HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

121) Explain why nomadic tribes need to move from one place to another? What are the advantages to the environment of this continuous movement?

Answer:Nomads are people who do not live in one place but move from one area to another to earn their living. Their main occupation is cattle rearing for which they need availability of water and pastures for grazing their animals. When the pastures get depleted they move to another place with their animals, looking for pasture and water. When the water and pastures get depleted they move again and keep repeating the cycle. Advantages 
(i)The movement of the Nomads allows the pasture to regrow and recover.
(ii) It helps to protect the ecology of the environment.
(iii) It prevents the overuse of pastures.
(iv) The cattle by their dung help in providing manure.  

122)  Imagine you are living in the 1890s. You belong to a community of nomadic pastoralists and craftsmen. You learn that the government has declared your community as a Criminal Tribe. (a) Describe briefly what you would have felt and done. (b) Write a petition to the local collector explaining why the Act is unjust and how it will affect your life.

Answer: (a) I feel that declaring my tribe as criminal just because we move from place to place is totally wrong and unjust. We are not committing any crime by grazing our herds. For our herds to graze, moving from place to place is required when fodder at one place gets finished. I will write a petition to the District Collector to remove our tribe's name from the list of Criminal Tribes.
(b) Petition to the Collector Sir, I request you to remove my tribe's name from the list of Criminal Tribes, as we are not committing any crime by grazing our herds at different places. We are not criminals, as we do not commit theft or kill anyone; we are just earning our living by selling the milk and milk products of our animals. So, the act is totally unjust and it should not be enforced. In fact, I am suffering great hardship, as I am limited to a very small area and when the vegetation there is finished, I have to take a special permission to go elsewhere for my animals to feed. Also the policemen harass us for bribes when we go elsewhere, which causes us further hardship. So, you are requested to remove my tribe's name from the list of Criminal Tribes.  

123) What are some of the problems that pastoralist face in the modern world? How have these groups adopted to the new times?

Answer: In the modern world the life of pastoralists changed largely. Their grazing grounds shrank, their movements were regulated and the revenue they had  to pay increased. Colonial powers thought all uncultivated land as unproductive. Thus, Wasteland Rules were enacted and by these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and used for cultivation. So, the expansion of cultivation led to the decline of pastures for the cattle. Various Forests Acts prevented the pastoralists from entering many forests that had provided forage for their cattle. Even they had to pay taxes on every animal they grazed. But they have adopted to new times by changing the paths of their annual movement and reducing their cattle in their herds. They demanded rights in management of forests and water resources.  

124) Give reasons to explain why the Maasai community lost their grazing lands.

Answer: European countries scrambled for possession of territories in Africa and sliced up the region into different colonies. In 1885, Maasailand was cut into half with an international boundary between British Kenya and German Tanganyika. Subsequently, grazing lands were taken over for White settlement and the Maasais were pushed into a small area in South Kenya and North Tanganyika. The Maasais lost about 60 % of their pre-colonial lands. Encouragement was given by the British Colonial Government in East Africa to peasant communities to expand cultivation and pasture lands were converted into cultivated fields. Large areas of grazing land were also turned into game reserves like the Maasai Mara and Samburu National Park in Kenya and Serengeti Park in Tanganyika. Pastoralists were not allowed to enter these reserves. They could neither hunt animals nor graze herds in these areas. Very often these reserves were in areas that had traditionally been regular grazing grounds for Maasai herds.  

125) There are many similarities in the way in which the modern world forced changes in the lives of pastoral communities in India and East Africa. Write about any two examples of changes which were similar for Indian pastoralists and the Maasai herders.

Answer:Both India and East Africa were under the control and dominance of the European colonial powers with similar intentions and objectives. In both places, the pastoral communities lost the pasture land because the colonial powers took control of these pastures and brought them under cultivation. Both in India and East Africa, forest laws were made and the pastoralists were not permitted to use the forests for grazing or taking out forest produce.
The two examples are as follows
(i) The mobility of the pastoralists was severely restricted whereby fodder was in short supply and feeding the cattle became a persistent problem. Many of them were thereby forced to give up their old mode of occupation.
(ii) Both in India and Africa, grazing tax was imposed on the pastoralists. All these created a lot of hardship for the pastoral communities of India and Africa.  

