be likely to augment British biodiversity. The significant detrimental effect noted above arises where aggressive species provide a novel challenge to endemic biotas ill-equipped to deal with them.    [2012 - II]


Question 16: With reference to the passage, which of the following statements is correct? 
(a) Introduction of exotic species into new geographical areas always leads to reduced biodiversity. 
(b) Exotic species introduced by man into new areas have always greatly altered the native ecosystems. 
(c) Man is the only reason to convert a hugely diverse range of local community compositions into more homogeneous ones. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) is correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Option (a) is incorrect because the passage states that introduction of exotic species into geographical areas may increase biodiversity as well.
Option (b) is incorrect because it cannot say that introduction of exotic species by man into new areas have always and greatly altered the ecosystems.
Option (c) is incorrect because homogenization of local community population can also occur nationally


Question 17: Why does man introduce exotic species into new geographical areas? 1. To breed exotic species with local varieties. 
2. To increase agricultural productivity. 
3. For beautification and landscaping. Which of the above statements is/are correct?
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The first paragraph provides that human introduce exotic species to breed exotic species with local varieties (producing new agricultural products), to increase agricultural productivity (bringing pest under control) and for beautification and landscaping (recreational opportunities).


Question 18: How is homogenization prevented under natural conditions? 
(a) Evolution of groups of species specific to local habitats. 
(b) Presence of oceans and mountain ranges. 
(c) Strong adaptation of groups of species to local physical and climatic conditions.
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The second paragraph provides that under natural conditions homogenization is prevented on account of natural barriers (ocean and mountain range).


Question 19: How have the human beings influenced the biodiversity? 
1. By smuggling live organisms. 
2. By building highways. 
3. By making ecosystems sensitive so that new species are not allowed. 
4. By ensuring that new species do not have major impact on local species. 
Which of the statements given above are correct? 
(a) 1 and 2 
(b) 2 and 3 
(c) 1 and 3 
(d) 2 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (a)

(a) This obviously the correct answer, because it is the most practical one. It is humanly possible to smuggle live organisms and to build highways. 

(b) It is not easy nor practical to make ecosystems sensitive. So this option is ruled out. 

(c) This option is also ruled out for the above said reason. 

(d) It is very difficult and quite unnecessary to ensure new species do not have an impact on local species. So this option is also ruled out.


Question 20: What can be the impact of invasion of exotic species on an ecosystem? 
1. Erosion of endemic species. 
2. Change in the species composition of the community of the ecosystem. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Both the statements (1) and (2) are correct.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 49 to Question 51. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Most champions of democracy have been rather reticent in suggesting that democracy would itself promote development and enhancement of social welfare–they have tended to see them as good but distinctly separate and largely independent goals. The detractors of democracy, on the other hand, seemed to have been quite willing to express their diagnosis of what they see as serious tensions between democracy and development. The theorists of the practical split — ‘‘Make up your mind : do you want democracy, or instead, do you want development ?’’ — often came, at least to start with, from East Asian countries, and their voice grew in influence as several of these countries were immensely successful — through the 1970s and 1980s and even later — in promoting economic growth without pursuing democracy.
To deal with these issues we have to pay particular attention to both the content of what can be called development and to the interpretation of democracy (in particular to the respective roles of voting and of public reasoning). The assessment of development cannot be divorced from the lives that people can lead and the real freedom that they enjoy. Development can scarcely be seen merely in terms of enhancement of inanimate objects of convenience, such as a rise in the GNP (or in personal incomes), or industrialization – important as they may be as means to the real ends. Their value must depend on what they do to the lives and freedom of the people involved, which must be central to the idea of development.
If development is understood in a broader way, with a focus on human lives, then it becomes immediately clear that the relation between development and democracy has to be seen partly in terms of their constitutive connection, rather than only through their external links. Even though the question has often been asked whether political freedom is ‘‘conducive to development’’, we must not miss the crucial recognition that political liberties and democratic rights are among the “constituent components” of development. Their relevance for development does not have to be established indirectly through their contribution to be growth of GNP.    [2012 - II]


Question 21: According to the passage, why is a serious tension perceived between democracy and development by the detractors of democracy? 
(a) Democracy and development are distinct and separate goals. 
(b) Economic growth can be promoted successfully without pursuing a democratic system of governance. 
(c) Non-democratic regimes deliver economic growth faster and far more successfully than democratic ones. 
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The first paragraph in the passage conveys the message that the detractors of democracy are quite vocal about that fact that a number of non-democratic governments particularly in East Asia have successfully achieved economic development.
Options (a), (c) and (d) are automatically ruled out.


