UPSC : Governors And Governor-General's - Special Material On Modern India UPSC Notes | EduRev
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GOVERNORS AND GOVERNOR-GENERALS
- Robert Clive (Governor of Bengal from 1757-60 and again 1765-67): Dual government in Bengal (1765-72) i.e. administration of Bengal by two separate powers-the English company and the Nawab; emperor Shah Alam II was taken under the Company’s protection (1765) under second Treaty of Allahabad.
- Verelast (1767-69)
- Cartier (1769-72)
- Warren Hastings: Governor of Bengal from 1772 to 1774; GovernorGeneral of Bengal from 1774 to 1785; established Civil and Criminal courts at district level and the Supreme Court at Calcutta, patron of the Asiatic Society; the first Anglo-Maratha and second Anglo-Mysore war was fought in his regime; the treasury was removed from Murshidabad to Calcutta.
- Sir John Mac Pherson: (1785-86)
- Lord Cornwallis (1786-93 and 1805): Established thanas (Police Stations); founded the British civil service in India; permanent settlement of lands to zamindars (1763) under which zamindars and their successors were allowed to hold their estates at that very assessed rate for ever. The state demand was 89% of the rental; established Cornwallis code for the guidance of otficials.
- Sir John Shore (1793-1798): Followed a policy of non-intervention.
- Lord Wellesley (1798-1805): Described himself as Bengal Tiger, introduced Subsidiary Alliance systemsome states having this alliance, the Nizam (1798 and 1800), Mysore (1799), Tanjore (1799), Avadh (1801), the Peshwa (1802), Bhonsle (1803), Scindia (1804); garrisoned Goa (1799); occupied Danish settlements in Bengal; in 1803, Lord Lake captured Delhi and Agra; Madras Presidency was created (1801).
Sir George Barlow (1805-1807) Mutiny of the sepoys at Vellore.
|Pre-Congress Nationalist Organisations|
Organisations Founders & Leaders Year & Place
1. Bangabhasa Pradeshika Sabha Not available 1836, Calcutta
2. Landholder's Society or Zamindari Dwarakanath Tagore 1838, Calcutta
3. British India Society William Adams 1839, London
4. Bengal British India Society George Thomson 1843, Calcutta
5. British India Association Devendranath Tagore and Radhakant Dev 1851, Calcutta
6. Madras Native Association Not available 1852, Madras
7. East India Association Dada bhai Naoroji 1866, London
8. Bombay Association Dadabhai Naoroji and Dinshaw Wacha 1852, Bombay
9. London Indian Society Firoz Shah Mehta, Badruddin Tyabji 1865, London
W.C. Banerjee and Manmohan Ghose
10. National Indian Association Mary Carpenter 1867, London
11. Poona Sarvajanik Sabha M.G. Ranade, G.V. Joshi, S.H. Chiplunkar 1867, Poona
12. Indian Society Anand Mohan Bose 1872, London
13. Indian Association Anand Mohan Bose, S.N. Banerji 1876, Calcutta
14. India League Sisir Kumar Ghose 1875, Calcutta
15. Bombay Presiding Association Firoz Shah Mehta, K.T. Telang and 1883, Bombay
16. Madras Mahajan Sabha M. Viraghavacharya, G. Subramanya 1884, Madras
Aiyar and P. Anand Charlu
- Lord Minto I (1807-1813): The treaty of Amritsar (1809) between Ranjit Singh and the English.
- Hastings (1813-1823): Pindaris were destroyed; Marathas were finally crushed; ryotwari system in Malabar, Canara, Coimbatore, Madurai and Dindugal; mahalwari system of revenue in Bombay, combined with ryotwari and mahalwari in the areas belonging to modern U.P., modified judicial system, abolished pre-censorship of press.
- Lord Amherst (1823-1828): The Fort of Bharatpur which had defied Lord Lake, was stormed.
- Lord William Bentinck (1828-35): By the Charter Act of 1833, he became the first Governor-General of India. Abolition of sati (1829), banning of female infanticide, suppression of thuggee, codification of laws by Macaulay; English accepted as the medium of instruction after the famous Macaulay’s recommendation. Though he followed the policy of non-interference, he, however, departed from this policy and annexed Mysore (1831), Coorg (1834), and central Cacher (1834); employed Indians to responsible posts.
- Charles Metcalfe (1835-36): Abolished all restrictions on the press.
- Lord Auckland (1836-1842): The first Afghan War (1839-42).
- Lord Ellenborough (1842-1844): End of the Ist Afghan war; Annexation of Sindh to the British empire.
