101) What was the cause of the Great Agrarian Depression of 1930s?
Answer:Overproduction and subsequent fall of agricultural prices was the cause of the Great Agrarian Depression of 1930s.
102) Where did the White Americans settle down between 1820-1850?
Answer:Between 1820-1850, the White Americans settled down in Mississippi valley.
103) Which country faced dust storms during 1930s?
Answer: The USA faced dust storms during 1930s.
104) How much land was enclosed in Britain between 1750 and I860?
Answer:6 million acres of land was enclosed in Britain between 1750 and 1850.
105) What was the reason behind the disrupted trade and the import of food grains from Europe at the end of the 18th century?
Answer:By the end of the 18th century, France was at war with England which disrupted trade and the import of food grains from Europe.
106) Who gained most from enclosures?
Answer: Rich land-owners gained most from enclosures.
107) What did the Americans realised after 1930s?
Answer:The agricultural land of America became a dust bowl, so the Americans realised after 1930s, that they had to respect the ecological conditions of each region.
108) Name the main products which East India Company was buying from China in the late 18th century.
Answer: In the late 18th century, the English East India Company was buying tea and silk from China for sale in England.
109) In the 17th century why did the farmers begin to grow turnip and clover?
Answer:In the 17th century the farmers of England began to grow turnip and clover because these crops were good fooder for cattle and enriched the soil.
110) When was the large part of England quite open?
Answer: Before 16th century the large part of England was quite open.
111) Who introduced opium in China in early 16th century?
Answer:The Portuguese had introduced opium into China in the early l6th century.
112) Which country became a country of opium addicts?
Answer:China became a country of opium addicts.
113) Who were 'Manchus'?
Answer: Manchus were the Confucian rulers of China
114) In contrast many writers emphasised the advantages of enclosures. 'There can be no question of the superior profit to the farmer of enclosures rather than open fields. In one case he is in chains; he can make no changes in soil or prices, he is like a horse in team, he must jog along with the rest'. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) What is John Middleton arguing? (b) What lesson/values do you learnt from the given passage?
Answer: (a) John Middleton is arguing in favour of the rich farmers. He says that before the law regarding enclosures was enacted, the farmer could not make improvements in the soil, as other people were also using the same land. Now, when it is enclosed, he can make whatever changes he desires to improve the agricultural yield and thus increase his profits. (b) By the enclosure of land farmer and peasants become more happier and protected; and the production of the crops increased. I have also learnt that unity is an important fact for everyone.
115) Why were threshing machines opposed by the poor in England?
Answer: The poor labourers lived and worked on the land of the rich farmers for their livelihood and survival. During the Napoleonic wars the rich farmers introduced the threshing machines, which reduced the demand for labour, as a result of which unemployment increased among the labourers. The poor labourers thought that the machines were taking away their jobs and livelihoods and so they opposed the threshing machines and started destroying them and threatening the rich farmers to stop using them.
116) Who was Captain Swing? What did his name symbolise or represent?
Answer:Captain Swing was a mythical name used in the threatening letters written by the poor labourers in rural England to the rich farmers telling them to stop using threshing machines or face the consequences. The rich farmers had introduced threshing machines, due to which demand for labour decreased which caused the labourers to become agitated. The name Captain Swing symbolised or represented the anger of the poor labourers in rural England, who wanted return to the pre-machine days when human labour was used.
117) What was the impact of the Westward expansion of settlers in the USA? Or Explain the impact to the Westward expansion of settlers in the USA?
Answer:With the Westward expansion of settlers in USA, the landscape of the country was transformed radically. White Americans had moved Westward and established control upto the West coast, displacing local tribes and carving out the entire landscape into different agricultural belts. As the demand increased, the farmers started to produce more wheat. The USA came to dominate the world market in agricultural produce. The local American Indians were driven out from their homeland. Many wars were fought in which Indians were massacred and their villages burnt. Gradually, the whole of America was taken over by the white settlers.
118) Which country was known as the Bread Basket of the World during 19th century? Describe the factors responsible for the expansion of agriculture in the country.
Answer:The USA was known as the Bread Basket of the World during the 19th century. The different factors responsible for the expansion of agriculture in the USA are (i) The growth of urban population and export market encouraged farmers to produce more wheat. (ii) A spread of railway made it easy to transport the grain. (iii) Introduction of machines helped in production. (iv) During the First World War Russian supplies at wheat were cut off and the USA had to feed Europe.
119) The new technology introduced in agriculture in the 19th century created the grounds for the Great Agrarian Depression of 1930s. Justify by giving examples.