Question 22: According to the passage, what should be the ultimate assessment/aim/view of development? 
(a) Rise in the per capita income and industrial growth rates. 
(b) Improvement in the Human Development Index and GNP. 
(c) Rise in the savings and consumption trends. 
(d) Extent of real freedom that citizens enjoy.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The second and last paragraphs illustrate the fact that freedom and liberty are essential components of development.


Question 23: What does a ‘‘constitutive’’ connection between democracy and development imply? 
(a) The relation between them has to be seen through external links. 
(b) Political and civil rights only can lead to economic development. 
(c) Political liberties and democratic rights are essential elements of development.
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The “constitutive” connection between


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 1 to Question 5. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Now India's children have a right-to receive at least eight years of education, the gnawing question is whether it will remain on paper or become a reality. One hardly needs a reminder that this right is different from the others enshrined in the Constitution, that the beneficiary – a six year old child cannot demand it, nor can she or he fight a legal battle when the right is denied or violated. In all cases, it is the adult society which must act on behalf of the child. In another peculiarity, where a child's right to education is denied, no compensation offered later can be adequate or relevant. This is so because childhood does not last. If a legal battle fought on behalf of a child is eventually won, it may be of little use to the boy or girl because the opportunity missed at school during childhood cannot serve the same purpose later in life. This may be painfully true for girls because our society permits them only a short childhood, if at all. The Right to Education (RTE) has become law at a point in India's history when the ghastly practice of female infanticide has resurfaced in the form of foeticide. This is "symptomatic of a deeper turmoil" in society which is compounding the traditional obstacles to the education of girls. Tenacious prejudice against the intellectual potential of girls runs across our cultural diversity and the system of education has not been able to address it.    [2011 - II]

Question 24:  With reference to the passage, consider the following statements :
1. When children are denied education, adult society does not act on behalf of them.
2. Right to Education as a law cannot be enforced in the country.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Statement 1 is correct as passage clearly states ‘‘In all cases, it is the ... behalf of the child.’’


Question 25:  According to the passage, what could be the traditional obstacles to the education of girls ?
1. Inability of parents to fight a legal battle when the Right to Education is denied to their children.
2. The traditional way of thinking about girls' role in society.
3. The prejudice against the intellectual potential of girls.
4. Improper system of education.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2, 3 and 4 only
(c) 1, 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Statement 1 is not correct as not stated by the passage. Statements 2 & 3 are correct as stated in passage ‘‘This is ... to the education of girls.’’ Statement 4 is correct as the

faulty education system.


Question 26: On the basis of the passage, consider the following statements:
1. Right to Education is a legal right and not a fundamental right.
2. For realising the goal of universal education, the education system in the country must be made identical to that of developed countries.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?

(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Statement 1 is correct as stated in the passage ‘‘one hardly needs .... denied or violated.’’ Statement 2 is irrelevant as developed countries have not been mentioned in the passage.


Question 27: Which one of the following statements conveys the key message of the passage ?
(a) India has declared that education is compulsory for its children.
(b) Adult society is not keen on implementing the Right to Education.
(c) The Right to Education, particularly of a girl child, needs to be safeguarded.
(d) The system of education should address the issue of Right to Education.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Statement (c) is correct as the passage clearly states that ‘‘ This may be painfully ...if at all.’’