- Lord Dalhousie (1848-1856): The Second Anglo-Sikh War (1848-49), Punjab was annexed, the Second AngloBurmese War, Lower Burma (Pegu) was annexed (1852); followed the Doctrine of Lapse_states to be annexed were Satara (1848), Jaipur and Sambhalpur (1849), Balghat (1850), Udaipur (1852), Jhansi (1853) and Nagpur (1854)
- Introduction of ‘Non-Regulation System’ for newly acquired territories. The first electric telegraphic line between Calcutta and Agra; Post Office Act (1854); introduction of postage stamp for the first time. The first railway-line between Bombay and Thane, made Shimla the summer capital. Famous “Wood’s despatch” about education (1854). Competitive examination for Indian Civil Services began. Annexation of Avadh and Berar refused to continue the pension to Nana Sahib.
- The Hindu Widow Remarriage Act (1856); removal of disabilities caused by the change of religion.
- Lord Canning (1856-58) War with the Pers-ians; the first universities in India at Calcutta, Madras and Bombay. The revolt began on May 10, 1857.
INDIA UNDER THE VICEROYS
- Lord Canning (1858-62): The first Viceroy of India; transfer of government from company to crown; introduction of portfolio system; establishment of High Courts in 1861, one in each Presidency; amalgamation of Company’s regiments and the Queen’s regiments; introduction of Income Tax; withdrawal of the Doctrine of Lapse; Penal-Code drafted by Macaulay become law (1858); Code of Criminal Procedure (1859).
- Lord Elgin (1862-63): Suppression of Wahabi movement; died at Dharmasala in 1863.
- Lord Lawrence (1864-69): War against Bhutan; famine in orissa (1866); A famine Commission was set up; followed a policy of rigid non-interference in Afghanistan known as policy of ‘Masterly Inactivity’.
- The first dreadful famine in Be gal during 1769-70 claiming third of Bengal’s population.
- Orissa Famine 1866: A Committee under George Campbell.
- In 1880, Lytton appointed a commission under Richard Strachey to suggest preventive measures.
- In 1883 provisional Famine Code framed.
- Lord Curzon appointed a commission under Sir Anthony MacDonnell which submitted its report in 1901.
- Lord Mayo (1869-72): Duke of Edinburgh, then second son of Queen Victoria, visited India; steps for financial decentralisation; stabbed to death by a Pathan convict (1872).
- Lord Northbrook (1872-76): Deposition of the Gaekwad of Baroda, Malhar Rao; famine in Bihar: Prince of Wales visited India (1875).
- Lord Lytton (1876-80): The second Afghan War (1878-80); The Delhi Durbar (Jan 1, 1877) to decorate Queen Victoria with the title of the Empress of India (Kaiseer-i-Hind); terrible famine in Madras, Bombay; Famine Commission appointed; provincial government were given a share in the revenues instead of a fixed grant; Vernacular Press Act (1878) to impose restrictions on the vernacular newspapers; reduction in maximum age for civil services from 21 to 19; introduction of statutory civil service; he was known in the literary world as ‘Owen Meredith’.
- Lord Ripon (1880-84): The most popular Viceory; put an end to the Afghan war, repealed Vernacular Press Act (1882); continued the policy of financial devolution of Mayo; the first Factory Act (1881) for the welfare of child labourers; resolution on local self-government (1882); Education Commission under the chairmanship of Sir Wililiam Hunter (1882); rendition of Mysore (1881); llbert Bill authorising Indian Judges to hear cases against the Europeans, but due to opposition of the Europeans, it was not adopted; first regular census (1881); died in 1909.
|Extremist & Revolutionary Organisations|
Organisation Founders & Leaders
1. Anushilan Samiti ¯ Promotha Mitra at Calcutta, Pulin Das at Dacca
2. Abinav Bharat ¯ V.D. Savarkar
3. Mitra Mela (1904) ¯ V.D. Savarkar
4. India Home Rule Society or India ¯ Shyamji Krishnaverman
House (1905, London)
5. Gadhar Movement (1913, USA) ¯ Sohan Singh Bhakna & Hardyal
¯ Other leaders Rehmet Ali Shah, Bhai Premanand, Md. Barkatullah, & Ram Chandra
6. Indian Independence Committee ¯ Hardyal, Virendra Chattopadhaya & Bhupendra Dutta
7. India Independence Party ¯ Barkhatullah
8. Indian National party (Berlin) ¯ Chaidambaram Pillai, Members-Hardyal, Tarakh Nath, Barkatullah, Chandra Kant Chakraverty.
9. India Independence League ¯ Tarakhnath Das
10. Provincial Government of Free India ¯ Mahendra Pratap, Barkatullah, & Obeidullah Sindhi.
(1915 Kabul) Helped by Prince Amanullah
11. Hindustan Republican Association ¯ Chandra Shekhar Azad.
(1924 Kanpur) or Hindustan Socialist Leaders - Bhagat Singh, Ram Prasad Bismil, Jogesh
Republican Association (1928) Chandra Chatterji & Sanyal
- Lord Dufferin (1884-88): Third Burmese War and final annexation of Burma (1886); Gwalior restored to Scindia; protection of tenants against unjust eviction by the Bengal Tenancy Act (1885) and Act of 1887 for the Punjab tenants; formation of the Indian National Congress (1885).
