101) Which river flows across Bastar from East to West?
Answer: The river Indrawati flows across Bastar from East to West.
102) Name the forest which the Dhurwars were associated with.
Answer: Dhurwars were associated with Kanger forest, where reservation first took place.
103) If you were in the Government of India in 1862, responsible for supplying the railways with sleepers and fuel on such a large scale, what were the steps you would have taken?
Answer: The Government of India should have taken the following steps
(i) In areas where trees are cut for making sleepers, plant similar nature of trees to those that are cut, so that the forest cover is maintained.
(ii) Try to increase coal mining and supply this to the railways as fuel instead of wood for running the steam engines.
(iii) Limit the cutting of trees by the natives of the forest to only what they personally require and not allow them to trade in wood.
(iv) Prevent poachers from entering the forests to cut wood illegally.
104) Explain any four ideas of Dietrich Brandis for the management of forests in India during the British period. Or Who was Dietrich Brandis? Explain his achievement in India.
Answer: Four ideas of Dietrich Brandis for the management of forests in India are
(i) Dietrich Brandis, a German expert, was appointed the first Inspector-General of Forests in India.
(ii) He formulated new forest legislation and helped establish research and training institutions. The Imperial Forest Research Institute at Dehradun was founded by him in 1906.
(iii) He set up the Indian Forest Service (IFS) in 1864 and helped to formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865.
(iv) He took an interest in the forest flora of North-West and Central India and Indian trees. He was among the earliest expert in India to formally link forest protection with local peoples.
105) Why are the forests affected by wars?
Answer: Forests are affected by wars because forest products are used for fulfilling various needs and requirement during war. In the case of India, during the First World War and the Second World War, the Forest Department was cutting trees freely to meet British war needs. During the Second World War in Java just before the Japanese occupied the region, the Dutch followed a Scorched Earth Policy, destroying sawmills and burning huge piles of giant teak logs, so that they did not fall into Japanese hands. The Japanese exploited the forests recklessly for their war industries, forcing villagers to cut down forests. Many villagers took this opportunity to expand cultivation in the forests. Thus, wars also led to destruction of forests.
106) What is forestry?
Answer: Forestry is like science, art and craft of creating, managing, using, conserving and repairing forests and associated resources in a sustainable manner to meet desired goals, needs and values for human benefit. Forestry is practied in plantations and natural stands. The main goal of forestry is to create and implement systems that allows forests to continue a sustainable provision of environmental supplies and services. The challenge of forestry is to create systems that are socially accepted while sustaining the resource and any other resources that might be affected.
107) Under colonial rule , why did the scale of hunting increase to such an extent that various species became almost extinct?
Answer: In India hunting of tigers and other wild animals became a game or source of entertainment for the kings and nobles. But under British rule the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct. The reasons behind this condition are
(i) The British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society.
(ii) They believe that by killing dangerous animals the British would civilise India.
(iii) They gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators.
(iv) Over 80,000 tigers, 150,000 leopards and 200,000 wolves were killed for reward in the period 1875-1925. (v) Certain areas of forests were reserved for hunting.
108) (a) Why were railways essential for the Colonial Government? (b) "The ship industry of England was also responsible for deforestation in India". Give one reason.
Answer: (a) Railways were very essential for the colonial trade and for the movement of imperial troops. (b) Due to the high demand, by the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy which required to build ships. To get the supply of oak for the ship industry, Britishers started exploring Indian forests on a massive scale. With a decade, trees were being felled on a massive scale and vast qualities of timber were being exported from India.
109) Who were the Kalangs? Mention any four characteristics of this community.
Answer: The Kalangs were a tribal community of Java. Their four characteristics are
(i) They were skilled forest cutters and shifting cultivators.
(ii) They had a great skill in building palaces.
(iii) They were so valuable that in 1755, when the Mataram kingdom of Java split, the 6000 Kalang families were equally divided between the two kingdoms.
(iv) The Kalangs worked, under the Dutch, when Dutch began to gain control over the forests in the 18th century.
110) Why did the Colonial Government start commercial forestry in India? Give any three reasons.
Answer:The British Colonial Government started commercial forestry in India
(i) By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. The colonial government needed timber supply for the Royal navy and railways which were essential for the movement of imperial troops and commercial trade.
(ii) The Colonial Government took over the forests in India and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. These areas were enclosed and planted with tea and coffee.
(iii) The British government were worried about the reckless use of forests by the local people. They needed trees that could provide had wood and were tall and straight. So particular species like teak and sal trees were promoted by them. Thus, commercial forestry was started by the Britishers and Indian forests Act was passed in 1865.
111) The people of Bastar believe that each village was given its land by the Earth and in return, they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival. In addition to the Earth, they show respect to the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain. Since each village knows where its boundaries lie, the local people look after all the natural resources within that boundary. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) What are some of the beliefs regarding nature of the communities of Bastar? (b) What values do you imbibe from the above passage?