Question 28: Which one of the following statements conveys the inference of the passage ?
(a) The society has a tenacious prejudice against the intellectual potential of girls.
(b) Adults cannot be relied upon to fight on behalf of children for their Right to Education.
(c) The legal fight to get education for children is often protracted and prohibitive.
(d) There is no sufficient substitute for education received in childhood.

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Since girl's education is the key message, so, prejudice against the intellectual potential of girls.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 6 to Question 10. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

For achieving inclusive growth there is a critical need to rethink the role of the State. The early debate among economists about the size of the Government can be misleading. The need of the hour is to have an enabling Government. India is too large and complex a nation for the State to be able to deliver all that is needed. Asking the Government to produce all the essential goods, create all the necessary jobs, and keep a curb on the prices of all goods is to lead to a large cumbersome bureaucracy and widespread corruption.
The aim must be to stay with the objective of inclusive growth that was laid down by the founding fathers of the nation and also to take a more modern view of what the State can realistically deliver.
This is what leads to the idea of an enabling State, that is, a Government that does not try to directly deliver to the citizens everything that they need. Instead, it (1) creates an enabling ethos for the market so that individual enterprise can flourish and citizens can, for the most part, provide for the needs of one another, and (2) steps in to help those who do not manage to do well for themselves, for there will always be individuals, no matter what the system, who need support and help. Hence we need a Government that, when it comes to the market, sets effective, incentive-compatible rules and remains on the sidelines with minimal interference, and at the same time, plays an important role in directly helping the poor by ensuring that they get basic education and health services and receive adequate nutrition and food.    [2011 - II]


Question 29: According to the passage :
1. The objective of inclusive growth was laid down by the founding fathers of the nation.
2. Need of the hour is to have an enabling Government.
3. The Government should engage in maximum interference in market processes.
4. There is a need to change the size of the Government.
Which of the statements given above are correct ?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Statement 3 is eliminated as the government should sideline with minimal interference. Statement 4 is eliminated as change in size of government.


Question 30: According to the passage, the strategy of inclusive growth can be effected by focusing on
(a) Meeting all the needs of every citizen in the country.
(b) Increasing the regulations over the manufacturing sector.
(c) Controlling the distribution of manufactured goods.
(d) Delivery of the basic services to the deprived sections of the society.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Strategy of inclusive growth can be effected by focusing on delivery of the basic services to the deprived section of the society. It is clearly stated in the passage
‘‘The aim must be .... state can realistically deliver.’’


Question 31:  What constitutes an enabling Government?
1. A large bureaucracy.
2. Implementation of welfare programmes through representatives.
3. Creating an ethos that helps individual enterprise.
4. Providing resources to those who are underprivileged.
5. Offering direct help to the poor regarding basic services.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only
(b) 4 and 5 only
(c) 3, 4 and 5 only
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Correct Answer is Option (b)

According to given passage only 4 and 5 are that constitutes.

 

Question 32: Why is the State unable to deliver "all that is needed"?
1. It does not have sufficient bureaucracy.
2. It does not promote inclusive growth.
Select the correct answer from the codes given below :
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (b)

State does not promote inclusive growth as stated in 2nd para ‘‘ the aim ... realistically deliver.’’


Question 33: What is the essential message being conveyed by the author of the passage?
(a) The objectives of inclusive growth laid down by the founding fathers of the nation should be remembered.
(b) The Government needs to make available more schools and health services.

(c) The Government needs to establish markets and industries to meet the needs of the poor strata of the society.

(d) There is a need to rethink the role of the State in achieving inclusive growth.