- Lord Lansdowne (1888-94): Interference in Manipur and Kashmir, the Second Factory Act granting a weekly holiday, the Age of Consent Act raised the limit within which protection was given to young girls from ten to twelve years.
- Lord Elgin II (1894-99): Great famine and plague (1896).
- Lord Curzon (1899-1905): Appointment of Police Commission under Sir Andrew Frazer (1902); a University Commission in 1902 followed by Indian Universities Act in 1904; appointment of a Famine Commission; a commission for irrigation under Sir Colin Scot Moncrieff (1901); work on Jhelam canal completed; Imperial Agriculture Department set up; India was put on a gold standard; army was subjected to a severe test called “The Kitchener Test”; Calcutta Corporation Act (1899) reduced the strength of elected members; Ancient Monument Act passed (1904); division of a Bengal into two provinces of Eastern Bengal and Assam; Bengali intelligentsia vehemently opposed it; Swadeshi Movement; created a new N.W. Frontier Province .
|Extremist and Revolutionary Activities|
1897, June 22 — The first political murder of an European was committed at Poona by the Chapekar brothers, Damodar & Balkishan. Their target was Mr. Rand, President of the Plague Committee but Lt. Ayerst was shot accidently.
1907, Dec — The Bengal revolutionaries made an attempt on the life of Lieutenant governor of Bengal.
1908, April — Khudiram Bose and Prafulla Chaki threw a bomb on the carriage of Kingsford the unpopular judge of Muzaffarpur.
1909 — Mr. Jackson the D.M. of Nasik was shot dead.
1912 — A bomb was thrown at Lord Harding in Chandini Chowk, Delhi, by Rashbehari Bose and Sachindranath Sanyal.
1907 — M. L. Dhingra shot dead Col. William Curzon Whyllie, the political advisor of India office in London
1907 — Madam Cama, a Parsi revolutionary unfurled the flag of India at Stuttgart congress of 2nd international.
1907 — Lala Lajpar Rai and Ajit Singh were deported following riots in Canal colony of Punjab
1908 — Tilak was sentenced to six years imprisonment on charges of spreading disaffection against the government.
1908 Dec — Nine Bengal leaders including Ashwani Kumar Dutt and Krishna Kumar Mitra were deported.
1925, Aug 9 — The U.P. revolutionaries successfully carried out a dacoity on the Kakori bound train to finauce their activities.
1925 — Trial of youths in Kakori conspiracy case. 17 were sentenced to long term imprisonment, four were transported for life and four including Ram Prasad Bismil, Ashfayulla & Roshan Lal were hanged.
1928, Dec — Bhagat Singh, Azad and Raj Guru killed Mr. Saunders A.S.P. of Lahore to avenge the fatal lathi blow on Lala Lajpat Rai.
1929, April 8 — Bhagat Singh and B.K. Dutt threw a bomb in the central legislative assembly to protest against the passing of the ``Public Safety Bill".
1931, March 23 — Bhagat Singh, Sukh Dev and Raj Guru were hanged
1929 — Jatin was died in Jail after 63 days of fast to protest against the horrible conditions in the jall.
1930 — Surya Sen, a revolutionary of Bengal masterminded the raid on Chittagong armoury.
1931, Feb — Chandrasekhar Azad was killed in an encounter with the police at Alfred park (Azad park) in Allahabad.
1933 — Surya Sen was hanged.
- Lord Minto II (1905-1910): Deportation of Extremist leaders; rise of terrorism; with Lord Morley, the Secretary of state for India, Minto recommended some reforms known as Morley_Minto Reforms which resulted in Indian Council Act of 1909.
- Lord Hardinge (1910-1916): A coronation durbar at Delhi (1911) in honour of king George V; his Majesty announced the reversal of the partition of Bengal and transfer of capital from Calcutta to Delhi (1911); capital shifted to Delhi (1912); The first World War broke out (1914); foundation of the Banaras Hindu University (M.M. Malviya, the founder Chancellor).
