UPSC  >  UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions  >  General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2

General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

1 Crore+ students have signed up on EduRev. Have you?

Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 97 to Question 99. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

In recent times, India has grown fast not only compared to its own past but also incomparison with other nations. But there cannot be any room for complacency because it is possible for the Indian economy to develop even faster and also to spread the benefits of this growth more widely than has been done thus far. Before going into details of the kinds of micro-structural changes that we need to conceptualize and then proceed to implement, it is worthwhile elaborating on the idea of inclusive growth that constitutes the defining concept behind this Government's various economic policies and decisions. A nation interested in inclusive growth views the same growth differently depending on whether the gains of the growth are heaped primarily on a small segment or shared widely by the population. The latter is cause for celebration but not the former. In other words, growth must not be treated as an end in itself but as an instrument for spreading prosperity to all. India's own past experience and the experience of other nations suggests that growth is necessary for eradicating poverty but it is not a sufficient condition. In other words, policies for promoting growth need to be complemented with policies to ensure that more and more people join in the growth process and, further, that there are mechanisms inplace to redistribute some of the gains to those who are unable to partake in the market process and, hence, get left behind.
A simple way of giving this idea of inclusive growth a sharper form is to measure a nation's progress in terms of the progress of its poorest segment, for instance the bottom 20 per cent of the population. One could measure the per capita income of the bottom quintile of the population and also calculate the growth rate of income; and evaluate our economic success in terms of these measures that pertain to the poorest segment. This approach is attractive because it does not ignore growth like some of the older heterodox criteria did. It simply looks at the growth of income of the poorest sections of the population. It also ensures that those who are outside of the bottom quintile do not get ignored. If that were done, then those people would in all likelihood drop down into the bottom quintile and so would automatically become a direct target of our policies. Hence the criterion being suggested here is a statistical summing up of the idea of inclusive growth, which, in turn, leads to two corollaries : to wish that India must strive to achieve high growth and that we must work to ensure that the weakest segments benefit from the growth.    [2014 - II]

Question 52: The author's central focus is on. 
(a) applauding India's economic growth not only against its own past performance, but against other nations. 
(b) emphasizing the need for economic growth which is the sole determinant of a country's prosperity. 
(c) emphasizing inclusive growth where gains of growth are shared widely by the population. 
(d) emphasizing high growth.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

In this passage the author wants to convey that the best way to ensure the prosperity and further economic growth of the nation is by implementing inclusive growth where the benefits of growth are shared by the entire population and not by certain segments only.


Question 53: The author supports policies which will help 
(a) develop economic growth. 
(b) better distribution of incomes irrespective of rate of growth. 
(c) develop economic growth and redistribute economic gains to those getting left behind. 
(d) put an emphasis on the development of the poorest segments of society.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

To make the process of inclusive growth more effective the author suggests that we should not only concentrate on the poorer sections of society, but also ensure that the rich and middle class stand to gain certain points. In this way it will be possible to redistribute the economic gains made by these sections of society to those getting left behind.


Question 54: Consider the following statements : According to the author, India's economy has grown but there is no room for complacency as 
1. growth eradicates poverty. 
2. growth has resulted in prosperity for all. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 
(a) 1only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1and 2 
(d) Neither 1nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (d)

According to the passage eradication of poverty is not a sufficient condition for growth. So statement (1) is ruled out. Growth has to be treated as an instrument for ensuring prosperity for all. But this is yet to be attained. So India has to strive on. So statement (2) is also ruled out.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 93 to Question 96. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

It is essential that we mitigate the emissions of greenhouse gases and thus avoid some of the worst impacts of climate change that would take place in coming years and decades. Mitigation would require a major shift in the way we produce and consume energy. A shift away from overwhelming dependence on fossil fuels is now long overdue, but unfortunately, technological development has been slow and inadequate largely because government policies have not promoted investments in research and development, myopically as a result of relatively low prices of oil. It is now, therefore, imperative for a country like India treating the opportunity of harnessing renewable energy on a large scale as a national imperative. This country is extremely well endowed with solar, wind and biomass sources of energy. Where we have lagged, unfortunately, is in our ability to develop and to create technological solutions for harnessing these resources.
One particular trajectory for carryingout stringent mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions assessed by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) clearly shows the need for ensuring that global emissions of greenhouse gases peak no later than 2015 and reduce rapidly thereafter. The cost associated with such a trajectory is truly modest and would amount, in the estimation of IPCC, to not more than 3 percent of the global GDP in 2030. In other words, the level of prosperity that the world would have reached without mitigation would at worst be postponed by a few months or a year at the most. This is clearly not a very high price to pay for protecting hundreds of millions of people from the worst risks associated with climate change. Any such effort, however, would require lifestyles to change appropriately also. Mitigation of greenhouse gas emissions is not a mere technological fix, and clearly requires changes in lifestyles and transformation of a country's economic structure, whereby effective reduction in emissions is brought about, such as through the consumption of much lower quantities of animal protein. The Food and Agriculture
Organization (FAO) has determined that the emissions from the livestock sector amount to 18 percent of the total. The reduction of emissions from this source is entirely in the hands of human beings, who have never questioned the impacts that their dietary habits of consuming more and more animal protein are bringing about. Mitigation overall has huge co-benefits, such as lower air pollution and health benefits, higher energy security and greater employment.     [2014 - II]

Question 55: According to the passage, which of the following would help in the mitigation of greenhouse gases ? 
1. Reducing the consumption of meat 
2. Rapid economic liberalization 
3. Reducingthe consumerism 
4. Modern management practices of livestock Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1,2 and 3 
(b) 2, 3 and 4 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 2 and 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (c)

According to the passage there should be changes in lifestyle; especially the overuse of technology should be stopped at all costs as stated in statement (3). There should be less consumption of animal protein that is meat. The FAQ or the Food Administration Organization claims that nearly 18% of greenhouse gases are emitted from livestock. So statement (1) is also true.


