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Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes Notes | Study Biology Class 12 - NEET

Document Description: Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes for NEET 2022 is part of Biology Class 12 preparation. The notes and questions for Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes have been prepared according to the NEET exam syllabus. Information about Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes covers topics like Principles of Biotechnology and Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes Example, for NEET 2022 Exam. Find important definitions, questions, notes, meanings, examples, exercises and tests below for Glossary: Biotechnology: Principle & Processes.

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Principles of Biotechnology
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Principles of Biotechnology
  • Biotechnology: Biotechnology deals with techniques of using live organisms or enzymes from organisms to produce products and processes useful to humans.
Tools of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Exonuclease & Endonuclease: Exonucleases remove nucleotides from the ends of the DNA whereas endonucleases make cuts at specific positions within the DNA.
  • Gel electrophoresis: The cutting of DNA by restriction endonucleases results in the fragments of DNA. These fragments can be separated by a technique known as gel electrophoresis.
  • Transformation: Transformation is a procedure through which a piece of DNA is introduced in a host bacterium.
  • Micro-injection: In a method micro-injection, recombinant DNA is directly injected into the nucleus of an animal cell.
  • Biolistics: In this method, which is suitable for plants, cells are bombarded with high velocity micro-particles of gold or tungsten coated with DNA in a method known as biolistics or gene gun.
Processes of Recombinant DNA Technology
  • Recombinant Protein: If any protein encoding gene is expressed in a heterologous host, it is called a recombinant protein.
  • Bioreactor: Bioreactors can be thought of as vessels in which raw materials are biologically converted into specific products, individual enzymes, etc., using microbial plant, animal or human cells. A bioreactor provides the optimal conditions for achieving the desired product by providing optimum growth conditions (temperature, pH, substrate, salts, vitamins, oxygen).
  • Downstream Process: The processes include separation and purification, which are collectively referred to as downstream processing.
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