Answer:Mechanisation had reduced the need for labour. The boom of the late 19th and early 20th centuries, seemed to have come to an end by the mid-1920s. Production had expanded rapidly during the war and post-war years which created a large surplus. Unsold stocks piled up and vast amount of grains became animal feed. Wheat prices fell and export market collapsed. This created the grounds for the Great Agrarian Depression of 1930s that ruined wheat farmers everywhere.
120) How were unwilling cultivators made to produce opium in India?
Answer:In the rural areas of Bengal and Bihar, there were large number of poor peasants. The British Government offered them advances to produce opium through the village headman (Mahato). Most of the cultivators were tempted to accept the advances. Those who accepted the advances were forced to grow opium and hand over the produce to the agents. The British agents offered very low prices to the farmers. As a result, most of the cultivators failed to clear the advances. So, there was no option with them except to accept the new advance from the agents and low prices offered by the government.
121) "The introduction of modern agriculture meant many different changes." Describe in four points.
Answer: The dramatic expansion of agriculture was made possible by new technology. This meant many new changes. (i) The open field disappeared. The increase in food production was not only possible by radical innovalion in agricultural technology , it also needed new lands under cultivation. (ii) The richer farmers expanded grain production, sold this grain in the world market, made profits and became powerful. (iii) Modern technology and enclosure displaced the poor from the land. The poor found that their customary right gradually disappearing. Deprived of their rights they moved in search of jobs. (iv) The poop left their village. They went to countries or eities where job was available jobs became insecure. They live in fear of a loss of their livelihood.
122) "For the poorer farmers, machines brought misery". Justify giving reasons.
Answer:The big farmers of USA bought the new reaper machine. Then the work could be done quickly with minimum number of labourers. Mechanisation reduced the need for labour and created unemployment. Some small- scale farmers even bought these machines, with the loans banks offered them, but found it extremely difficult to pay back, when the demand decreased after the First World War. These farmers left their farms and ventured out in search of employment. But jobs were also difficult to find out due to mechanisation.
123) How USA converted in dust bowl from bread basket? Describe any five reasons. Or Explain the Dust Bowl tragedy of 1930s in USA. Or Analyse the reasons for recurrent dust storms in the great plains in America.
Answer:The reasons for recurrent dust storms in the great plains of America are
(i) The expansion of wheat agriculture and overgrazing of the prairies were responsible for the dust bowl tragedy. The entire landscape had been ploughed over, stripped all grass that held it together.
(ii) The early 1930s were years of persistent drought. The wind blew with ferocious speed. Ordinary dust stroms became black blizzard which began to blow over the Southern plains.
(iii) The black blizzard came day after day year after year through the 1930s.
(iv) When cultivation expanded dramatically, the farmers had recklessly uprooted all vegetations and tractors had turned the soil over, and broken the soil into dust.
(v) As black blizzard rolled in , very often 7,000 to 8000 feet high, people were blinded and choked, cattle were suffocated to death, rivers were coated, fish died. The American dream of a land of plenty became a land of nightmare.
124) Opium was such a commodity. The Portuguese had introduced opium into China in the early 16th century. Opium was however, known primarily for its medical properties and used in minuscule quantities for certain types of medicines. The Chinese were aware of the dangers of opium addiction and the Emperor had forbidden its production and sale except for medicinal purposes. But Western merchants in the mid-19th century began an illegal trade in opium. Read the above passage and answer the following questions (a) What is opium? What are its uses? (b) What lesson/values you have learnt from this passage?
Answer:(a) Opium was a commercial commodity and the Portuguese had introduced opium into China in the early l6th century. Opium was known for its medicinal properties and used in miniuscule quantities for certain types of medicines. (b) From the given passage I have learnt, that just for the sake of money we should not involve in the activities like opium trade which are not good for health.
125) Explain one difference between the Enclosure Movement of the late 18th century and the earlier one. What factors lead the British Parliament to pass the Enclosure Acts?
Answer: In the l6th century, the price of wool went up in the world market. The rich farmer wanted to expand wool production to earn profit. For this purpose they enclosed common lands for improving sheep breeding. This early enclosures were not supported by the state or church. After the mid-18th century the Enclosure Movement swept through the countryside. The aim of this Enclosure Movement was to increase growing production to feed the growing population. By 1850, 6 million acres of land were enclosed in Britain and the British Parliament had passed 4000 Acts legalising these enclosures.