Question 56: Why do we continue to depend on the fossil fuels heavily? 
1. Inadequate technological development 
2. Inadequate funds for research and development 
3. Inadequate availability of alternative sources of energy Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1and 3 only 
(d) 1,2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (a)

As Indians we continue to depend on fossil fuel heavily because of the lack of investment in research and development in other forms of energy which are so readily available. The lack of technological development prevents us from harnessing the resources of wind, solar and biomass energy, which are readily available.


Question 57: According to the passage, how does the mitigation of greenhouse gases help us ? 
1. Reduces expenditure on public health 
2. Reduces dependence on livestock 
3. Reduces energy requirements 4. Reduces rate of global climate change Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1,2 and 3 
(b) 1, 3 and 4 
(c) 2, 3 and 4 
(d) 1and 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (d)

According to the passage the mitigation of greenhouse gases cause lower air pollution, this will lead to better health among the public, as a result there will be less expenditure on public health as stated in statement (1); scientists have already predicted that the emission of greenhouse gases will have disastrous impact on climate change in the next 30 years and worst still after that. So statement (4) is also correct.


Question 58: What is the essential message of the passage ? 
(a) We continue to depend on fossil fuels heavily 
(b) Mitigation of the greenhouse gases is imperative 
(c) We must invest in research and development 
(d) People must change their lifestyle

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The essential message conveyed by the passage is that it is absolutely essential to reduce to a very great extent the emission of greenhouse gases into the atmosphere.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 91 to Question 92. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Climate change poses potentially devastating effects on India's agriculture. While the overall parameters of climate change are increasingly accepted - a 1°C average temperature increase over the next 30 years, sea level rise of less than 10 cm in the same period, and regional monsoon variations and corresponding droughts - the impacts in India are likely to be quite site and crop specific. Some crops may respond favourably to the changing conditions, others may not. This emphasizes the need to promote agricultural research and create maximum flexibility in the system to permit adaptations.
The key ingredient for “drought proofing” is the managed recharge of aquifers. To ensure continued yields of important staple crops (e.g. wheat), it may also be necessary to shift the locations where these crops are grown, in response to temperature changes as well as to water availability. The latter will be a key factor in making long term investment decisions.
For example, water runoff from the Himalayas is predicted to increase over the next 30 years as glaciers melt, but then decline substantially thereafter. It will be critical to provide incentives to plan for these large-scale shifts in agro-ecological conditions.
India needs to make long term investment in research and development in agriculture. India is likely to experience changed weather patterns in future. [2014 - II]

Question 59: Consider the following statements: Climate change may force the shifting of locations of the existing crops due to 
1. melting of glaciers. 
2. water availability and temperature suitability at other locations. 
3. poor productivity of crops. 
4. wider adaptability of crop plants. Which of the statements given above are correct ? 
(a) 1,2 and 3 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1and 4 only 
(d) 1,2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (a)

According to the passage the melting of glaciers from the Himalayas will lead to increased run-offs or flow of water in the next 30 years, after which it will decrease, so statement (1) is one of the factors which will force the shifting of location of existing crops due to climatic conditions. Temperatures will increase by 1degree centigrade over the same period all over the world, and the sea level is expected to rise by 10cm, so obviously very hot places cannot be suitable for certain crops. So statement (2) is also correct. Due to drought conditions and monsoon variations certain areas will give poor crop productivity. So crop production will have to be shifted to more suitable areas to adjust with ecological imbalances. Hence statement (3) has to be included in the answer too.


Question 60: According to the passage, why is it important to promote agricultural research in India? 
(a) To predict variations in monsoon patterns and to manage water resources 
(b) To make long term investment decisions for economic growth 
(c) To facilitate wider adaptability of crops 
(d) To predict drought conditions and to recharge aquifers

Correct Answer is Option (c)

As India is likely to experience changed weather patterns in the future it is important to invest in research and development in agriculture so that it is possible to locate and indentify the areas which will be most suitable for different crops.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 87 to Question 90. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Net profits are only 2.2% of their total assets for central public sector undertakings, lower than for the private corporate sector. While the public sector or the State-led entrepreneurship played an important role in triggering India's industrialization, our evolving development needs, comparatively less-than-satisfactory performance of the public sector enterprises, the maturing of our private sector, a much larger social base now available for expanding entrepreneurship and the growing institutional capabilities to enforce competition policies would suggest that the time has come to review the role of public sector. What should the portfolio composition of the government be? It should not remain static all times. The airline industry works well as a purely private affair. At the opposite end, rural roads, whose sparse traffic makes tolling unviable, have to be on the balance-sheet of the State. If the government did not own rural roads, they would not exist. Similarly, public health capital in our towns and cities will need to come from the public sector. Equally, preservation and improvement of forest cover will have to be a new priority for the public sector assets.
Take the example of steel. With near-zero tariffs, India is a globally competitive market for the metal. Indian firms export steel into the global market, which demonstrates there is no gap in technology. Indian companies are buying up global steel companies, which shows there is no gap in capital availability. Under these conditions, private ownership works best.
Private ownership is clearly desirable in regulated industries, ranging from finance to infrastructure, where a government agency performs the function of regulation and multiple competing firms are located in the private sector. Here, the simple and clean solution - government as the umpire and the private sector as the players is what works best. In many of these industries, we have a legacy of government ownership, where productivity tends to be lower, fear of bankruptcy is absent, and the risk of asking for money from the tax payer is ever present. There is also the conflict of interest between government as an owner and as the regulator. The formulation and implementation of competition policy will be more vigorous and fair if government companies are out of action.     [2014 - II]