126) How did the pasture lands decline in India? Describe the impact of the shortage of pasture land on the lives of pastoralists.

Answer:The British Government considered all uncultivated land as unproductive. They wanted to transform all grazing lands into cultivated farms. Land revenue was the main sources of its finance. So to increase its revenue the British Government brought the pastures under cultivation. The Colonial Government passed the 'Wasteland Rules  By these rules uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals in a concessional rate. In most areas the lands taken over were grazing lands used by the pastoralists. So expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures. By the mid-19th century, various Forest Acts were implemented in the different provinces of India. Forests were classified as 'Reserved' and 'Protected. No pastoralist was allowed to access to the 'reserved' forests. In 'Protected' forest, some customary grazing rights of pastoralists were granted but their movement was severely restricted. The decline of pasture lands had a deep impact on the life of pastoralists in following ways.  The decreasing pasture land posed problem for pastoralists, they reduced the number of cattle in their herd.  Some pastoralists discovered new pastures when movement to old pastures became difficult.  Some richer pastoralists began buying land and settling down, giving up their nomadic life.  Some became settled peasants who cultivated lands.  Some became labourers working on fields or in small towns. Some combined pastoral activities with other form of income and adapted to the changes in the modern world.  

127) Why did the cattle stock of the Maasai's decrease under colonial rule?

Answer: In the 19th century, Maasai tribes could move over vast areas in search of pastures. From the late 19th century, the Colonial Government began imposing various restrictions on their mobility. The Maasai were bound down to a fixed area. They were cut off from the best grazing lands and forced to live within a semi-arid tract prone to frequent droughts. Since, they could not shift their cattle to places where pastures were available, large numbers of Maasai cattle died of starvation and disease. As the area of grazing lands decreased, the adverse effect of the drought increased. In just two years of severe drought, 1933 and 1934, over half of the cattle of Maasai tribes died. In this way, the cattle stock of the Maasai's decreased under colonial rule.  

128) Discuss why the Colonial Government in India brought in the following laws. In each case explain how the law changed the lives of the pastoralists. (a) Wasteland Rules (b) Forest Acts (c) Criminal Tribes Act (d) Grazing Tax Or Under colonial rule the life of pastoralists changed drammatically. Explain four reasons. Or How did the life of pastoralists change drammatically under colonial rule?

Answer: (a) Wasteland Rules To the colonial officials all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. Therefore, grazing lands were also considered as wastelands as they produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. The Colonial Government wanted to bring the grazing lands under cultivation so that they could get revenue and agriculture goods form this land. Effects of the Wasteland Rules According to Wasteland Rules, the uncultivated lands were taken over and given to select individuals who were granted concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Therefore, expansion of cultivation inevitably meant the decline of pastures and created problems and hardships for the pastoralists.
(b) Forest Acts By the mid-19th century, various Forest Acts were also being enacted in the different provinces of India. Through the Forest Acts, the forests were divided into two categories; Reserved Forests and Protected Forests. Effects of the Forest Acts Pastoralists could no longer remain in an area even if forage was available. They could enter only by getting permit for entry. If they overstayed the specified period of time they were liable to fines. Their lives became difficult and rull of hardships. Their traditional rights were severely restricted.
(c) Criminal Tribes Act The British officials were suspicious of nomadic people. They distrusted mobile craftsmen and traders who hawked their goods in villages and pastoralists who changed their places of residence every season, moving in search of good pastures for their herds. Those who were Nomadic were considered to be criminal and those who were settled were seen as peaceable and law abiding. In 1871, the Colonial Government passed the Criminal Tribes Act. By this act many communities of craftsmen, traders and pastoralists were classified as criminal tribes. They were stated to be criminal by nature and birth. Effects of Criminal Tribes Act After this act was enforced, these communities were expected to live only in notified village settlements. They were not allowed to move out without a permit. The village police kept a continuous watch on them. They could no longer move from one place to another.
(d) Grazing Tax The Grazing Tax in India was introduced by the Colonial Government in the mid-19th century. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax per head of cattle went up rapidly and the system of collection was made increasingly efficient. In the decades between the 1850s to 1880s, the right to collect tax was auctioned out to contractors. The contractors tried to extract as high a tax as they could. By the 1880s, the government began collecting taxes directly from the pastoralists. Effects of the Grazing Tax To enter a grazing tract, pastoralists had to show the pass and pay the tax. Pastoralists had to pay tax on every animal they grazed on the pastures. The tax went up rapidly. So, the economic hardship of the pastoralists increased. Note In the examination, this questions will not be asked completely. Only its one or two sub-parts will be asked.  

