81) Under which Article of the Constitution, 'abolition of un touch ability' lies in?
Answer:'Abolition of un touch ability' lies in Article 17, of Indian Constitution.
82) How many Fundamental Rights does the Indian Constitution provide?
Answer: Indian Constitution provides six Fundamental Rights.
83) What is meant by 'Begar'?
Answer: 'Begar' is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the 'master' free of charge or at a nominal remuneration.
84) What is the meaning of 'traffic in human beings' as described in Indian Constitution?
Answer: In Indian Constitution, traffic means selling and buying of human beings, usually women, for immoral purposes.
85) What is inspiration behind the Directive Principles of State Policy?
Answer: The Directive Principles of State Policy have been inspired by the Directive Principles given in the Constitution of Ireland and also by the principles of Gandhism.
86) What is a secular state?
Answer: In a secular state, no religion can get any privilege or favour and there is no official religion.
87) In the Indian Constitution, the Right to Equality is granted by five articles. Which are these articles?
Answer:The Right to Equality is granted by Articles 14 to 18.
88) Name any two political rights.
Answer:Two political rights are Right to Vote and Right to Fight Election.
89) Give any two features of Fundamental Rights.
Answer: Two important features of Fundamental Rights are that these are limited and these can be suspended during emergency.
90) If you were a Serb, would you support what Milosevic did in Kosovo? Do you think this project of establishing Serb Dominance was good for the Serbs?
Answer: If I were a Serb, I would not support what Milosevic did in Kosovo because what he did was very unjust and discriminatory towards the Albani This method of establishing Serb dominance was not good for the Serbs because this action of Milosevic led to conflict and hostility between the Serbs and the Albani The Albanians were massacred by the army of their own country. Ultimately, Milosevic lost power and was tried by the International Court of Justice for crimes against humanity.
91) What are the examples of elected governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens? Why do they do that?
Answer: Examples of elected governments not protecting or even attacking the rights of their own citizens are
(i) Ethnic Massacre of Albanians in Kosovo.
(ii) Policy of apartheid in South Africa.
(iii) Rule of Augusto Pinochet in Chile.
(iv)Rule of Robert Mugabe in Zimbabwe. These rulers wanted to hold power and keep the people under their control so that they would not oppose them and they could rule without problems.
92) Everyone knows that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts. What is the point in talking about equality before law?
Answer: It is true that the rich can have better lawyers in the courts, but the law is the same for everyone. Being rich or having good lawyers does not mean that equality of law also changes. Whether a person is rich or poor, the law remains the same for all citizens. The judiciary follows the rule of law for all without discriminating on grounds of religion, race, caste, sex or place of birth
93) Should the freedom of expression be extended to those who are spreading wrong and narrow minded ideas? Should they be allowed to confuse the public?
Answer: No, the freedom of expression should not be extended to those who are spreading wrong and narrow minded ideas, since it is harmful for society and democracy. No, they should not be allowed to confuse the public because it would be wrong to do so. Spreading wrong information for personal gains is wrong. Their views can instigate violence, which is dangerous for our society. Nobody can use freedom of speech and expression to incite people or rebel against government.
94) "Rights are not limited only to Fundamental Rights as enumerated in the Constitution." Justify the statement. Or How is the scope of rights always expanding? Mention any five facts. Or How has the scope of rights expanded in the present scenario?
Answer: Our Constitution and law offer a wider range of rights. Over the year the scope of rights has expanded. Sometimes it leads to expansion in the legal rights that the citizen can enjoy. From time to time, the courts gave judgments to expand the scope of rights. Certain rights like right to freedom of press, right to information and right to education are derived from the Fundamental Rights. So, we can say that, rights are not limited only to Fundamental Rights as enumerated in the Constitution. In fact, Constitution provides many more rights which may not be Fundament Riehts.
95) The Constitution does not give people their religion. Then, how can it give people the Right to Practice their Religion?
Answer: It is true that the Constitution does not give the people their religion. However, it does not prevent the people from the Right to Practice their Religion, because the Constitution provides every person has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion he or she believes in. Every religious group or sect is free to manage its religious affairs. In this way, our Constitution gives people the Right to Practice their Religion.
96) Can the President of India stop you from approaching the Supreme Court to secure your Fundamental Rights?
Answer: No, the President of India even cannot stop me from approaching the Supreme Court to secure my Fundamental Rights because the Fundamental Rights have been enshrined in our Constitution. This means that our Constitution provides and protects these rights and they can not be taken away or violated by any person or government action or law, which also includes the President of India. The Right to Constitutional Remedies is a Fundamental Right, according to which we have the right to approach the Supreme Court in case of violation of rights by any person or government, law. So, nobody can stop us from going to court to secure our Fundamental Rights.