Question 61: According to the passage, what is/are the reason/reasons for saying that the time has come to review the role of public sector ? 
1. Now public sector has lost its relevance in the industrialization process. 
2. Public sector does not perform satisfactorily. 
3. Entrepreneurship in private sector is expanding. 
4. Effective competition policies are available now. Which of the statements given above is/are correct in the given context ? 
(a) 1and 3 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) 2, 3 and 4 only 
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (c)

According to the passage net profits are only 2.2% as far as the central public sector undertakings are concerned. So statement (2) is correct. The private sector has grown. There is a larger base with more educated and moneyed people around. Hence statement (3) is correct too from the point of view of the paragraph. The role of governmental institutions in encouraging competition among the private sector enterprises ensures the continuing growth of this sector. Hence, Statement (4) is also correct.


Question 62: According to the passage, rural roads should be in the domain of public sector only. Why ? 
(a) Rural development work is the domain of government only. 
(b) Private sector cannot have monetary gains in this. 
(c) Government takes money from tax payers and hence it is the responsibility of government only. 
(d) Private sector need not have any social responsibility.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The rural roads should be in the domain of the public sector only because the sparse or the little traffic in these roads makes it impossible to make profits on the road tax or tolls as they are called.


Question 63: The portfolio composition of the government refers to 
(a) Public sector assets quality. 
(b) Investment in liquid assets. 
(c) Mix of government investment in different industrial sectors. 
(d) Buying Return on Investment yielding capital assets.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The government does invest in different industrial sectors. This is what the paragraph says. Indeed there is governmental investment in a variety of industries from airlines, roads, steel, and finance to industries where the private sector plays a prominent role. For in the latter it acts as the umpire or the regulating agency so as to create a competitive atmosphere for the growth of entrepreneurship.


Question 64: The author prefers government as the umpire and private sector as players because 
(a) Government prescribes norms for a fair play by the private sector. 
(b) Government is the ultimate in policy formulation. 
(c) Government has no control over private sector players. 
(d) None of the above statements is correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The government acts as a regulating agency by prescribing broad norms within which the private enterprises can conduct their business in an atmosphere of fair and fearless competition. That is why the government is made the umpire in a field of business players.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 84 to Question 86. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Many nations now place their faith in capitalism and governments choose it as the strategy to create wealth for their people. The spectacular economic growth seen in Brazil, China and India after the liberalisation of their economies is proof of its enormous potential and success. However, the global banking crisis and the economic recession have left many bewildered. The debates tend to focus on free market operations and forces, their efficiency and their ability for self correction. Issues of justice, integrity and honesty are rarely elaborated to highlight the failure of the global banking system. The apologists of the system continue to justify the success of capitalism and argue that the recent crisis was a blip.
Their arguments betray an ideological bias with the assumptions that an unregulated market is fair and competent, and that the exercise of private greed will be in the larger public interest.
Few recognize the bidirectional relationship between capitalism and greed; that each reinforces the other. Surely, a more honest conceptualisation of the conflicts of interest among the rich and powerful players who have benefited from the system, their biases and ideology is needed; the focus on the wealth creation should also highlight the resultant gross inequity.    [2014 - II]


Question 65: The apologists of the "Free Market System", according to the passage, believe in 
(a) market without control by government authorities. 
(b) market without protection by the government. 
(c) ability of market to self correct. 
(d) market for free goods and services.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The apologists of the free market system believe in the ability of the market to self correct. Their discussions are generally about free market operations and forces, on the efficiency of such enterprises and their ability for self correction.


Question 66: With reference to "ideological bias", the passage implies that 
(a) free market is fair but not competent. 
(b) free market is not fair but competent. 
(c) free market is fair and competent. 
(d) free market is neither fair nor biased.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Ideological bias means an opinion that is of a partial nature. Here the idea expressed in the passage is that an unregulated market is free and competent.


Question 67: The exercise of private greed will be in the larger public interest" from the passage 1. refers to the false ideology of capitalism. 
2. underlies the righteous claims of the free market. 
3. shows the benevolent face of capitalism. 
4. ignores resultant gross inequity. Which of the statements given above is/are correct ? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 
(c) 1and 4 
(d) 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (c)

It is clearly said that the arguments betray meaning give away a biased opinion. So statement (1) referring to the false ideology of capitalism is one of the options. It is also mentioned that a more honest analysis would reflect the resultant gross inequality. So statement (4) is also the correct option.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 61 to Question 62. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Ecological research over the last quarter of the century has established the deleterious effects of habitat fragmentation due to mining, highways and such other intrusions on forests. When a large block of forests gets fragmented into smaller bits, the edges of all these bits come into contact with human activities resulting in the degradation of the entire forests. Continuity of forested landscapes and corridors gets disrupted affecting several extinction-prone species of wildlife. Habitat fragmentation is therefore considered as the most serious threat to biodiversity conservation. Ad hoc grants of forest lands to mining companies coupled with rampant illegal mining is aggravating this threat.    [2013 - II]


Question 68: What is the central focus of this passage ? 
(a) Illegal mining in forests 
(b) Extinction of wildlife 
(c) Conservation of nature 
(d) Disruption of habitat

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The passage revolves around the problem of habitat fragmentation which poses a serious threat to biodiversity conservation.


