HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-1): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-1): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-1): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

86) Where do the Maasai cattle herders live?

Answer: The Maasai cattle herders live primarily in East Africa.  

87) What is Kharif Crop?

Answer:The autumn crop, usually harvested between September and October is known as Kharif Crop.  

88) In which state Dhangars are found?

Answer:Dhangars are an important pastoral community of Maharashtra.  

89) Name some pastoral communities of Africa.

Answer: Some pastoral communities of Africa are Bedouins, Berbers, Maasai, Somali, Boran and Turkana.  

90) Name some pastoral communities at the Himalayas.

Answer: Bhotiyas, Gujjar Bakarwals, Gaddi and Kinnauris are some pastoral communities of the Himalayas. 

91) What is Rabi Crop?

Answer:The spring crop, usually harvested after March, is known as Rabi Crop.  

92)   What is Stubble?

Answer:Lower ends of grain stalks left in the ground after harvesting is known as Stubble.  

93) Name some pastoral communities of the central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh.

Answer: Gollas, Kurumas, Kurubas are some pastoral communities of the central plateau of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh. 

94) Where is Samburu National Park located?

Answer:Samburu National Park located in Kenya.  

95) What does the word 'Maasai' mean?

Answer: The word Massai means 'My Peole'.  

96) Where is Serengeti National Park located?

Answer:Serengeti National Park located in Tanzania.  

97) What was the tax imposed by colonists on pastoralists?

Answer:Grazing tax was imposed by colonists cm pastoralists  

98) How do you define nomadic pastoralists?

Answer:Nomadic pastoralists are people who move from one place to another with their herds to earn a living.  

99) Why were the Maasai tribes pushed into a small area in South Kenya andr North Tanzania?

Answer: The best grazing lands were taken over by the British imperialists for settlement, thus the Maasai tribes were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanzania.  

100) What is meant by 'Reserved Forest?

Answer:The forest where no pastoralist was allowed and which produced commercially valuable timber like deodar or sal is known as 'Reserved Forest' .  

101)  What were the Wasteland Rules?

Answer: By the Wasteland Rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals for settlement and agriculture. 

102) How was the Maasai society divided?

Answer: The Maasai society was divided into two social categories?Elders and Warriors.  

103) Name the state from which Gaddi shepherds hail.

Answer: Gaddi shepherds hail from the state of Himachal Pradesh.  

104) Who were Banjaras?

Answer:Banjaras were the pastoral community of North India and were found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra.  

105) Why did feeding the cattle become a persistent problem for the Maasais? 

Answer: The best grazing lands of cattle were taken over for white settlement and the Maasai were pushed into a small area. Then the continuous grazing in small area deteriorated the quality of pasture, thus the feeding of the cattle became a persistent problems for the Maasais.   

106) Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra In the early 20th century, their population in this region was estimated to be 467000. Most of them were shepherds, some were blanket weavers and still others were buffalo herders. The Dhangar shepherds stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. This was a semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil. It was covered with thorny scrub. [Nothing but dry crops like bajra could be sown here. In the monsoon, this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) Give two main features about the lifestyle of Dhangars community of Maharashtra. (b) What lesson/values do you learn from the given passage?

Answer:  (a) The two features about the lifestyle of Dhangar community of Maharashtra are Being a nomadic community, most of the Dhangars are shepherds, buffallo herders and blanket weavers. (ii) The Dhangar shepherds stayed; in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. (b) From the given passage I have learnt, that hard work is the key of success. Collective efforts are important for the livelihood arid how people can survive by fighting adverse conditions.  

107) What was the occupation of the Pastoral Communities of Karnataka and Aridhra Pradesh?

Answer:The  Pastoral Communities of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka herded cattle, raised sheep and goats and sold woven blankets. Of them, the Gollas herded cattle; the Kurumas and ,  Kurubas lived near the woods, cultivated small patches of land and  took care of their herds indulged in a variety of petty trades.  