97) Mention the Fundamental Rights which have been provided to the citizens by the Constitution.
Answer:The Indian Constitution itself classifies the Fundamental Rights under seven groups as follow
(i) Right to Equality
(ii) Right to Freedom
(iii) Right against Exploitation
(iv) Right to Freedom of Religion
(v) Cultural and Educational Rights
(vi) Right to Property
(vii) Right to Constitutional Remedies Of these, the Right to Property has been eliminated by the 44th Amendment Act of the Constitution. The remaining six Fundamental Rights are necessary for the very sustenance of our democracy. These Fundamental Rights are given a special status in our Constitution.
98) What is the meaning of Fundamental Rights?
Answer:In Indian Constitution, some rights which are fundamental to our life are given a special status. These are called Fundamental Rights. The Preamble to our Constitution talks about securing for all its citizens equality, liberty and justice. Fundamental Rights put this promise into effect. Fundamental Rights are considered essential for the overall development of a person. Sometimes, even elected government may not protect these rights of their own citizens. That is why some rights need to be placed higher than the government, so that the government can not violate these.
99) (a) When was National Human Rights Commission established? (b) Who appoints the commission? (c) What is its main objectives?
Answer: (a) National Human Rights Commission was established in 1993.
(b) The Commission is appointed by the President.
(c) The Commission focuses on helping the victims to secure their human rights. These include all the rights granted to the citizens by the Constitution. The Commission also consider the Human Rights mentioned in the UN sponsored international treatise that India has signed. The NHRC makes independent and credible inquiry into any case of violation of human rights. The Commission presents its findings and recommendations to the government.
100) Right to Freedom is the 'cluster of freedoms'. Justify.
Answer: The Right to Freedom is considered as the 'cluster of six freedoms'. Article 19 of Indian Constitution guarantees the following freedoms to all the citizens
(i) Freedom of speech and expression
(ii) Freedom to assemble in a peaceful manner without arms
(iii) Freedom to form associations or unions
(iv) Freedom to move freely throughout the territory of India
(v) Freedom to reside in any part of India
(vi) Freedom to practice any profession or to carry on any occupation, trade or business.
101) "The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the 'heart and soul' of the Indian Constitution" Justify the statement. Or Who said that the Right to Constitutional Remedies is the 'heart and soul of our Constitution? What does this statement mean? Or Why is the Right to Constitutional Remedies considered the 'heart and soul of our Constitution'?
Answer:The Right to Constitutional Remedy is the 'heart and soul' of the Indian Constitution the following ways
(i) When any of our rights is violated, we can seek remedy through courts. If it is a fundamental right, we can directly approach the Supreme Court or the High Court of the state.
(ii) If any act of legislature or executive takes away or limits any of the fundamental rights, it will be invalid. We can challenge such laws of the central or the State Government in the court of law.
(iii) The Supreme Court and the High Courts have the power to issue directions, orders or writs for the enforcement of the Fundamental Rights.
(iv) Rights to Constitutional Remedies makes other rights effective. This right is the guardian of other rights.
102) Describe the features of Right against Exploitation.
Answer:Right against Exploitation, given in Articles 23 and 24 of Indian Constitution saves people from any type of exploitation. The Constitution prohibits 'traffic in human beings'. Traffic means selling and buying of human beings, usually women for immoral purposes. The Constitution prohibits bonded labour, begar or forced labour. 'Begar' is a practice where the worker is forced to render service to the master free of charge or at a nominal remuneration. When this practice takes place on a life-long basis, it becomes 'bonded labour'. The Constitution also prohibits child labour. No one can employ a child below the age of 14 to work in any factory or mine or any other hazardous work, such as railways and ports.
103) Discuss the position of the citizens of Saudi Arabia with regard to their government.
Answer: Saudi Arabia is ruled by a hereditary king and the people have no role in electing or changing their rulers. The Saudi King rules as absolute monarch. The king governs according to Islamic law. He selects the legislature as well as executives. He appoints the judges and can change their decisions. Citizens are not allowed to form political parties on political organisations. Media cannot report anything that the monarch does not like. There is no freedom of religion. Every citizen is required to be Muslim. Non-Muslim residents can follow their religion in private, but not in public. Women are subjected to many public restrictions. The testimony of one man is considered equal to that of two women.
104) How do the Right to Constitutional remedies ensures and guarantees the enforcement of our fundamental rights?