Question 69: What is the purpose of maintaining the continuity of forested landscapes and corridors? 
1. Preservation of biodiversity. 
2. Management of mineral resources. 
3. Grant of forest lands for human activities. Select the correct answer using the codes given below. 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 
(c) 2 and 3 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (a)

When forest lands get fragmented human activities start on the edges of these fragmented lands which results in degradation of entire forests. Therefore continuity of the forested landscapes and corridors should be maintained.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 63 to Question 67. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The law in many parts of the world increasingly restricts the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses. The simplest and often the most economically sound practice returns the material to the land as semisolid manure or as sprayed slurry. This dilutes its concentration in the environment to what might have occurred in a more primitive and sustainable types of agriculture and converts pollutant into fertilizer. Soil microoganisms decompose the organic components of sewage and slurry and most of the mineral nutrients become available to be absorbed again by the vegetation.
The excess input of nutrients, both nitrogen and phosphorus – based, agricultural runoff (and human sewage) has caused many ‘healthy’ oligotrophic lakes (low nutrient concentrations, low plant productivity with abundant water weeds, and clear water) to change to "eutrophic" condition where high nutrient inputs lead to high phytoplankton productivity (sometimes dominated by bloom-forming toxic species). This makes the water turbid, eliminates large plants and, in the worst situations, leads to anoxia and fish kills; so called cultural eutrophication. Thus, important ecosystem services are lost, including the provisioning service of wild-caught fish and the cultural services associated with recreation.
The process of cultural eutrophication of lakes has been understood for some time. But only recently did scientists notice huge ‘dead zones’ in the oceans near river outlets., particularly those draining large catchment areas such as the Mississippi in North America and the Yangtze in China. The nutrient-enriched water flows through streams, rivers and lakes, and eventually to the estuary and ocean where the ecological impact may be huge, killing virtually all invertebrates and fish in areas up to 70,000 km2 in extent. More than 150 sea areas worldwide are now regularly starved of oxygen as a result of decomposition of algal blooms, fuelled particularly by nitrogen from agricultural runoff of fertilizers and sewage from large cities. Oceanic dead zones are typically associated with industrialized nations and usually lie off countries that subsidize their agriculture, encouraging farmers to increases productivity and use more fertilizer.    [2013 - II]


Question 70: According to the passage, why should the discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses be restricted? 
1. Losing nutrients in this way is not a good practice economically. 

2. Watercourses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry. 
3. The discharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The discharge of agricultural slurry into watercourses should be restricted because watercourses do not contain the microorganisms that can decompose organic components of agricultural slurry. Secondly, the discharge may lead to the eutrophication of water bodies.


Question 71: The passage refers to the conversion of “pollutant to fertilizer”. What is pollutant and what is fertilizer in this context? 

(a) Decomposed organic component of slurry is pollutant and microorganisms in soil constitute fertilizer. 
(b) Discharged agricultural slurry is pollutant and decomposed slurry in soil is fertilizer. 
(c) Sprayed slurry is pollutant and watercourses is fertilizer. 
(d) None of the above expressions is correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Discharged agricultural slurry has been referred to as pollutant and decomposed slurry in soil as fertilizer.


Question 72: According to the passage, what are the effects of indiscriminate use of fertilizers? 
1. Addition of pollutants to the soil and water. 
2. Destruction of decomposer microorganism in soil. 
3. Nutrient enrichment of water bodies. 4. Creation of algal blooms. Select the correct answer from the codes given below: 
(a) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(b) 1 , 3 and 4 only 
(c) 2 and 4 only 
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

The pollutants are added to both the soil and water. Soil doesn't get polluted as microorganisms convert pollutant into fertilizer. Water is enriched with the nutrient which flows through streams, rivers and lakes. These nutrients are responsible for eutrophication which results in decomposition of algal blooms.


Question 73: What is/are the characteristics of a water body with cultural eutrophication? 
1. Loss of ecosystem services 
2. Loss of flora and fauna
3. Loss of mineral nutrients.
Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 and 2 only 
(c) 2 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Cultural eutrophication will result in loss of flora and fauna as eutrophication of water bodies do not allow oxygen to pass through it.


Question 74: What is the central theme of this passage? 
(a) Appropriate legislation is essential to protect the environment.
(b) Modern agriculture is responsible for the destruction of environment. 
(c) Improper waste disposal from agriculture can destroy the aquatic ecosystems.
(d) Use of chemical fertilizers is indesirable in agriculture.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The theme of the passage is based on how the agricultural slurry when discharged in water causes cultural eutrophication resulting ecosystem service loss. The magnitude of the problem has been so much that the scientists have noticed huge 'dead zones' near big water bodies which means destruction of aquatic life.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 68 to Question 69. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The miseries of the world cannot be cured by physical help only. Until man’s nature changes, his physical needs will always arise, and miseries will always be felt, and no amount of physical help will remove them completely. The only solution of the problem is to make mankind pure. Ignorance is the mother of evil and of all the misery we see. Let men have light, let them be pure and spiritually strong and educated; then alone will misery cease in the world. We may convert every house in the country into a charitable asylum, we may fill the land with hospitals, but human misery will continue until man’s character changes.     [2013 - II] 


Question 75: According to the passage, which of the following statements is most likely to be true as the reason for man’s miseries? 
(a) The poor economic and social conditions prevailing in society. 
(b) The refusal on the part of man to change his character. 
(c) The absence of physical and material help from his society. 
(d) Ever increasing physical needs due to changing social structure.

