101) Imagine yourself to be a Muslim pleader in the Allahabad High Court in the late 19th century. What kind of clothes would you wear? Would they be very different from what you wore at home?
Answer:As a pleader in Allahabad High Court in the late 19th century, I would wear a professional Western dress which included black coat under a black gown, white trousers and white tie, which was the normal dress of an advocate in court. These would be totally different from what I would wear at home, where I wear my comfortable traditional dress, a cotton pyjama and shirt/kurta.
102) If you were a poor peasant would you have willingly taken to given up mill-made Cloth?
Answer:Yes, I would have willingly taken to given up mill-made cloth as I would support the Swadeshi Movement. For the sake of the nation I could sacrifice this little comfort. However, it would have made me suffer some hardship, as khadi was costly and not easily available.
103) Imagine you are the 14-year old child of a trader. Write a paragraph on what you feel about the Sumptuary Laws in France.
Answer: The Sumptuary Laws in France are aimed at controlling the behaviour of those considered socially inferior by the aristocracy. These laws prevented individuals from the lower strata of society, like my trading family, from wearing certain clothes, consuming certain foods and beverages and hunting game in certain areas. They do not permit us to enjoy our lives, even if we have the money to do so. On the other hand, this has also reduced our customers, as we are able to sell the good things to only a limited number of clientele. Now, my father is trying to export goods in other European countries.
104) Can you think of any expectations of proper and improper dress which exist today? Give examples of two forms of clothing which would be considered disrespectful in certain places but acceptable in other.
Answer: The quality and applicability of dresses on various occasions and at various locations make them acceptable or disrespectful. Our expectations of a dress would be that it should be comfortable and not hampering movement; cover the body adequately so it does not appear indecent and also it should cover us against any adverse weather conditions like intense heat, freezing cold and so on. Forms of clothing which may he considered acceptable or disrespectful in different situations can be as follows (i) A pyjama-kurta will be acceptable if worn at home, but will not be suitable for a modern office job, where Wastern style dress will be more suitable. (ii) If a lawyer is arguing a case in Court and he is in Jeans and T-shirt, it will be considered disrespectful to Court. However, if the lawyer is attending a picnic with his family and friends with the same jeans and t-shirt, it will be considered appropriate. He should wear coat, trousers tie with proper shoes when attending the courtroom.
105) These two quotations (Sources E and F), from about the same period are from two different regions of India, Kerala and Bengal. What do they tell you about the very different notions of shame regarding women's attire? Source E Some people supported the attempt to change women's clothing, others opposed it. 'Any civilized nation is against the kind of clothing in use in the present time among women of our country. Indeed it is a sign of shamelessness. Educated men have been greatly agitated about it, almost everyone wishes for another kind of civilised clothing. There is a custom here of women wearing fine and transparent clothing which reveals the whole body. Such shameless attire in no way allows one to frequent civilised company... such clothes can stand in the way of our moral improvement.' Soudamini Khastagiri, Striloker Paricchad (1872) Source F C Kesavan's autobiography Jeevita Samaram recalls his mother-in-law's first encounter with a blouse gifted by her sister-in-law in the late 19th century: 'It looked good, but I felt ticklish wearing it. I took it off, folded it carefully and brimming with enthusiasm, showed it to my mother. She gave me a stern look and said "Where are you going to gallivant in this? Fold it and keep it in the box."...... I was scared of my mother. She could kill me. At night I wore the blouse and showed it to my husband. He said it looked good... [the next morning] I came out wearing the blouse... I didn't notice my mother coming. Suddenly I heard her break a piece from a coconut branch. When I turned round, she was behind me fierce and furious... she said "Take it off... you want to walk around in shirts like Muslim women?"
Answer: Source E is giving the views in Bengal whereas Source F is from Kerala. We see that in Bengal, a woman's exposure of the body by wearing transparent clothing was considered shameful. It was not acceptable to society. However, in Kerala, the upper parts of women's bodies were normally not covered with any clothes. If some women covered the upper part of the body, they were considered not traditional, although the current generation accepted it (her husband liked it). So, these sources tell us that the notions of shame in two different regions of India were totally different.
106) How did the Indians argue this Surat controversy of 'Shoe Respect'?
Answer:They said they take off shoes at home since shoes are dirty and carry filth with them. Shoes collect dirt on the road and this dirt could spoil the clean homes, where people sit on the floor whereas court is a public place, so there is no need to take off shoes.
107) What suggestions were made by Rabindra Nath Tagore on combining Indian and European dress is a national dress.
Answer: He suggested that instead of combining Indian and European dress, India's national dress should combine elements of Hindu and Muslim dress. Thus, Chapkan (a long buttoned coat) was considered most suitable dress for men.
108) What was Brahmika Sari?
Answer:The Parsi style of wearing the sari pinned to the left shoulder with a brooch and worn with blouse and shoes. Since it was quickly adopted by Brahmo Samaj women, it came to be known as Brahmika Sari.
109) Who introduced this style of wearing Brahmika sari?
Answer:Janadanandini Devi, wife of Satyendranath Tagore.
110) How was khadi associated with nationalist movement?