Correct Answer is Option (d)
Options (a), (b) and (c) cannot be the message. The only sentence that talks of a message is option (d) which is the main idea of the passage.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 11 to Question 14. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The concept of ‘creative society’ refers to a phase of development of a society in which a large number of potential contradictions become articulate and active. This is most evident when oppressed social groups get politically mobilised and demand their rights. The upsurge of the peasants and tribals, the movements for regional autonomy and self-determination, the environmental movements, and the women’s movements in the developing countries are signs of emergence of creative society in contemporary times. The forms of social movements and their intensity may vary from country to country and place to place within a country. But the very presence of movements for social transformation in various spheres of a society indicates the emergence of a creative society in a country.    [2011 - II]


Question 34: What does the author imply by "creative society" ?
1. A society where diverse art forms and literary writings seek incentive.
2. A society where social inequalities are accepted as the norm.
3. A society where a large number of contradictions are recognised.
4. A society where the exploited and the oppressed groups grow conscious of their human rights and upliftment. Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1, 2 and 3
(b) 4 only
(c) 3 and 4
(d) 2 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (c)

1 is eliminated as ‘‘ art form’’ is not mentioned in the passage. Social inequalities are not accepted. Only 3 and 4 are mentioned in the passage.


Question 35: What according to the passage are the manifestations of social movements ?
1. Aggressiveness and being incendiary.
2. Instigation by external forces.
3. Quest for social equality and individual freedom.
4. Urge for granting privileges and self-respect to disparaged sections of the society. Select the correct answer using the codes given below:
(a) 1 and 3 only
(b) 2 and 4 only
(c) 3 and 4 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

According to passage Instigation by external forces (social group get politically .... ) and ‘‘urge for granting privileges and self respect to disparaged section of the society’’ are manifestations of social movements.


Question 36: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements:
1. To be a creative society, it is essential to have a variety of social movements.
2. To be a creative society, it is imperative to have potential contradictions and conflicts.
Which of the statements given above is/are correct ?
(a) 1 only
(b) 2 only
(c) Both 1 and 2
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Statement 1 is correct as stated in the passage ‘‘The forms of .... in a country’’. Statement 2 is correct as ‘‘phase of development ..... active’’.


Question 37: Consider the following three statements:
1. Only students can participate in the race.
2. Some participants in the race are girls.
3. All girl participants in the race are invited for coaching.
Which one of the following conclusions can be drawn from the above statements ?
(a) All participants in the race are invited for coaching.
(b) All students are invited for coaching.
(c) All participants in the race are students.
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct.

Correct Answer is Option (c)
Some participants in the race are girls (I - type) All girl participants is the race are invited for coaching (A - type)
(I + A = I - type)
Thus, some participants in the race are invited for coaching Hence, conclusions (a), (b) and (c) cannot be drawn from the above statements but conclusion (c) is the conversion of statement 1.
Hence, option (c) can be drawn.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 15 to Question 18. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

A country under foreign domination seeks escape from the present in dreams of a vanished age, and finds consolation in visions of past greatness. That is a foolish and dangerous pastime in which many of us indulge. An equally questionable practice for us in India is to imagine that we are still spiritually great though we have come down in the world in other respects. Spiritual or any other greatness cannot be founded on lack of freedom and opportunity, or on starvation and misery. Many western writers have encouraged that notion that Indians are other-worldly. I suppose the poor and unfortunate in every country become to some extent other-worldly, unless they become revolutionaries, for this world is evidently not meant for them. So also subject peoples.
As a man grows to maturity he is not entirely engrossed in, or satisfied with, the external objective world. He seeks also some inner meaning, some psychological and physical satisfaction. So also with peoples and civilizations as they mature and grow adult. Every civilization and every people exhibit these parallel streams of an external life and an internal life. Where they meet or keep close to each other, there is an equilibrium and stability. When they diverge conflict arises and the crises that torture the mind and spirit.   [2011 - II]


Question 38: The passage mentions that "this world is evidently not meant for them". It refers to people who 
1. seek freedom from foreign domination. 
2. live in starvation and misery. 
3. become revolutionaries. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 
(a) 1 and 2 
(b) 2 only 
(c) 2 and 3 (d) 3 only

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Only statements 1 and 2 are true as people who turn revolutionary are not ‘other-wordly’ unless world shows the contradiction.


Question 39: Consider the following assumptions: 
1. A country under foreign domination cannot indulge in spiritual pursuit. 
2. Poverty is an impediment in the spiritual pursuit. 
3. Subject peoples may become other-worldly. With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid ? 
(a) 1 and 2 
(b) 2 only 
(c) 2 and 3
(d) 3 only

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Only assumptions 2 and 3 are valid as for achieving anything great one has to be free of worries of basic needs and should be mentally as well as physically free.