Correct Answer is Option (b)
Man's physical need is never going to cease as long as man is craving for it. Desire brings along miseries. If man doesn't realize this and keeps on doing what he is doing then no physical help can reduce his miseries. It is man's nature which is responsible for all the miseries. The only solution to this is man's spiritual growth and bringing change in his character.


Question 76: With reference to the passage, the following assumptions have been made” 
1. The author gives primary importance to physical and material help in eradicating human misery. 
2. Charitable homes, hospitals, etc. can remove human misery to a great extent.
Which of the assumption is/are valid? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (d)

The author gives primary importance to spiritual growth in man in eradicating human misery.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 70 to Question 71. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The subject of democracy has become severely muddled because of the way the rhetoric surrounding it has been used in recent years. There is, increasingly, an oddly confused dichotomy between those who want to ‘impose’ democracy on countries in the non-Western world (in these countries’ ‘own interest’, of course) and those who are opposed to such ‘imposition’ (because of the respect for the countries’ ‘own ways’). But the entire language of ‘imposition’, used by both sides, is extraordinarily inappropriate since it makes the implicit assumption that democracy belongs exclusively to the West, taking it to be a quintessentialy ‘Wester’ idea which has originated and flourished only in the West.
But the thesis and the pessimism it generates about the possibility of democratic practice in the world would be extremely hard to justify. There were several experiments in local democracy in ancient India. Indeed, in understanding the roots of democracy in the world, we have to take an interest in the history of people participation and public reasoning in different parts of the world. We have to look beyond thinking of democracy only in terms of European and American evolution. We would fail to understand the pervasive demands for participatory living, on which Aristotle spoke with far-reaching insight, if we take democracy to be a kind of a specialized cultural product of the West.
It cannot, of course, be doubted that the institutional structure of the contemporary practice of democracy is largely the product of European and American experience over the last few centuries. This is extremely important to recognize since these developments in institutional formats were immensely innovative and ultimately effective. There can be little doubt that there is a major ‘Western’ achievement here. [2013 - II]


Question 77: Which of the following is closest to the view of democracy as mentioned in the above passage? 
(a) The subject of democracy is a muddle due to a desire to portray it as a Western concept, ‘alien’ to non- Western countries. 
(b) The language of imposition of democracy is inappropriate. There is, however, a need to consider this concept in the backdrop of culture of ‘own ways’ of non-Western society. 
(c) While democracy is not essentially a Western idea belonging exclusively to the West, the institutional structure of current democratic practices has been their contribution. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The democracies in the west have evolved over a period of time because of people’s participation in the democratic process. The western democracies have institutionalized the various instrument of governance. As a result their democracies are far more robust than the newly formed democracies.


Question 78: With reference to the passage, the following assumption have been made: 
1. Many of the non-Western countries are unable to have democracy because they take democracy to be a specialized cultural product of the West. 
2. Western countries are always trying to impose democracy on non-Western countries. Which of the above is/are valid assumption/assumptions? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 1 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Statement 1 is incorrect.

Statement 2 is also incorrect because it can be inferred from the first paragraph that sometimes western nations are trying to impose democracy on non western nations but it cannot be inferred that western countries are always trying to impose democracy on non western.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 72 to Question 73. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Corporate governance is based on principles such as conducting the business with all integrity and fairness, being transparent with regard to all transactions, making all the necessary disclosures and decisions, complying with all the laws of the land, accountability and responsibility towards the stakeholders and commitment to conducting business in an ethical manner. Another point which is highlighted on corporate governance is the need for those in control to be able to distinguish between what are personal and corporate funds while managing a company.
Fundamentally, there is a level of confidence that is associated with a company that is known to have good corporate governance. The presence of an active group of independent directors on the board contributes a great deal towards ensuring confidence in the market. Corporate governance is known to be one of the criteria that foreign institutional investors are increasingly depending on when deciding on which companies to invest in. It is also known to have a positive influence on the share price of the company. Having a clean image on the corporate governance front could also make it easier for companies to source capital at more reasonable costs. Unfortunately, corporate governance often becomes the centre of discussion only after the exposure of a large scam. [2013 - II]


Question 79: According to the passage, which of the following should be the practice/practices in good corporate governance? 
1. Companies should always comply with labour and tax laws of the land.
2. Every company in the country should have a government representative as one of the independent directors on the board to ensure transparency. 
3. The manager of a company should never invest his personal funds in the company. 
Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Statement 1 is correct as it can be inferred from the information given in the passage that companies shall comply with all the laws of land.


