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Glossary and Important Information - Drainage | Social Studies (SST) Class 9 PDF Download

  1. Drainage - A system of flowing water from the higher level to the lower level.
  2. River – A natural stream of flowing water from a mountain/ lake/ spring to the sea, lake or another water body.
  3. Lake –A deep and vast depression on the surface of the earth filled with water.
  4. Dendritic Pattern – The stream with its tributaries resembling the branches of the trees.
  5. Trellis Pattern – The tributaries joining the main stream at the right angles.
  6. Radial Pattern–the streams flowing in different directions from a central peak.
  7. Centrifugal Pattern - Streams emerging from all sides towards the central depression.
  8. Perennial Rivers - Rivers which flow throughout the year.
  9. Tributary–A small stream or river which joins another big river.
  10. Distributary - A channel which branches of from the main river and carry away a part of its water.
  11. Meanders – Winding sections or loops of river that swing from side to side as it flows over a level tract normally along its lower course.
  12. Delta - A more or less triangular and level tract of alluvium formed at the mouth of a river entering a relatively quite body of a river.
  13. Estuary – Tidal mouth of a river where sweet and salty waters freely mix together.
  14. Source of the River – The place the river originates.
  15. Mouth of the river – The place where the river empties itself in the sea or the lake.
  16. River valley – The path followed by the river to its mouth.
  17. Drainage Basin – The entire area in which the river and its tributaries flow.
  18. Water divide or water shed – The higher area separating two drainage basins.
  19. Catchment area – The upland area from which the river draws its water.
  20. The river forms a variety of landforms through its erosion, transportation and deposition throughout its course from the source to mouth.
  21. The Indus River System - It rises in Tibet (near the lake Mansarovar)
    Features: Gentle slope, one of the longest rivers of the world. Indus basin –in Jammu and Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh, Punjab, and Pakistan
  22. The Ganga River System - Headwaters of Ganga-Bhagirathi (source –Gangotri Glacier) and Alaknanda (source –Alkapuri glacier) join at Devprayag.
  23. The Brahmaputra Basin–It rises in Tibet east of lake Mansarovar Features: longer course, in Tibet there is less volume of water, less silt as it is a cold, dry area. In India, the river passes through a region of heavy rainfall, carries large amount of water and lot of silt (layer of fine particles, carried and deposited by rivers) 
  24. The Narmada Basin – It rises in Amarkantak hills in Madhya Pradesh.Features:It flows in a rift valley (trough), drains into Gulf of Khambhat by an estuary (a funnel shaped mouth of a river, river joins the sea directly without depositing the silt) 
  25. The Tapi Basin – it rises in Satpurarange in Madhya Pradesh. Flows in rift valley parallel to Narmada basin-Madhya Pradesh, Gujarat and Maharashtra.
  26. The Godavari Basin – It rises from the slope of Western Ghats in Nasik. Largest peninsular river. Basin –Maharashtra, Madhya Pradesh, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh. Because of its length and area it covers, it is called Dakshin Ganga.
  27. The Mahanadi Basin – It rises in hills of Chhattisgarh. Drainage basin –Maharashtra, Chhattisgarh, Jharkhand, Orissa.
  28. The Krishna Basin – It rises from the spring in Mahabaleshwar. Basin –Maharashtra, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh
  29. The Kaveri Basin – It rises in Brahmagiri range in Western Ghats. Basin –Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu.
  30. Gorge – in the hilly areas when river passes through the bed of hard rocks, the main action is cutting resulting in narrow steep side valley.  Eg:  River Satluj, Indus, Brahmaputra, Gandak, Kosicut the deep gorges in the Himalayas.
  31. V-Shaped valleys – They are formed in areas of sufficient rainfall where the rocks are not hard. Down cutting, side cutting are done simultaneously.
  32. Waterfalls – When the river water falls down almost vertically from the sufficient height along the course of the river it forms the waterfalls. Eg: Jog Falls, Dhuandhar falls
  33. Alluvial plains - It is a fan shaped deposit formed where a fast flowing stream flattens, slows and spreads typically at the exit of a canyon onto a flatter plain.
  34. Floodplain - It is a flat or nearly flat land adjacent to a stream or river that experiences occasional or periodic flooding.
  35. Braided Channels - in streams having highly variable discharge and easily eroded banks, sediments gets deposited to form the bars and the islands that are exposed during the periods of low discharge. In such a stream the water flows in a braided form around the bars and theislands, dividing and reuniting as it flows downstream. 
  36. Dendritic pattern - It is derived from Dendron meaning a tree and develops on uniform rock pattern.

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FAQs on Glossary and Important Information - Drainage - Social Studies (SST) Class 9

1. What is drainage class 9?
Ans. Drainage class 9 refers to a classification system used to categorize lands based on their ability to drain water effectively. It helps in assessing the suitability of land for various purposes such as agriculture, construction, or infrastructure development.
2. How is drainage class 9 determined?
Ans. Drainage class 9 is determined by evaluating the soil's characteristics, including its texture, structure, and permeability. Field observations and laboratory tests are conducted to assess the rate of water movement through the soil profile and its drainage capacity.
3. What are the implications of having a drainage class 9?
Ans. Having a drainage class 9 indicates that the land has poor drainage capability. It means that the soil retains water for longer periods, leading to the accumulation of excess moisture. This can adversely affect agriculture, construction projects, and even cause waterlogging issues.
4. How can drainage class 9 be improved?
Ans. Improving drainage class 9 can be achieved through various measures such as installing drainage systems like subsurface drains, surface drains, or tile drains. Additionally, land grading, contouring, and the incorporation of organic matter can also help improve the drainage capacity of the soil.
5. What are the other drainage classes besides class 9?
Ans. Apart from drainage class 9, there are other classes ranging from 1 to 8, each representing different drainage capabilities. Class 1 represents well-drained soils, while class 8 represents poorly drained soils. The classification helps in understanding the soil's moisture-holding capacity and its suitability for different land uses.
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