Answer: (a) A number of different communities live in Bastar and speak different languages but share some common customs and beliefs. These are
(i) The people believe that each village was given its level by the Earth and thus they look after the Earth by making some offerings at each agricultural festival.
(ii) Respect is, shown to the spirits of the river, the forest and the mountain and natural resources were looked after by the local people.
(iii) If people from a village want to take some wood from the forests of another village, they pay a small fee called Devsari, Dand or Man in exchange. (b) From the above passage we learnt that environment safety is very important for us. This passage also shows the mutual relation between villagers and the nature.
112) What new developments have occurred in forestry in Asia and Africa in recent times?
Answer: In recent times, Asian and African Governments introduced social forestry and the policy of keeping forest communities away from forests have only resulted in conflicts. Conservation of forests rather than collecting timber became the primary aim. In order to meet this goal, the government realized that the involvement of people living near the forests is must. Intact, across India from Mizoram to Kerala dense forests have survived only because villagers protected them in sacred groves known as Sarnas, Devarakudu, Kan, Rai, etc. Some villagers patrolled their own forest with each household taking it instead of leaving it to forest guards.
113) Describe in brief the Saminist Movement of Indonesia.
Answer:Surontiko Samin of Randublatung village started a movement in Indonesia, questioning state ownership of the forest. The movement gained momentum and by 1907, 3000 families were following his ideas. Some of the Saminists protested by lying down on their land when the colonial power Dutch came to survey it, while others refused to pay taxes, fines or perform any labour.
114) What are the local names of shifting cultivation in South East Asia, Central America and Sri Lanka? Describe any three features of shifting cultivation.
Shifting cultivation or Swidden agriculture is a traditional agricultural practice in many parts of Asia, Africa and South America. It has different local names in different areas, viz.,
Chitemene or tavy
The main features of shifting cultivation are
(i) Parts of forest are cut and burnt in rotation.
(ii) Seeds are sown in the ashes after the first monsoon rains and the crop is harvested by October-November.
(iii) A mixture of crops is grown on such plots for a couple of years and then left fallow for 12 to 18 years for the forest to grow back. x
115) What were the defects of 'Scientific Forestry' technique? Or Describe the defects in the techniques of 'Scientific Forestry'.
Answer: Dietrich Brandis set-up the Indian Forest Service in 1864 and helped formulate the Indian Forest Act of 1865. In 1906 the Imperial Forest Research Institute was set up at Dehradun and 'Scientific Forestry' was introduced in India. But ecologists believe that this system is not scientific at all and has many defects These are
(i) In this system natural forest diversity was harmed because different types of trees were cut down.
(ii) This system advocated only those trees in forests which provided timber. It snatched the different needs of forest dwellers. The forest dwellers wanted a mixture of species of trees for their fuel fodder and food.
(iii) It also affected the ecological balance as multi-species forest gradually got converted into plantation.
116) In 1882, 280000 sleepers were exported from Java alone. However, all this required labour to cut the trees, transport the logs and prepare the sleepers. The Dutch first imposed rents on land being cultivated in the forest and then exempted some villages from these rents if they worked collectively to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This was known as the Blandongdiensten System. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) What are the three main features of Blandongdiensten System? (b) What lesson/values do you learn from this cruel system?
Answer:(a) Blandongdiensten System was introduced by the Dutch in Indonesia. The main features of this system are
(i) Imposing of rents on the lands which were cultivated in the forests.
(ii) Exemption some villages under certain conditions.
(iii) Collective work by the villagers to provide free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. (b) From this cruel system, I learnt that the colonial rule drained wealth and destroyed the economy. This shows that the rule was based on exploitation.
117) Explain any five reasons for the expansion of cultivation by the colonial rulers in India.
Answer: In the colonial period, cultivation expanded for a variety of reasons. These are (i) In Europe, food grains were needed to feed the growing urban population. The demand for wheat increased largely in the 19th century.
(ii) The colonial rulers considered the expansion of cultivation as a sign of progress.
(iii) The British government directly encouraged the production of commercial crops, like Jute, sugar, wheat and cotton to get more profit.
(iv) Europe needed raw materials for industrial production.
(v) In the early 19th century, the colonial state thought that forests were unproductive so forests had to be brought under cultivation and land could yield agricultural products and revenue. In this way the income of the state enhanced.
118) Have there been changes in forest areas where you live? Find out what these changes are and why they have happened.
Answer: There have been a number of changes in forest areas in India since independence and some which have occurred in my district are as follows
(i) Entry to forest area is restricted and the Forest Department has posted guards to check any illegal entry.
(ii) Although, the number of trees in the forest has increased, reduction of rainfall in recent years has stunted the growth of trees.