Question 80: According to the passage, which of the following is/are the major benefit/benefits of good corporate governance? 
1. Good corporate governance leads to increase in share price of the company. 
2. A company with good corporate governance always increases its business turnover rapidly. 
3. Good corporate governance is the main criterion for foreign institutional investors when they decide to buy a company. 
Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 and 3 only 
(c) 1 and 3 only 
(d) 1, 2 and 3

Correct Answer is Option (a)

Good corporate influence have positive influence on the share price of the company as mentioned in last few lines of paragraph. Corporate governance is one of criteria for the foreign institutional investors when they decide to buy a company.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 74 to Question 75. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Malnutrition most commonly occurs between the ages of six months and two years. This happens despite the child’s food requirements being less than that of an older child. Malnutrition is often attributed to poverty, but it has been found that even in households where adults eat adequate quantities of food, more than 50 per cent of children-under-five do not consume enough food. The child’s dependence on someone else to feed him/her is primarily responsible for the malnutrition. Very often the mother is working and the responsibility of feeding the young child is left to an older sibling. It is therefore crucial to increase awareness regarding the child’s food needs and how to satisfy them.    [2013 - II]


Question 81: According to the passage, malnutrition in children can be reduced. 
(a) if the children have regular intake of food 
(b) after they cross the age of five. 
(c) if the food needs of younger children are known. 
(d) if the responsibility of feeding younger children is given to adults.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Malnutrition occurs due to not eating adequate quantity of food. The knowledge of the food needs of younger children can curb this problem.


Question 82: According to the author, poverty is not the main cause of malnutrition, but the fact that 
1. taking care of younger ones is not a priority for working mothers. 
2. awareness of nutritional needs is not propagated by the Public Health authorities. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Taking care of a young child is often left to an older sibling by working mothers. Public health authorities do not find a mention in the passage hence (a) is correct.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 76 to Question 77. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

A number of empirical studies find that farmers are risk-averse, though only moderately in many cases. There is also evidence to show that farmers’ risk aversion results in cropping patterns and input use designed to reduce risk rather than to maximize income. Farmers adopt a number of strategies to manage and cope with agricultural risks. These include practices like crop and field diversification, non-farm ‘employment storage of stocks and strategic migration of family members. There are also institutions ranging from share tenancy to kinship, extended family and informal credit agencies. One major obstacle to risk sharing by farmers is that the same type of risks can affect a large number of farmers in the region. Empirical studies show that the traditional methods are not adequate. Hence there is a need for policy interventions, especially measures that cut across geographical regions.
Polices may aim at tackling agricultural risks directly or indirectly. Examples of risk-specific policies are crop insurance, price stabilization and the development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. Policies which affect risk indirectly are irrigation, subsidized credit and access to information. No single risk-specific policy is sufficient to reduce risk and is without sideeffects, whereas policies not specific to risk influence the general situation and affect risks only indirectly. Crop insurance, as a policy measure to tackle agricultural risk directly, deserves careful consideration in the Indian context and in many other developing countries – because the majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture and in many areas yield variability is the predominant cause of their income instability.    [2013 - II]


Question 83: The need for policy intervention mitigate risks in agriculture is because 
(a) farmers are extremely risk-averse. 
(b) farmers do not know how to mitigate risks. 
(c) the methods adopted by farmers and existing risk sharing institutions are not adequate. 
(d) majority of farmers depend on rain-fed agriculture.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

Policy intervention can save the farmers from agricultural risks. Because Indian farmers are risk averse. So they design inputs and cropping patterns to reduce risk not to maximize their profit.


Question 84: Which of the following observations emerges from the above passage
(a) One can identify a single policy that can reduce risk without any side-effect. 
(b) No single task-specific policy is sufficient to reduce agricultural risk. 
(c) Policies which affect risk indirectly can eliminate it. 
(d) Government’s policy intervention can mitigate agricultural risk completely.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Agricultural risks can be tackled with many strategies like crop insurance, price stabilization, development of varieties resistant to pests and diseases. So no single risk specific policy is sufficient to reduce it.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 78 to Question 81. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Financial markets in India have acquired greater depth and liquidity over the years. Steady reforms since 1991 have led to growing linkages and integration of the Indian economy and its financial system with the global economy. Weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertainties in the international financial markets therefore, have had their impact on the emerging market economies. Sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area, affected financial markets for the greater part of the year, with the contagion of Greece’s soveregin debt problem spreading to India and other economies by way of higher-than normal levels of volatility.
The funding constraints in international financial markets could impact both the availability and cost of foreign funding for banks and corporates. Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated, banks’ ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability. Indian banks, however, remain robust, notwithstanding a decline in capital to risk-weighted assets ratio and a rise in non-performing asset levels in the recent past. Capital adequacy levels remain above the regulatory requirements. The financial market infrastructure continues to function without any major disruption. With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation, and diversification of the financial system, the banking business may become more complex and riskier. Issues like risk and liquidity management and enhancing skill therefore assume greater significance.    [2013 - II]


Question 85: According to the passage, the financial markets in the emerging market economies including India had the adverse impact in recent years due to 
1. weak global economic prospects. 
2. uncertainties in the international financial markets. 
3. sovereign risk concerns in the Euro area. 
4. bad monsoons and the resultant crop loss. Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1 and 2 only 
(b) 1, 2 and 3 
(c) 2 and 3 only 
(d) 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

According to the passage, weak global economic prospects and continuing uncertainties in the international markets as well as sovereign risk concerns, particularly in the Euro area have had their impact on the emerging market economies.


Question 86: The Indian financial markets are affected by global changes mainly due to the 
(a) increased inflow of remittances from abroad 
(b) enormous increases in the foreign exchange reserves. 
(c) growing global linkages and integration of the Indian financial markets. 
(d) contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The Indian financial markets are affected by global changes mainly due to the contagion of Greece’s sovereign debt problem spreading to India.


Question 87: According to the passage, in the Indian financial system, bank’s ability to withstand stress is critical to ensure overall financial stability because Indian financial system is 
(a) controlled by the Government of India 
(b) less integrated with banks. 
(c) controlled by the Reserve of Bank of India. 
(d) dominated by Banks.

