85) Who were the Shanar? State any two restrictions imposed on them.
Answer: The Shanar were a community of toddy tappers who migrated to Southern Travancore to work under Nair landlords. As they were considered a 'subordinate caste' (i) they were prohibited from using umbrellas, wearing shoes and golden ornaments. (ii) men and women had to follow the local custom of never covering their upper bodies before the upper castes.
86) State any three reasons why khadi was important to Mahatma Gandhi.
Answer:The most familiar image of Mahatma Gandhi is of him seated, bare chested and in a short dhoti at the spinning wheel. He made spinning on the charkha and the daily use of khadi very popular. (i) Khadi was important to Mahatma Gandhi because (i) Khadi was not only symbol of self-reliance to him but also of resistance to the use of British mill-made cloth. (ii) Khadi became a symbol of nationalism and a rejection of Western mill-made cloth. (iii) Gandhiji believed in purity, simplicity and poverty and wearing khadi was a symbol of them.
87) What were the Sumptuary Laws in France?
Answer: In medieval Europe, dress codes were sometimes imposed upon members of different layers of the society through actual laws which were spelt out in some detail. From about 1294 to the time of the French Revolution in 1789, the people of France were expected to strictly follow what were known as 'Sumptuary Laws'. The Sumptuary Laws tried to control the behaviour of those considered social inferior, preventing them from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain food and beverages and hunting game in certain areas. In France, the item of clothing a person could purchase per year was regulated not only by income but also by social rank. The material to be used for clothing was also legally prescribed. Only royalty could wear expensive material like ermine, fur, velvet, silk and brocade. The lower classes could not clothe themselves with materials that were associated with the aristocracy.
88) Winston Churchill described Mahatma Gandhi as a 'Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer' now 'posing as a half naked fakir'. What provoked such a comment and what does it tell you about the symbolic strength of Mahatma Gandhi's dress?
Answer:Winston Churchill Prime Minister of the United Kingdom described Mahatma Gandhi as a 'Seditious Middle Temple Lawyer' now 'posing as a half naked fakir' because when Gandhiji was in London, as a lawyer he wore Western attire. While on his return to India, a year after the Non-Cooperation Movement, Mahatma Gandhi adopted the dress of the poorest Indian. He started to wear a short dhoti and chadar without a shirt, which he even wore when he went to England for the Round Table Conference in 1931. Churchill, by this statement was trying to project Gandhiji as an opportunist who was a threat to British empire. Thus, Churchill wanted to malign Gandhiji by describing him as 'seditious'. Gandhiji wanted to identify himself with the poor common man of India, to support Swadeshi Movement and encourage boycott of British goods to show resistance to the British. All these served as a symbolic weapon against British rule.
89) Why did Mahatma Gandhi's dream of clothing the nation in khadi appeal only to some sections of Indians?
Answer: Mahatma Gandhi's dream of clothing the nation in khadi appealed only to some sections of India because
(i)Nationalists like Motilal Nehru, Sarojini Naidu, Kamala Nehru adopted Indian clothes but not the coarse homespun.
(ii) Those who had been deprived of proper dress by caste norms for centuries were attracted to Western dress styles. Nationalists, like Babasaheb Ambedkar never gave up his Western style suit.
(iii) Earlier, many Dalits and other so called subordinate classes were prevented from dressing like upper castes. They now started experimenting and wearing Western clothes and did not favour Khadi.
(iv) Khadi was expensive and the poor could not afford it.
(v) Khadi was usually white and in India white clothes are worn when there is a death. So, Khadi was adopted by not many people, but only by some sections of Indians who believed in nationalism.
90) State five changes in clothing that Mahatma Gandhi experimented with.
Answer:The experiment with Swadeshi gave Mahatma Gandhi imported ideas about using cloth as a symbolic weapon against the British Government.
(i) As a boy from a Gujarati Bania family, he wore a shirt with dhoti or pyjama and sometimes a coat. (ii) When Gandhiji went to London in 1888, he cut off the tuft of his head and dressed in Western suit, he continued the Western clothes till the 1890s.
(iii) In Durban in 1913, Gandhiji first appeared in a lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coal miners.
(iv) On his return to India in 1915, he dressed like a Kathiawadi peasant.
(v) In 1921, he adopted the short dhoti, sometimes with a chadar, the form of dress he wore until his death. Khadi was to him a sign of purity, simplicity and poverty and also a symbol of nationalism.
91) State five changes in women's clothing which came about as a result of two World Wars. Or How were two world wars responsible in bringing changes in women's clothing? Or How did the changes in women's clothing come about as a result of the two world war? Explain.