Answer:Use of khadi was made a patriotic duty. It was a symbol of nationalism, the rough homespun was glorified in songs and poems to popularize it.
111) How did Mahatma Gandhi use Khadi as symbol of resistance against British?
Answer:Mahatma Gandhi made spinning on the charkha and the daily use of khadi cloth made from handspun yarn, very powerful symbol. These were not only symbols of self-reliance but also of resistance to the use of British mill-made cloth.
112) What did Mahatma Gandhi wear as a child?
Answer: As a boy from Gujarati Bania family, he usually wore a shirt with a dhoti or pajama and sometimes a coat.
113) What did Gandhiji wear in South Africa?
Answer:In Durban in 1913, Gandhi appeared in a lungi and kurta with his head shaved as a sign of mourning to protest against the shooting of Indian coalminers.
114) As a nationalist, what did Moti Lal Nehru wear?
Answer:MotiLal Nehru, a barrister, a nationalist gave up his expensive western style suits and adopted the Indian dhoti kurta, but these were not made of coarse cloth.
115) What kind of clothes were worn by Dr. B.R. Ambedkar, a nationalist?
Answer:Dr. B.R. Ambedkar never gave up the western style suit. Many Dalits wore three piece suits and shoes and socks on all public occasions as a political statement of self respect.
116) Why was national dress needed to define the cultural identity?
Answer: (i) A nationalist feeling swept across India by late 19th century. Indians began devising cultural symbols that would express the unity of thenation.
(ii) Artists looked for a national style of act. Poets wrote national songs. Thena debate began over the design of the national flag.
(iii) The search for a national dress took poets of this era to define thecultural identity of the nation in symbolic ways.
(iv) The Tagore family of Bengal experimented in the 1870s with design fora national dress for both men and women in India.
117) Which clothes were purchased by most ordinary women in Britain?
Answer:Cheap, beautiful and easy to maintain Indian Chintz which was within the reach of many Europeans who could now increase the size of their wardrobe.
118) What kind of western style clothing was incorporated in men's dresses?
Answer: Baggy trousers and the phenta (hat) were added to long collarless coats with boots and a walking stick to complete the look of the gentleman.
119) What changes were made by 19th century in women's clothes?
Answer: (i) By 1914 clothes were ankle length, as they had been since the 13thcentury. (ii) By 1915 the hemline of the skirt rose dramatically to mid-calf.
120) What did women wear during First World War?
Answer: By 1917 thousands of women were employed in ammunition factories. They wore a working uniform of blouse and trousers with accessories such as scarves, which was later replaced by Khaki overalls and caps.
121) How did Bengali Bureaucrats resolve the dilemma of western clothes?
Answer:They wore western style clothes for work outside the home and changed into more comfortable Indian clothes at home.
122) How did the dress code of women cause violent conflict over caste?
Answer: Women of Shanar caste were attacked by upper caste Nairs in public places in the Southern Princely state of Travancore, for wearing a cloth across their upper bodies. They attacked them and tore off their upper clothes.
123) What proclamation was issued by the government for Shanar women?
Answer: The government issued proclamation permitting Shanar women whether Christian or Hindu to wear a jacket to cover their upper bodies in any manner whatsoever but not like the women of high caste.
124) Who were Shanars?
Answer: Shanars were a community of toddy tappers who migrated to Southern Travancore to work under Nair landlords.
125) What was the significance of Indian headgear 'turban'?
Answer:The turban in India was not just for protection from the heat but was a sign of respectability and could not be removed at will.
126) What was the significance of western headgear hat?
Answer:The hat to be worn by dignified people and to be removed before social superiors as a sign of respect.
127) What does 'Shoe Respect' mean?
Answer:Shoe Respect means Indians were made to take off their shoes when entering any government institution as a sign of respect.
128) Who refused to follow 'Shoe Respect' Rule in Surat Courtroom?
Answer:Manockjee Cowasjee Entee refused to take off his shoes in the court of session Judge.
129) Which colours of France became popular?
Answer:The colours of France-blue, white and red became popular as they were assign of the patriotic citizens.
130) Which other political symbols of France became a part of dress?
Answer:The red cap of liberty, long trousers and revolutionary cockade (cap usually worn on one side) pinned on to a hat.
131) How were the women in Victorian England expected to be?
Answer: Women in Victorian England were groomed from childhood to be docile, dutiful, submissive and obedient. The ideal woman was one who could bear pain and suffering.
132) How did the norms of clothing reflect these ideals of women?
Answer:From childhood, girls were tightly laced up and dressed in stays. The effort was to restrict the growth of their bodies, contain them within small moulds when slightly older girls have to wear corsets.
133) What was the effect of tight clothes worn by women?
Answer:Such clothing restricted body growth and hampered blood circulation, Muscles remained under developed and the spines got bent.
134) Why were long skirts criticized in America?
Answer:Long skirts swept the grounds and collected filth and dirt. This caused illness. The skirts were voluminous and hampered movement and prevented women from working and earning.
135) Who campaigned for the dress reform in America?
Answer:In 1870s the National Woman Suffrage Association was headed by Mrs. Stanton and the American Woman Suffrage Association dominated by the Lucy Stone both campaigned for dress reforms.