Correct Answer is Option (d)

Since the Indian financial system is bank dominated banks ability to withstand stress is critical to overall financial stability.


Question 88: Risk and liquidity management assumes more importance in the Indian banking system in future due to 
1. further globalization. 
2. more consolidation and deregulation of financial system 3. further diversification of the financial system. 
4. more financial inclusion in the economy. Select the correct answer using the code given below: 
(a) 1, 2 and 3 
(b) 2, 3 and 4 
(c) 1 and 2 only 
(d) 3 and 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (a)

With further globalization, consolidation, deregulation and diversification, risk and liquidity management assumes more importance in the Indian banking system in future.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 82 to Question 83. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

Crude mineral oil comes out of the earth as a thick brown or black liquid with a strong smell. It is a complex mixture of many different substances, each with its own individual qualities. Most of them are combinations of hydrogen and carbon in varying proportions. Such hydrocarbons are also found in other forms such as bitumen, asphalt and natural gas. Mineral oil originates from the carcasses of tiny animals and from plants that live in the sea. Over millions of years, these dead creatures form large deposits under the seabed; and ocean currents cover them with a blanket of sand and silt. As this mineral hardens, it becomes sedimentary rock and effectively shuts out the oxygen, so preventing the complete decomposition of the marine deposits underneath. The layers of sedimentary rock become thicker and heavier. Their pressure produces heat, which transforms the tiny carcasses into crude oil in a process that is still going on today.    [2013 - II]


Question 89: Mineral oil deposits under the sea do not get completely decomposed because they 
(a) are constantly washed by the ocean currents. 
(b) become rock and prevent oxygen from entering them. 
(c) contain a mixture of hydrogen and carbon. 
(d) are carcasses of organisms lying in saline conditions.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

When Oxygen is shut from entering the decomposition doesn't take place completely. The Carcasses inside the sedimentary rocks get transformed into crude oil due to heat and pressure.


Question 90: Sedimentary rock leads to the formation of oil deposits because 
(a) there are no saline conditions below it. 
(b) it allows some dissolved oxygen to enter the dead organic matter below it.
(c) weight of overlying sediment layers causes the production of heat. 
d) it contains the substances that catalyze the chemical reactions required to change dead organisms into oil.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The layers of Sedimentary rocks become thicker and heavier due to deposition and create pressure on the marine creatures under it, which in turn change the carcasses into crude oil.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 52 to Question 54. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The need for Competition Law becomes more evident when foreign direct investment (FDI) is liberalized. The impact of FDI is not always pro-competitive. Very often FDI takes the form of a foreign corporation acquiring a domestic enterprise or establishing a joint venture with one. By making such an acquisition the foreign investor may substantially lessen competition and gain a dominant position in the relevant market, thus charging higher prices. Another scenario is where the affiliates of two separate multinational companies (MNCs) have been established in competition with one another in a particular developing economy, following the liberalization of FDI. Subsequently, the parent companies overseas merge. With the affiliates no longer remaining independent, competition in the host country may be virtually eliminated and the prices of the products may be artificially inflated. Most of these adverse consequences of mergers and acquisitions by MNCs can be avoided if an effective competition law is in place. Also, an economy that has implemented an effective competition law is in a better position to attract FDI than one that has not. This is not just because most MNCs are expected to be accustomed to the operation of such a law in their home countries and know how to deal with such concerns but also that MNCs expect competition authorities to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms.    [2012 - II]


Question 91: With reference to the passage, consider the following statements: 
1. It is desirable that the impact of Foreign Direct Investment should be pro-competitive. 

2. The entry of foreign investors invariably leads to the inflated prices in domestic markets. Which of the statements given above is/are correct? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (a)

The effect of FDI or Foreign Direct Investment should be to induce competition because this is ensured in most countries worldwide.


Question 92: According to the passage, how does a foreign investor dominate the relevant domestic market?
1. Multinational companies get accustomed to domestic laws.

2. Foreign companies establish joint ventures with domestic companies.
3. Affiliates in a particular market/sector lose their independence as their parent companies overseas merge.

4. Foreign companies lower the cost of their products as compared to that of products of domestic companies.
Which of the statements given above are correct?
(a) 1 and 2 only
(b) 2 and 3 only
(c) 1, 2 and 3 only
(d) 1, 2, 3 and 4

Correct Answer is Option (b)

(a) The first option of multinational companies getting accustomed to domestic laws is not mentioned at all. So, this is not the correct answer.
(b) Foreign companies may establish joint ventures with domestic or companies may get stronger as the parent companies merge overseas. Both options are mentioned in the paragraph. So, this is the correct answer. (c) Since option (1) is included this is not the right answer. (d) Same as in (c). Moreover option (4) where foreign companies lower costs finds no mention in the paragraph.