129) Pastoralists were not allowed to enter the markets in white areas'. Explain its impact on the pastoralists of Africa.

Answer:From the late 19th century, the Colonial Government began imposing various restrictions on the mobility of the pastoralists. The Maasai and other groups, were forced to live within the confines of special reserves. They could only move within the boundaries of these reserves. In many regions, pastoralists were prohibited from participating in any form of trade. White settlers and European Colonists saw pastoralists as dangerous and primitive. So, the pastoral community was not allowed to enter the markets in white areas. The chief of the pastoralists appointed by the Colonial Government became wealthy and survived devastations of war and drought. But the poor pastoralists did not have the resource to survive in bad times. They had to take add jobs like charcoal burners, daily labourers in road and building construction. Thus, it was not really possible for the colonial power to cut off all links with the pastoral community. Even today, 22 million Africans are pastoralists. While white colonists had to depend on black labour to bore mines, build roads and towns, they had to depend on pastoral community automatically.  

130)  (a) Why did the British introduced 'Wasteland Rules'? (b) What values/lesson you have learnt from the implementation of Wastelands Rule?

Answer:  (a) To colonial power, all uncultivated land appeared to be unproductive. It produced neither revenue nor agricultural produce. Thus, it was seen as 'wasteland' that needed to be brought under cultivation.   From   the   mid-19th   century 'Wasteland Rules' were enacted in various parts of our country. By these rules, uncultivated lands were taken over and given  to  selected individuals.  These individuals were granted various concessions and encouraged to settle these lands. Some of them were made headman of villages in the newly cleared areas. In this way wastelands transformed into cultivated lands. The Colonial Government imposed tax on these lands and earned revenue from these lands. (b) From the implementation of Wasteland Rules, I have learnt that on the one hand human efforts can make unproductive land into useful land. On the other side , the expansion of cultivation meant the decline of pastures which deeply affected the life of pastoralists.  

131) How did the pastoralists cope with the serious shortage of pastures? Explain. 

Answer:Under colonial rule when grazing lands were taken over and turned into cultivated fields, the available area of pasture land started declining . The pastoralists reacted to these changes in a different ways
(i) Some pastoralists reduced their number of cattle as there was not enough pasture to feed them. Others discovered new pastures, when old grazing areas were not available.
(ii) After 1947, the Raikas could no longer move into Sindh. The new political boundaries between India and Pakistan stopped their movement. So in recent years, they have been migrating to Haryana, where sheep can graze agricultural fields after the harvests. The fields also need manure that the animals can provide.
(iii) The rich pastoralists started buying land and gave up their nomadic life. Some have become peasants while others have taken extensive trading some poor pastoralists borrowed money from money lenders to survive. Many of them have lost their cattle and became labourers, working on fields on in small towns.
(iv) In spite of all these difficulties, pastoralists not only continue to survive, in many areas their numbers have  expanded  over recent  decades.  When pasturelands in one place was closed to them, they changed the direction of their movement and reduced the size of the herd. Sometimes they combined pastoral activity with other forms of income and adapted to the changes in the modern world.    

132) Imagine that it is 1950 and you are a 60 years old Raika herder living in post-Independence India. You are telling your grand-daughter about the changes which have taken place in your lifestyle after Independence. What would you say?