Answer: The Fundamental Rights are enforceable. If it affected then Right to Constitutional remedies can save it. Fundamental Rights are guaranteed against the actions of the legislature/the executive or any other authorities instituted by the government. There can be no low or action that violates the Fundamental Rights. If any acts of the government takes away or limits any of the Fundamental Rights, it will be null and void. Under the Right to Constitutional Remedies, the courts have the power to enforce the Fundamental Rights against any private individuals or bodies. They have the power to issue direction orders or writ for the enforcement of Fundamental Right. The courts also award compensation to the victims and punishment to the violators. It exercises its jurisdiction Suo motu on the basis of Public Interest Litigation (PIL).
105) (a) Is Right to Education a Fundamental Right? Justify your answer. (b) What values/lesson you have learnt from the given constitutional right?
Answer: (a) On 1st April, 2010, India joined a group of few countries in the world with a historic law, making education a Fundamental Right of every child. This Right to Education is included in Article 21-A of Indian Constitution. This right makes elementary education is compulsory and a" entitlement for children in the 6-14 age group. The Right of Children to Free and Compulsory Education Act will directly benefit children, who do not go to school at present. Children, who had either dropped out of schools or never been to any educational institution, will get elementary education as it is binding on the part of the local and State Government to ensure that all children in the 6-14 age group get schooling. The financial burden will be shared between the centre and the states. (b) From the given constitutional right I have learnt, that we should desire to bring everyone on the education platform.
106) Write short notes on the following Fundamental Rights. (a) Right to Freedom of Religion (b) Cultural and Educational Rights
Answer: (a) Right to Freedom of Religion Right to Freedom of Religion, covered in Articles 25, 26, 27 and 28 of our Constitution, which provides religious freedom to all citizens of India. The objective of this right is to sustain the principle of secularism in India. India is a secular state and there is no official religion in India. According to the Constitution, all religions are equal before the state. Every person has a right to profess, practice and propagate the religion of his choice.
(b) Cultural and Educational Rights As India is a country of many languages, religions and cultures, the Constitution provides special measures in Article 29-30, to protect the rights of the minorities. Here, the Constitution specifies the Cultural and Educational Rights of the minorities. Any section of citizens with a distinct language or culture have a right to conserve it. No citizen can be discriminated against for admission in state or state aided institution. All minorities, religious or linguistic can set up their own educational institutions to preserve and develop their own culture.
107) Thousands of tribals and other forest dwellers gathered at Piparia in Hoshangabad district in Madhya Pradesh to protest against their proposed displacement from the Satpura National Park and Bori Wildlife Sanctuary. They argue that such a displacement is an attack on their livelihood and beliefs. Government claims that their displacement is essential for the development of the area and for protection of wildlife. Write a petition on behalf of the forest dwellers to the NHRC a response from the government and a report of the NHRC on this matter.
Answer: (i) The Petition should be as follows We, the tribal and the forest people have been living in and near the forests for hundreds of years and have earned our livelihood from the forests. The forests are our home and place of work. It is wrong to displace us from our traditional homes. By doing so, you are taking away our livelihood and traditions because we know no other work. We request the NHRC to take up our cause and prevent our displacement from the forest due to the setting up of the wildlife sanctuaries.
(ii) The Response of the Government The government, in order to protect the wildlife which is nearing extinction, has decided to set up wildlife parks and wildlife sanctuaries and provide natural habitats to the endangered species and other animals. For doing this, human interference has to be stopped and so the tribals and forest dwellers are to be displaced from these areas. However, keeping in mind the welfare of the tribals and ensuring a future for the, tribals will be rehabilitated in some other suitable place. (iii) NHRC Report The National Human Rights Commission gave its report on the proposed displacement of the tribals and the forest dwellers from the wildlife parks and sanctuaries like the Satpura National Park, Bori Wildlife Sanctuary and Panchmarhi Wildlife Sanctuary. NHRC said that the tribals and the forest dwellers have since ages lived in the forests and also earned their livelihood from the forests. However, realising the importance of the forests in their lives they have taken care not to harm it or damage it in any manner. They have co-existed in the forests with all the flora and fauna and they have many beliefs and traditions, which in fact protect the forests and the animals. Finally, they are not a threat to the flora and the fauna and they can help to protect, preserve and conserve the forest flora and fauna, so they should be allowed to live in the forests as a part of the forest.
|1. What are democratic rights?|
|2. What are some examples of democratic rights?|
|3. How are democratic rights protected in a country?|
|4. Can democratic rights be restricted or limited?|
|5. What is the significance of democratic rights?|