Question 93: What is the inference from this passage? 
(a) Foreign investors and multinational companies always dominate the domestic market. 
(b) It is not in the best interests of the domestic economy to allow mergers of companies. 
(c) With competition law, it is easy to ensure a level playing field between domestic and foreign firms. 
(d) For countries with open economy, Foreign Direct Investment is essential for growth.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The message conveyed in the passage is that it is important to have a competition law in the country to ensure that both domestic and foreign firms have a level playing field.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 55 to Question 57. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

The poor especially in market economies, need the strength that collectivities offer for creating more economic, social and political space for themselves, for enhancing their socio-economic wellbeing and voice, and as a protection against free market individualism. It has been argued that a group approach to farming, especially in the form of bottom up agricultural production collectivities, offers substantial scope for poverty alleviation and empowering the poor as well as enhancing agricultural productivity. To realize this potential, however, the groups would need to be voluntary in nature, small in size, participative in decision making and equitable in work sharing and benefit distribution. There are many notable examples of such collectivities to be found in varied contexts, such as in the transition economies. All of them bear witness to the possibility of successful cooperation under given conditions. And although the gender impact of the family cooperatives in the transition economies are uncertain, the Indian examples of women-only groups farming offer considerable potential for benefiting women.    [2012 - II]


Question 94: Agricultural collectivities such as group based farming can provide the rural poor 
1. empowerment. 
2. increased agricultural productivity. 
3. safeguard against exploitative markets. 
4. surplus production of agricultural commodities. Select the correct answer using the codes given below: 
(a) 1, 2, 3 and 4 
(b) 1, 2 and 3 only 
(c) 2 and 4 only 
(d) 1, 3 and 4 only

Correct Answer is Option (b)

This is the first of the passage. Group farming helps remove poverty, increases agricultural productivity and secures the individual from exploitation.
There is no mention of surplus production. So the other options are ruled out.


Question 95: What does the author imply by ‘‘gender impact’’? 
(a) Women are doubtful participants in cooperatives. 
(b) Family cooperatives may not include women. 
(c) Women benefiting from group farming. 
(d) Women’s role in transition economies is highly restrictive.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The last lines of passage mentioned that "the Indian examples of women only groups farming offer potential benefiting women". Hence, (c) is correct choice.


Question 96: Consider the following assumptions: 
1. It is imperative for transition economies to have agricultural collectivities. 
2. Agricultural productivity can be increased by group approach to farming. With reference to the above passage, which of these assumptions is/are valid? 
(a) 1 only 
(b) 2 only 
(c) Both 1 and 2 
(d) Neither 1 nor 2

Correct Answer is Option (b)

(a) There is compulsion on the transition economies to go in for group farming. Therefore, this is not the correct answer.

(b) The paragraph is all about the benefits of group approach to farming. This is the right answer.
(c) Both options correct included.
(d) Both cannot be negated.


Instruction: Read the following passage and answer Question 58 to Question 60. Your answers to these items should be based on the passage only.

Passage

In a typical Western liberal context, deepening of democracy invariably leads to consolidation of 'liberal values'. In the Indian context, democratization is translated into greater involvement of people not as 'individuals' which is a staple to liberal discourse, but as communities or groups. Individuals are getting involved in the public sphere not as ‘atomized’ individuals but as members of primordial communities drawn on religious or caste identity. Community-identity seems to be the governing force. It is not therefore surprising that the so-called peripheral groups continue to maintain their identities with reference to the social groups (caste, religion or sect) to which they belong while getting involved in the political processes despite the fact that their political goals remain more or less identical. By helping to articulate the political voice of the marginalized, democracy in India has led to ‘a loosening of social strictures’ and empowered the peripherals to be confident of their ability to improve the socio-economic conditions in which they are placed. This is a significant political process that had led to a silent revolution through a meaningful transfer of power from the upper caste elites to various subaltern groups within the democratic framework of public governance.     [2012 - II]


Question 97: According to the passage, what does ‘‘deepening of democracy’’ mean in the Western context?
(a) Consolidation of group and class identities. 
(b) Democratization translated as greater involvement of people. 
(c) Democratization as greater involvement of 'atomized' individuals in the public sphere. 
(d) None of the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above is correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

In the Western context “deepening of democracy” means the increased participation of the individuals in the democratic process.
So, the other options (a), (b) and (d) are automatically negated.


Question 98: Greater democratization in India has not necessarily led to 
(a) the dilution of caste and communal identities in the public sphere. 
(b) irrelevance of community identity as a governing force in Indian politics. 
(c) marginalization of elite groups in society. 
(d) relative unimportance of hereditary identities over class identities.

Correct Answer is Option (b)

Community-Identity seems to be the governing force mentioned in seventh line. Therefore option (b) is correct choice.


Question 99: What is the ‘‘silent revolution’’ that has occurred in the Indian democratic process? 
(a) Irrelevance of caste and class hierarchies in political processes. 
(b) Loosening of social strictures in voting behaviour and patterns. 
(c) Social change through transfer of power from upper caste elites to subaltern groups. 
(d) All the statements (a), (b) and (c) given above are correct in this context.

Correct Answer is Option (c)

The involvement of communities in the democratic process in India has led to a silent revolution. The upper castes held power in earlier days. This power is getting slowly, silently and surely transferred to the subaltern groups

In the context of this argument option (a), (b) and (d) are ruled out.

The document General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC is a part of the UPSC Course UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions.
All you need of UPSC at this link: UPSC
98 docs|91 tests
Download as PDF

How to Prepare for UPSC

Read our guide to prepare for UPSC which is created by Toppers & the best Teachers

Download free EduRev App

Track your progress, build streaks, highlight & save important lessons and more!

Related Searches

Viva Questions

,

Objective type Questions

,

study material

,

practice quizzes

,

Summary

,

shortcuts and tricks

,

General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

,

General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

,

Sample Paper

,

Extra Questions

,

Exam

,

video lectures

,

Previous Year Questions with Solutions

,

pdf

,

MCQs

,

General Comprehension - Solved Questions (1995-2020) - 2 - Notes | Study UPSC Topic Wise Previous Year Questions - UPSC

,

Semester Notes

,

past year papers

,

Free

,

ppt

,

mock tests for examination

,

Important questions

;