- Lord Chelmsford (1916-21): August Declaration of Montague, the Secretary of State for India (August 20, 1917); The Rowlatt Act (1919) as repressive measure; Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy (April 13, 1919); Montague-Chelmsford Reforms; Government of India Act (1919); Khilafat and Non-Co-operation Movement (1919-22).
|Important organisations & parties|
Parties & organisations Founders, year & place
1. Muslim League Aga Khan, the Nawab of Dacca and Mohsin ul Mulk. (1906 - Dacca)
2. Home Rule League Bal Gangadhar Tilak, (July 1916), Annie Besant (Sept. 1916)
3. Anti-Non-Cooperation Association Purushottam Das Thakurdas (1920-21)
4. Johrat Sarvajanik Sabha Rash behari Ghose (1893, Assam)
5. Raja Mundari Social Reform Association Virsalingam (1878)
6. Anti Circular Society K.K. Mitra
7. Lok Seva Mandal Lala Lajpat Rai, Punjab
8. Independent Congress party Mada n Mohan Malviya, (1926)
9. United India Patroitic Association Sayyid Ahmed Khan
10. British Association of Avadh Raja Shiv Prasad Sahu
11. Liberal Association Sapru, Jayakar & Chintamani
12. Indian Liberal Federation Surendra Nath Banerjee and others (1919)
13. Federation of Indian chambers, G.D. Birla and Thakurdas, (1927)
commerce and Industry
14. Hindustan Seva Dal N.G. Hardikar
15. Independece of India league Jawahar Lal Nehru and Subhas Chandra Bose, (1928)
16. Praja Party Akram Khan, Faziul Huand Abdur Rahim
17. Hindu Association Annie Besant
18. South India Federation of Peasants & N.G. Ranga and Namboodiripad (1935)
19. Unionist Party Fazl Hussain
20. Rashtriya Swayam Sevak Sangh Hedgewar (1925)
21. All India Untouchability league of Gandhiji (1932)
Harijan Sevak Sangh
22. Hindu Mahasabha Founded in 1917, Revived by Madan Mohan Malviya in 1925.
23. Jana Sangh Shyama Prasad Mukherjee
24. National Mohammedan Association Amir Ali, 1878, Calcutta
25. Mohammedan Literacy Society Abdul Latif, 1863, Calcutta
26. Deccan Educational Society Tilak and Agarkar, Bombay
- Lord Reading (1921-26): Visit of Prince of Wales boycotted (1921); announcement of mass Civil Disobedience Movement (1 Feb. 1922); Chauri Chaura occurrence killing 22 policemen (5 February 1922) and withdrawal of Civil Disobedience Movement by Gandhiji; six years’ imprisonment to Gandhiji; the Congress-Khilafat Swaraj Party with C.R. Das, as President formed (December 1922) to function as a group within congress; Gandhiji released (5 February 1924).
- Lord Irwin (1926-31): The Simon Commission visited India; Second Civil Disobedience Movement (March 1930); the First Round Table Conference, 1930 (the Congress boycotted it); Gandhi-lrwin Pact (1931).
- Lord Wellingdon (1931-36): The Second Round Table Conference (Congress joined it) (1931); the Communal Award (1932); Poona Pact (1932); the Third Round Table Conference (1932); Earthquake in Bihar (1934); Government of India Act (1935).
- Lord Linlithgow (1936-43): Formation of new Government (1937); Second World War began (1939); Cripps Mission (1942); Quit India Movement (1942).
- Lord Wavell (1943-47): Simia Conference (1945); Cabinet Mission (1946): Interim Government of Jawahar Lal Nehru (1946).
|Leftist Organisations & Parties|
Parties & Organisations Founders, year & place
1. Communist Party of India (CPI) ¯ M.N. Roy, 1920 at Tashkent officially announced by Satyabhakta in 1924 at Kanpur
2. Labour Kisan Party ¯ Singaravelu 1923, Madras
3. Labour Swaraj party later renamed ¯ Muzaffar Ahmmed & Qazi Nazrul 1925
Peasants and Worker's Party
4. Kirti Kisan Party ¯ Sohan Singh Josh (Punjab)
5. Worker's & Peasants party ¯ S.S. Mirajkar, K.N. Joglekar & S.V. Ghate, 1927, Bombay
6. Bihar Socialist party ¯ Jai Prakash Narayan, Phulan Prasad Verma, 1931
7. Congress Socialist Party ¯ Narendra Dev, Jai Prakash Narayan and Minoo Masani 1934
8. Forward Block ¯ Subhas Chandra Bose, 1939
9. Congress Labour Party ¯ 1926, Bombay
10. The Bolshevik Party of India ¯ N.D. Mazumdar, 1939
11. Revolutionary Socialist Party ¯ 1940
12. Radical Democratic party ¯ M.N. Roy, 1940
13. Bolshevik Leninist party ¯ Indra Sen & Ajit Roy, 1941
14. Revolutionary Communist Party ¯ Saumendranath Tagore, 1942
15. Hindustan Socialist Republican ¯ Chandra Shekhar Azad and others, 1928
16. Punjab Socialist Party ¯ 1933
17. Independence Labour Party ¯ B.R. Ambedkar
- Lord Mountbatten (March 1947-June 1948): Indian Independence Act; Partition of India; Lord Mountbatten became the first Governor-General of Independent India and the last British Viceroy of India.