108) Write a comment on the closure of the forests to grazing from the standpoint of (a) a forester (b) a pastoralist

Answer: (a) A Forester Since a foresters duty is to ensure the conservation of forests, it is good that the forests have been closed for grazing. This will ensure proper growth of the vegetation and trees, so that the forest wealth will be maintained. (b) A Pastoralist Earlier our animals were grazing in the forest area, where vegetation was plentiful. Now, since the closure of forests for grazing, our animals have to be taken far away to find grass and vegetation for food. This has put us to a lot of inconvenience, as managing our flock has become more difficult 

109) (a) Who were Dhangars? (b) What were their occupations? (c) Why were they continuously on the move?

Answer:(a) Dhangars   were   an   important   pastoral community of Maharashtra. (b) Most of the Dhangars were shepherds, blanket and wool weavers and still others were buffalo herders. (c) They were continuously on the move in search of pasture for their cattle. They stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during the monsoon. This was a semi-arid region with low rainfall and poor soil, only bajra could be grown here. In the monsoon, this tract became a vast grazing ground for their cattle. By October, the Dhangars harvested their bajra and started on their move and reached Konkan. Their cattle manured the fields and fed on the stubble. With the onset of monsoon, they returned back to their own settlement in dry plateau.   

110)  (a) Who were the Banjaras? (b) Name any two states where they were found. (c) Name a pastoral community of Rajasthan.

Answer: (a) Banjaras are Nomadic people who used to move from one region to another in search of good pastureland for their cattle. They moved over long distances, selling plough cattle and other goods to villagers. (b) They were found in Uttar Pradesh Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. (c) A Pastoral community of Rajasthan are the Raikas. The uncertainty and meagre rainfall in the desert region leading to fluctuating harvests made the Raikas combine both cultivation and pastoralism as means of occupation.  

111) Explain the annual movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals.

Answer:The Gujjar Bakarwals ofJammu and Kashmir are great herders of goat and sheep. In winter, they live with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The Dry Scrub forests provide good grazing grounds for their herds. In summer, they cross the Pir Panjal passes and enter the Kashmir valley. They graze their cattle on the lush green mountain sides, covered with a variety of grasses. With the onset of winter, the Bakarwals are on the move again, back to their winter pastures.  

112) Why did Raikas combine cultivation with pastoralism? Explain any three reasons.

Answer: Raikas combined cultivation with pastoralism because (i) They lived in the deserts of Rajasthan. (ii) Over vast stretches of this region no crop could be growth. (iii) Every year harvests fluctuated on cultivated land. As agriculture was not sufficient for their livelihood, the Raikas moved out in search of pastures for their catties which included camels, sheep and goat.  

113) Distinguish between 'Reserved Forests' and 'Protected Forests'.

Answer:Reserved Forests were the forests which produced commercially valuable timber, like deodar and sal. Protected Forests were the forests which produced non-commercial wood. No pastoralist was allowed an access to the reserved forests. But in the protected forests, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted, but their movements were severely restricted. The colonial officials believed that grazing destroyed the saplings and young shoots of trees and thus prevented new trees from growing. Through various Forests Acts, forests were declared 'Reserved' and 'Protected' by the British Government.  

114) What factors had to be kept in mind by the pastoralists in order to survive?

Answer: In order to survive the pastoralists took some steps (i) They had to judge how long the herds could stay in one area and know where could they find water and pasture. (ii) They needed to calculate the timing of their movements and ensure that could move through different territories. (iii) They also had to develop a relationship with farmers on the way so that the herds could graze in harvested fields and manures the soil. (iv) They had to combine a range of different activities like cultivation, trade and herding to make their living. 

115) Where did the Gaddi shepherds live? Describe the seasonal movement of the Gaddis.