Answer: The following points state how the two world wars responsible in bringing changes in women' clothing
(i) Many European women stopped wearing jewellery and luxurious clothes. As upper class women mixed with other classes, social barriers were eroded as women began to dress in similar ways.
(ii) Clothes became shorter during the First World War out of necessity. By 1971, many women were employed in ammunition factories and they wore a working uniform of blouse and trousers with scarves.
(iii) Women's working uniform later became khaki overalls and caps. Bright colours were replaced by sober colours.
(iv) Women's clothes became plainer, simpler and shorter giving them greater freedom of movement.
(v) Trousers became a vital part of Western women's clothing. Most important, women took to cutting their hair short for convenience. A plain and austere style came to reflect seriousness and professionalism.
92) How did Indians react to the Western style of clothing which came into India in the 19th century? Explain. Or In what ways did the Indians react to introduction of the western style clothing in the 19th century?
Answer:During the colonial period in India, especially men began incorporating some elements of Western style clothing in their dress. The wealthy Parsis were among the first to adopt Western style clothing. Baggy trousers and the phenta (hat) were added to long collarless coats with boots and a walking stick. Western style clothing was accepted by groups of Dalit converts to Christianity. They found it as a means of liberation and self-respect. Here too, it was men rather than women who accepted the new dress styles. There were many Indians who were against Westernization of clothes. They believed that the Western culture would lead to a loss of traditional cultural identity of them. Thus, there were some Indians, like Bengali bureaucrats who resolved this dilemma by wearing Western style clothes in office and more comfortable Indian clothes at home.
93) The political symbols of the French Revolution were reflected in clothing. Justify with examples.
Answer: The French Revolution had raised the question of liberty and equality and ended aristocratic privileges. (a) Members of the Jacobin clubs to distinguish themselves from the aristocracy who wore 'knee breeches' even called themselves the 'sans culottes'. 'Sans culottes' literally means 'without knee breeches'. From now on both men and women began wearing loose and comfortable clothing.
(ii) The colours of France-blue, white and red became popular as they were a sign of patriotic citizen.
(iii) All that time some political symbols like the red cap of liberty, long trousers and revolutionary cockade pinned onto a hat became a part of dress of the citizens. The simplicity of clothing was meant to express the idea of equality given by the French Revolution.
94) The wealthy Parsis of Western India were among the first to adopt Western-style clothing. Baggy trousers and the phenta (or hat) were added to long collarless coats, with boots and a walking stick to complete the look of the gentleman. To some. Western clothes were a sign of modernity and progress. Western-style clothing was also especially attractive to groups of Dalit converts to Christianity who now found it liberating. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) Who were first to adopt Western style of clothing in India? (b) Describe the costume adopted by Indians by the Western impact. (c) What lesson/values you have learnt from this passage?
Answer:(a) Wealthy Parsis of Western India were among the first to adopt Western-style clothing. (b) Baggy trousers and the phenta (or hat) were added to long collarless coats, with boots and a walking stick to complete the look of the gentleman. (c) Impact of westernization on Indian dressing style is found here.
95) On what ground was the 'Shoe respect' rule insisted by Governor General Amherst? To what extent is it justified to interfere in the personal matters of individuals? Give reasons for your answers.
Answer: It was a common practice of Indians that they took off their shoe when they entered a sacred place or home.
(i) In 1824-1828, Governor General Amherst insisted that Indians take off their shoes off as a sign of respect when they appeared before him. But this was not strictly followed.
(ii) By the mid-19th century, under Lord Dalhousie the rule became stricter. Indians were made to take off their shoes when entering any government institution, but those who wore European outfits were exempted from this rule.
(iii) Many Indian government servants, who wore Indian clothes were uncomfortable with this rule.
(iv) In 1862, this rule was resisted by Manockjee Cowasjee Entee while he was barred entry the court room where he worked. The judge insisted that he take off his shoes as that was the Indian way of showing respect to superiors.
(v) The main intention of the British Government was to discriminate between an Indian and European. Further they even tried to discriminate between the Indians who wore Indians clothes and those who wore European outfits.
(vi) Now government of a country can interfere or impose rule on private matters of an individual. Freedom of choice about what one should wear can not be restricted by any authority.
96) Establish the relationship between Khadi and National Movement.
Answer: The Swadeshi movement in Bengal started in the first decade of the 20th century as a result of Lord Curzon's decision to partition Bengal in 1905. Then people were urged to boycott British goods of all kinds and to use goods of their own country.
(i) The use of Khadi was made a patriotic duty. This rough homespun was glorified in songs and poems to popularize it.