126) One peasant who lost his rights to common land after the enclosures wrote to the local lord? Should a poor man take one of your sheep from the common, his life would be forfeited by law. But should you take the common from a hundred poor men's sheep, the law gives no redress. The poor man is liable to be hung for taking from you what would not supply you with a meal; and you would do nothing illegal by depriving him of his subsistence; ? What should be the inference of the poor ? when the laws are not accessible to the injured poor and the government gives them no redress? Read the given passage and answer the following questions (a) What is the peasant trying to say in the passage? (b) What lesson/values do you learnt from the above passage?
Answer:(a) He is trying to say that the law is one-sided, only favouring the rich farmers, who have taken over the commons. A poor man can be hanged for stealing one sheep, whereas the rich landlords have taken over the common land in which the poor were earlier grazing their large numbers of sheep. The rich farmers were not being penalised for taking over the commons, although they deprived the poor men's sheep of fodder. He was protesting against the unjust laws. (b) From the above passage I have learnt, that inequality is always unfortunate for the poor and ordinary peoples. Therefore, everyone should be treated equally.
127) Explain any three advantages and two disadvantages of enclosure movement in England.
Answer: In England as the urban population grew, the market for food grains expanded. To meet the demand more new lands were brought under cultivation. The advantages of this enclosure were
(i) The food grain production grew quickly to meet the demands.
(ii) In 1868 England was producing 80% of the food it consumed, the rest was imported. (iii) Landlords captured larger and larger areas for agricultural field and were able to produce more for the market.
Disadvantages (i) The enclosed land became the exclusive property of the landlords. Enclosures filled the pockets of landlords.
(ii) Enclosure movement made the life of poor miserable. They were displaced and deprived of their land. Their customary rights disappeared and they were forced in search of new jobs.
128) Why was the British Government reluctant to increase the price of opium? What was the impact of this policy?
Answer:In the rural areas of Bengal and Bihar a large number of poor peasants were made to produce opium for the British. They had to accept the low price for their products. The government was reluctant to increase the price of opium. (i) The Britishers wanted to produce opium at a cheap rate and sell it at a high price to opium agents, who then shipped it to China. (ii) This difference between the buying and selling price was the governments opium revenue. Impact of this policy were (i) Angry peasants began agitating for higher prices and refused to take advances. (ii) In some regions, farmers began giving up opium cultivation, instead of it, they produced sugar, potatoes, etc. (iii) Many cultivators sold off their crop to travelling traders who offered higher prices to them.
129) What were the advantages and disadvantages of the use of mechanical harvesting machine in the USA?
Answer:Advantages (i) The new machines helped in breaking the hard ground with tractors and disk ploughs in clearing vast streaches for wheat cultivation. (ii) The mechanical reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick could cut in 1 day as much as 5 men could cut with cradles and 16 men with sickles. With one of these machines, 500 acres of wheat could be harvested in 2 weeks. With power driven machinery, 4 men could plough, seed and harvest 2000 to 4000 acres of wheat in a season. Disadvantages (i) Unemployment Introduction of machines reduced the need for labour leading to unemployment on a large-scale. (ii) Unpaid Debts Many poor farmers in the USA had bought machines by taking loans from banks, but due to increased production there was surplus of food grains and storehouses overflowed. Prices fell, export collapsed, leading to an Agrarian Depression, due to which the farmers could not pay back the bank lo So, they deserted their farms and looked for jobs elsewhere. (iii) Dust Bowl To expand cultivation, tractors had turned the soil over and broken the sod into dust. Over a period of time, overuse turned the whole region into a dust bowl, leading to terrifying dust storms called 'Black Blizzard' which blinded and choked the people; the animals were suffocated to death. The rivers were coated with dust and the fish died. Tractors and machines were clogged with dust and there was a huge damage to life and property.
130) Explain briefly what the open field system meant to rural people in the 18th century England? Look at the system from the point of view of (a)a rich farmer (b) a labourer (c)a peasant woman
Answer: (a) A Rich Farmer The open field system was not beneficial for the rich farmer who preferred to expand his land holding by enclosing the open land. In the 18th century, the second round of enclosing open field took place to increase grain production. (b) A Labourer All villagers had access to common land or the open fields. The small poor farmers and labourers used the open fields for grazing sheep and cows. They fished in the rivers and ponds and hunted rabbits in common forests. For the poor labourer, the open common land was essential for survival. It supplemented their meager income, sustained their cattle and helped them tide over bad times when the crops failed. (c) A Peasant Woman For her family, the poor woman collected fuel wood for fire; berries and fruits for food. Common lands helped her tide over bad times when crops failed. So, it was beneficial to a peasant woman.