(iii) The Adivasi villagers living inside the forest areas are gradually leaving their traditional occupations and migrating to the towns for education and jobs.
(iv) A number of wild animals like tigers and elephants are sometimes seen on the edges of the forest, but they do not venture out for fear of being killed by human beings. Earlier the tigers used to come into the nearby villages and take away animals and small children at night.
(v) The smugling of ivory and skin of tiger has been almost controlled.
119) Discuss how the changes in forest management in the colonial period affected the following groups of people. (a) Shifting Cultivators (b) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities (c) Firms Trading in Timber/Forest Produce (d) Plantation Owners (e) Kings/British Officials Engaged in Shikar
Answer: Changes in forest management in colonial period are
(a) Shifting Cultivators
(i)European foresters regarded shifting cultivation as harmful for the forests. The government banned shirting cultivation.
(ii) Shifting cultivators were forcibly displaced many communities from their homes in the forests.
(iii) Some had to change occupations, while some resisted through large and small rebellions.
(b) Nomadic and Pastoralist Communities
(i)The forest laws deprived people of their customary rights and meant severe hardship for the Nomadic and Pastoralist communities.
(ii) They could not cut wood for their houses, could not graze their cattle or collect fruits and roots. Hunting and fishing became illegal.
(iii) They were forced to steal wood. If they were caught, they were at the mercy of the forest guards and they would have to offer bribes to the guards.
(iv) Many Pastoralist and Nomadic communities like the Korava, Karacha and Yerukula of the Madras Presidency lost their livelihoods.
(v) Some of the Nomadic communities began to be called 'Criminal Tribes' and were forced to work instead in factories, mines and plantations under government supervision.
(vi) They were also recruited to work in plantations. Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad.
(c) Firms Trading in Timber/Forest Produce
(i)By the early 19th century, oak forests in England were disappearing. This created a problem of timber supply for the Royal Navy.
(ii) By the 1820s, search parties were sent to explore the forest resources in India. Trees were felled on a massive scale and large quantities of timber were being exported from India.
(iii) The Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates.
(iv) The British Government gave many large European trading firms the sole right to trade in the forest products of particular areas.
(v) The government gave contracts to contractors, who cut trees indiscriminately and made huge profits.
(d) Plantation Owners
(i)Large areas of natural forests were also cleared to make way for tea, coffee and rubber plantations to meet Europe's growing need for these commodities.
(ii) The Colonial Government took over the forests and gave vast areas to European planters at cheap rates. These areas were enclosed and cleared of forests and planted with tea or coffee.
(iii) Communities like Santhals and Oraons from Jharkhand and Gonds from Chhattisgarh were recruited to work on tea plantation in Assam. Their wages were low and conditions of work were very bad. (iv) The plantation owners, under the protection and rights given by the British Government, made huge profits.
(e) Kings/British Officials Engaged in Shikar or Hunting
(i) In India, Shikar or hunting of tigers and other animals had been part of the culture of the court and nobility for centuries.
(ii) Under colonial rule, the scale of hunting increased to such an extent that various species became almost extinct.
(iii) The British saw large animals as signs of a wild, primitive and savage society. They believed that by killing dangerous animals, the British would civilize India.
(iv) The British gave rewards for the killing of tigers, wolves and other large animals on the grounds that they posed a threat to cultivators.
(v) The Maharaja of Sarguja alone shot-1157 tigers and 2000 leopards upto 1957. A British Administrator George Yule killed 400 tigers.
(vi) Over 80000 tigers, 150000 leopards and 200000 wolves were killed for reward between 1875 and 1925.
(vii) Initially certain areas of the forests were reserved for hunting. Note In the examination, this question will not be asked completely, only its one or two sub-parts will be asked.
120) What were the similarities between colonial management of the forests in Bastar and Java?
Answer: Forest management of Bastar in India was in the hands of the British and in Java it was in the hands of the Dutch.
(i) The similarities between these two are as follows The Dutch, like the British, wanted timber to build ships and to make sleepers for railway tracks.
(ii) Both the British and the Dutch enacted forest laws to control the forests and put restrictions on the customary rights of the local people. They were prevented from entering the forests, they could not graze cattle or cut wood or take forest produce without permission.
(iii) The British and the Dutch introduced scientific forestry. Both the governments banned shifting cultivation.
(iv) Some villagers in Bastar were allowed to stay in the forests on the condition that their people would provide free labour for the Forest Department in cutting and transportation of trees and protecting the forests from fire. Similarly in Java, the Dutch imposed rents on the cultivated land in the forests and then exempted some villages if they collectively provided free labour and buffaloes for cutting and transporting timber. This system was known as the 'Blandongdiensten System'.
(v) When the exploitation by the British in Bastar and the Dutch in Java became too much, the forest communities in Bastar and Java revolted under Gunda Dhur and Surontiko Samin respectively. Both the revolts were crushed by the colonial powers.