(ii) To inspire people Gandhiji made spinning on the charkha and requested people to use khadi or coarse cloth made from homespun yarn. Khadi was to him a sign of purity of simplicity and of poverty.
(iii) Wearing khadi became a symbol of nationalism, a rejection of Western mill-made cloth, large number of people started to wear only Khadi.
(iv) Khadi rendered an opportunity to every man and woman to cultivate self-discipline and self-sacrifice as a part of the non-cooperation movement.
97) How did the cultural difference and clothing create misunderstanding amongst the English and the Indians during the British rule?
Answer: In different countries, same items of clothing often convey contrary meaning. This is due to the difference in culture of the countries.
(i) The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat, but was a sign of respectability. It could not be removed at will. But in the Western tradition, they had to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect. The British were often offended if Indians did not take off their turbans when they met colonial officials. Here the cultural difference created misunderstanding.
(ii) Some times British officials also wore Indian clothes. But in 1830, Europeans were forbidden from wearing Indian clothes at official functions, so that the cultural identity of the white rulers was not undermined. At the same time, Indians were expected to wear Indian clothes to office and follow Indian dress code.
(iii) It was a common practice of Indians to take off their shoes when they entered a sacred place and home. First Governor General Amherst, later Governor General Lord Dalhousie made strict law that Indians should take off their shoes, when they entered any government office. This law led to many controversy and opposition in Indian society.
98) What were the major changes in the clothing pattern of women which occurred in Europe from 17th century to 20th century?
Answer: The emergence of the modern world is marked by dramatic changes in clothing. Before the age of democratic revolution and the development of capitalist markets in the 18th century Europe, clothing styles were strictly regulated by class, gender or status in the social hierarchy.
(i) Before the 17th century, most ordinary women in Britain possessed very few clothes made of flax, linen or wool and these were difficult to clean.
(ii) After 1600, trade with India brought cheap, beautiful and easy to maintain Indian chintzes within the reach of many Europe
(iii) During the Industrial Revolution, in the 19th century, Britain began the mass manufacture of cotton textiles, thus cotton clothes became more accessible to a wider section of people in Europe.
(iv) By the early 20th century artificial fibres made clothes cheaper and easier to wash and maintain.
v) In the late 1870s heavy restrictive underclothes were gradually discarded. Liberal women's magazines strongly criticised these. The agrument of women reformers was simplify dress, shorten skirts and abandon corsets. At first the views of reformers were strongly criticised, but by the end of the 19th century ideals of beauty and styles of clothing were transformed.
(vi) Change in women's clothing took place as a result of two world wars. By the 20th century, a plain and austere style came to reflect seriousness and professionalism.
99) State any three reactions of women to Victorian norms of clothing. Or How did the movement of women react to the ideals of womanhood in Victorian England? To what extent was it successful in bringing some reforms by the end of 19th century? Or How did the women react to norms who believed in the ideals of womanhood?
Answer: Many women believed in the ideals of womanhood of victorian England. But not everyone accepted these values. Over the 19th century, ideas were changing.
(i) By the 1830s, women in England began agitating for their democratic rights . With this suffrage movement many started campaigning for dress reform.
(ii) Women's magazines clarified that tight dresses and corsets caused deformities and illness among young girls and women in an authentic way by giving doctors view about this.
(iii) In America, similar movements developed among the white settlers on the east coast.
(iv) They argued that long skirts swept grounds, were unhealthy and hampered movement. Clothes of women should be comfortable and convenient, so that women could work and became independent.
(v) In 1870, there was a movement for dress reform. Mrs Stanton of National Woman Suffrage Association and Lucy Stone of American Woman Suffrage Association both campaigned for dress reform. Their argument was simplify dress, shorten skirts and abandon corsets.
100) What changes occurred in British clothing due to the introduction of new materials and technology? Or Describe the changes that occurred in British clothing due to the introduction of new materials and technology?
Answer:During the industrial revolution in the 19th century Britain started the mass manufacture of cotton textiles. Then cotton clothes became more accessible to a wider section of people. By the early 20th century, artificial fibres made clothes cheaper and easier to wash and maintain. Clothes became lighter, shorter and simpler. Heavy, restrictive underclothes were gradually discarded due to the campaign created by Women's magazines. Women's clothes were ankle length until 1914, as they had been since the 30th century. During First world war, a large number of women started to work in ammunition factories. So clothes became plainer, simpler and skirts became shorter by 1915. Social attitudes about clothing were also dramatically changing. The pressure of new times made people feel the need for change.