Question 40: The passage thematically centres on 
(a) the state of mind of oppressed people 
(b) starvation and misery 
(c) the growth of civilization 
(d) body, mind and spirit of people in general

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The passage thematically centres on the state of mind of oppressed people as they cannot dream of freedom or aspire for any kind of opportunity.


Question 41: According to the passage, the torture of the mind and spirit is caused
(a) by the impact of foreign domination. 
(b) by the desire to escape from foreign domination and find consolation in visions of past greatness. 
(c) due to lack of equilibrium between an external life and an internal life. 
(d) due to one's inability to be either revolutionary or other worldly.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Option (c) is the correct answer as stated in the passage ‘‘ Every civilization.....life’’


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 19 to Question 22. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

A species that exerts an influence out of proportion to its abundance in an ecosystem is called a keystone species. The keystone species may influence both the species richness of communities and the flow of energy and materials through ecosystems. The sea star "Pisaster ochraceus", which lives in rocky intertidal ecosystems on the Pacific coast of North America, is also an example of a keystone species. Its preferred prey is the mussel "Mytilus californianus". In the absence of sea stars, these mussels crowd out other competitors in a broad belt of the intertidal zone. By consuming mussels, sea star creates bare spaces that are taken over by a variety of other species. A study at the University of Washington demonstrated the influence of "Pisaster" on species richness by removing sea stars from selected parts of the intertidal zone repeatedly over a period of five years. Two major changes occurred in the areas from which sea stars were removed. First, the lower edge of the mussel bed extended farther down into the intertidal zone, showing that sea stars are able to eliminate mussels completely where they are covered with water most of the time. Second, and more dramatically, 28 species of animals and algae disappeared from the sea star removal zone. Eventually only Mytilus, the dominant competitor, occupied the entire substratum. Through its effect on competitive relationships, predation by "Pisaster" largely determines which species live in these rocky intertidal ecosystems. [2011 - II]


Question 42: What is the crux of the passage ? 
(a) Sea star has a preferred prey. 
(b) A preferred prey determines the survival of a keystone species. 
(c) Keystone species ensures species diversity. 
(d) Sea star is the only keystone species on the Pacific coast of North America.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Option (c) is correct answer as the author shows that not only mussels are affected but other 28 species also disappeared.


Question 43: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements : 
1. Mussels are generally the dominant species in intertidal ecosystems. 
2. The survival of sea stars is generally determined by the abundance of mussels. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Neither 1 nor 2 is correct as the dominant species is the keystone species and that is sea star. The sea stars do not live exclusively on mussels as their removal resulted in the disappearance of further 28 species.


Question 44: Which of the following is/are implied by the passage? 
1. Mussels are always hard competitors for sea stars. 
2. Sea stars of the Pacific coast have reached the climax of their evolution. 
3. Sea stars constitute an important component in the energy flow in intertidal ecosystem. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 and 2 
(b) 2 only 
(c) 1 and 3 
(d) 3 only

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Only 1 and 3 are correct statements as the Mussels are always hard competitors for sea stars, and ‘sea stars’ are the keystone species which influences both richness of communities and flow of energy.


Question 45: Consider the following assumptions: 
1. The food chains/food web in an ecosystem are influenced by keystone species. 
2. The presence of keystone species is a specific characteristic of aquatic ecosystems. 
3. If the keystone species is completely removed from an ecosystem, it will lead to the collapse of the ecosystem.With reference to the passage, which of the above assumptions is/are valid ? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 