Answer:The Gaddi shepherds of Himachal Pradesh spent their winter in the low hills of Siwalik range, grazing their flocks in the scrub forests. By April, they moved North and spent the summer in Lahul and Spiti. When the snow melted and the high passes were clear, many of them moved onto higher mountain meadows. By September, they began their return movement. On the way they stopped in the villages on Lahul and Spiti, reaping their summer harvest and sowing their winter crops. Then, they descended with their flock to their winter grazing ground on Siwalik hills. Next April, again they started their march with their goats and sheep, to the summer meadows.  

116) Explain any five factors responsible for the annual movement of the Dhangars. Or Examine the migration pattern of the Dhangar community of Maharashtra. Under what condition do they return to their homeland? Or Explain the annual seasonal movement of the Dhangars.

Answer:Dhangars were an important pastoral community of Maharashtra. They stayed in the central plateau of Maharashtra during monsoon. In the monsoon this tract became a vast grazing ground for the Dhangar flocks. (i) Dhangars   move   from   central   plateau during October-November due to shortage of fodder. (ii) They moved to Konkan which is a flourishing agricultural tract with high rainfall and rich soil. (iii) The locals or Konkani peasants welcomed Dhangars as their fields had to be fertilised and made ready for the rabi harvest. (iv) Dhangar flocks manured the fields and fed on the stubble. (v) The Konkani peasants also gave supplies of rice which the Dhangar shepherd took back to the plateau where grain was scarce. 

117) Describe any three features of the life of African pastoralists.

Answer: Over half of the world's pastoral papulation lives in Africa. Even now, over 22 million Africans depend on some form of pastoral activity for their livelihood. (i) Some important pastoral communities of Africa include Bedouins,   Berbers,   Maasai,   Somali, Boran  and Turkana, etc. (ii) Most of them now live in the semi-arid grasslands or arid deserts where rainfed agriculture is difficult. (iii) They raise cattle, camels, goats, sheep and donkey. Their main occupation is selling milk, meat, animal skin and wool. They also earn through trade and transport, some type of agricultural activity and also variety of odd jobs. By doing all these jobs, the pastoralists are trying to supplement their meagre and uncertain earnings from pastoralism.   

118) In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, they lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. The Dry Scrub forests here provided pasture for their herds. By the end of April, they began their Northern March for their summer grazing grounds. Several households came together for this journey, forming what is known as a kafila. They crossed the Pir Panjal passes and entered the valley of Kashmir. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) Give two reasons for the seasonal movement of Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir. (b) What values do you imbibe from the above passage?

Answer:(a) The two reasons for the seasonal movement of Gujjar Bakarwals are (i) In winter, when the high mountains were covered with snow, Gujjar Bakarwals lived with their herds in the low hills of the Siwalik range. Because the dry scrub forests of this region provided food for their catties. (ii) By the end of April, they began their  Northern March for their summer grazing grounds. In the summer, the snow melted and the area was covered with variety of grasses which provided nutritious forage for the catties. (b) From the above passage I have learnt, the importance of nature in human life.  

119) What is the difference between the annual movement of the Gollas of Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh from the Gujjar Bakarwals of Jammu and Kashmir?

Answer: The movement of the Gujjar Bakarwals revolve around cold and hot season. During winters, when high mountains are covered with snow they move to low hills and in summer they once again move towards the high altitudes. The movement of Gollas of Andhra Pradesh and Karnataka revolve around the arrival and departure of monsoon. In the dry season, they move to the coastal tracts and leave when the rains come. Only buffaloes like the wet conditions of the coastal areas during the monsoon months. Other herds has to be shifted to the dry plateau at this time.  

120) How did drought affect the life of pastoralists? 

Answer:Various Forest Acts were introduced to restrict the movements of the nomads. They were prevented from entering many forests. Even if they were allowed, their movements were regulated. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts. Since lots of restrictions were imposed on their movement, so they could not move to places where pastures were available. Due to this, there was shortage of fodder. For example, A large number of Maasai cattle died of starvation. As the area of grazing lands shrank, the adverse effect of the droughts increased in intensity. 

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-1): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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