(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Assumption 1 is correct as disappearance of 28 species along with mussels. Assumption 3 is also correct according to the passage.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 23 to Question 25. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Ecosystems provide people with a variety of goods and services; food, clean water, clean air, flood control, soil stabilization, pollination, climate regulation, spiritual fulfilment and aesthetic enjoyment, to name just a few. Most of these benefits either are irreplaceable or the technology necessary to replace them is prohibitively expensive. For example, potable fresh water can be provided by desalinating sea-water, but only at great cost. The rapidly expanding human population has greatly modified the Earth's ecosystems to meet their increased requirements of some of the goods and services, particularly food, fresh water, timber, fibre and fuel. These modifications have contributed substantially to human well being and economic development. The benefits have not been equally distributed. Some people have actually been harmed by these changes. Moreover, shortterm increases in some ecosystem goods and services have come at the cost of the long-term degradation of others. For example, efforts to increase the production of food and fibre have decreased the ability of some ecosystems to provide clean water, regulate flooding and support biodiversity.    [2011 - II]


Question 46: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements. Expanding human population has an adverse effect on : 
1. Spiritual fulfilment 
2. Aesthetic enjoyment 
3. Potable fresh water 
4. Production of food and fibre 
5. Biodiversity Which of the statements given above are correct ? 
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(b) 2, 4 and 5 only 
(c) 3 and 5 only 
(d) 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5

Correct Answer is Option (c)

with reference to the passage, only 3 and 5 are adverse effect as potable fresh water and bio-diversity are drastically affected.


Question 47: The passage mentions that “some people have actually been harmed by these changes”. What does it imply ? 
1. The rapid expansion of population has adversely affected some people: 
2. Sufficient efforts have not been made to increase the production of food and fibre. 
3. In the short term some people may be harmed, but in the long term everyone will benefit from modifications in the Earth’s ecosystems. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) 1 and 3 
(d) None of the above

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Statement 2 is not correct as the efforts are being taken. 3 is also not correct as the short term gain have resulted into long term degradation of other.


Question 48: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements: 1. It is imperative to modify the Earth’s ecosystems for the well being of mankind. 2. Technology can never replace all the goods and services provided by ecosystems. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Both statements are correct as ecosystem provide people with variety of goods and benefits, they have to be modified considering the population expansion. Secondly technology will always remain expensive and nature is above man.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 26 to Question 28. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

A moral act must be our own act; must spring from our own will. If we act mechanically, there is no moral content in our act. Such action would be moral, if we think it proper to act like a machine and do so. For, in doing so, we use our discrimination. We should bear in mind the distinction between acting mechanically and acting intentionally. It may be moral of a king to pardon a culprit. But the messenger carrying out the order of pardon plays only a mechanical part in the king’s moral act. But if the messenger were to carry out the king’s order considering it to be his duty, his action would be a moral one. How can a man understand morality who does not use his own intelligence and power of thought, but lets himself be swept along like a log of wood by a current ? Sometimes a man defies convention and acts on his own with a view to absolute good.    [2011 - II]


Question 49: Which of the following statements best describe/describes the thought of the writer ? 
1. A moral act calls for using our discretion. 
2. Man should react to a situation immediately 
3. Man must do his duty. 
4. Man should be able to defy convention in order to be moral. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 3 
(c) 2 and 3 
(d) 1 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Statement 1 is correct as the writer talks of ‘moral act that should be done by our own will’. Statement 4 is also correct as the personal thinking and in order to be moral one can defy convention.


Question 50: Which of the following statements is the nearest definition of moral action, according to the writer ? 
(a) It is a mechanical action based on official orders from superiors.
(b) It is an action based on our sense of discretion.
(c) It is a clever action based on the clarity of purpose.
(d) It is a religious action based on understanding.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

According to the writer moral action is neither mechanical nor with clarity of purpose and religious action.


Question 51: The passage contains a statement “lets himself be swept along like a log of wood by a current.” Among the following statements, which is/are nearest in meaning to this ? 
1. A person does not use his own reason. 
2. He is susceptible to influence/pressure. 
3. He cannot withstand difficulties/ challenges. 
4. He is like a log of wood. Select the correct answer using the codes given below :
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 

(c) 2 and 3 
(d) 1 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Only statements 1 and 2 are correct as let himself be swept away means he does not hold his own ground.

The document General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 1 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions.
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