Answer: Since the coming of independence, my life has changed quite a bit. Since now there is not enough pasture for our animals, we had to reduce the number of the animals we keep. We have changed our grazing grounds also, as those on the banks of the river Indus have gone into Pakistan and we are not allowed to go there. So, we have found alternative grazing grounds in Haryana, where our herds go when the harvest has been cut. At this time they can feed on the stumps of the plants remaining and also fertilise the soil with manure from their excreta. Your father did not like a herder's life and so, he decided to become a farmer. I gave him my savings to buy some land and now he is cultivating food grains. I think you will have a much better life than what we had. 

133) Where were the Banjaras found and what was their occupation?

Answer: Banjaras, a well-known group of graziers were found in Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh and Maharashtra. 

134) The Gujjar cattle herders live in the ___ made of 'ringaV, a hill bamboo and grass from Bugyal. (a) Mandaps (b) Chawals (c) Jhuggis (d) Huts

Answer: (a) Mandaps  

135) The___ peasants of the coastal region provided rice to Dhangar shepherds. (a) Konkani (b) Rajasthani (c) Kurubas (d) Raikas

Answer:(a) Konkani  

136) Which animals are reared by the Kurumas and Kurubas?

Answer: Sheep and goats are reared by the Kurumas and Kurubas.  

137) Name any three important pastoral nomadic communities found in India in the mountains, plains, plateau and desert regions.

Answer:The pastoral nomadic communities of India are
(i) In the mountains- Gujjar Bakarwals, Gaddis
(ii) In the plains and plateaus- Dhangars Banjaras
(iii) In the desert regions- Raikas  

138) Read Sources A and B. Source A Writing in the 1850s, G C Barnes gave the following description of the Gujjars of Kangra: In the hills the Gujjars are exclusively a pastoral tribe . They cultivate scarcely at all. The Gaddis keep flocks of sheep and goats and the Gujjars, wealth consists of buffaloes. These people live in the skirts of the forests and maintain their existence exclusively by the sale of the milk, ghee and other produce of their herds. The men graze the cattle and frequently lie out for weeks in the woods tending their herds. The women went to the markets every morning with baskets on their heads, with little earthen pots filled with milk, butter-milk and ghee, each of these pots containing the proportion required for a days meal. During the hot weather the Gujjars usually drive their herds to the upper range, where the buffaloes rejoice in the rich grass which the rains bring forth and at the same time attain condition from the temperate climate and the immunity from venomous flies that torment their existence in the plains. From: G C Barnes, Settlement Report of Kangra, 1850-55. Source B The accounts of many travellers tell us about the life of pastoral groups. In the early 19th century, Buchanan visited the Gollas during his travel through Mysore. He wrote: 'Their families live in small villages near the skirt of the woods, where they cultivate a little ground and keep some of their cattle, selling in the towns the produce of the dairy. Their families are very numerous, seven to eight young men in each being common. Two or three of these attend the flocks in the woods, while the remainder cultivate their fields and supply the towns with firewood and with straw for thatch.' From Francis Hamilton Buchanan, A Journey from Madras through the Countries of Mysore, Canara and Malabar (London, 1807). (a) Write briefly about what they tell you about the nature of the work undertaken by men and women in pastoral households. (b) Why do you think pastoral groups often live on the edges of forests? 

Answer:(a) In the case of the pastoralists of the hills, the Gaddis and the Gujjars, the men used to graze the cattle, sheep or goats and remained away from the home for many days. The women used to sell the milk products like milk, butter-milk and ghee in the local marketplace everyday. Regarding the Gollas in Mysore, besides being pastoralists, they were also cultivating land. So some men were taking out the cattle for grazing while some men cultivated the fields. (b) Pastoral groups often lived near the edges of forests so that they could graze their flocks of animals in the forest as well as cultivate fields next to the forest area. They were selling the milk and milk products from the animals in the local market and also cultivating land for their requirements of food. By living on the edge of forests, both of these activities were  conveniently handled.  

139) Find out the locations of different pastoral communities in India.

Answer: 

HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

140) Do you think pastoral community of the world can be affected by all the incoming modern changes in the lifestyles?

Answer:(i) New laws and new borders affected the pattern of their movement. With increasing restriction on their mobility, pastoralists find it difficult to move in search of pastures. (ii) As pasturelands disappeared, grazing became a problem and pasture deteriorated creating empty space for grazing. (iii) During times of drought their cattle died in large number.

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Pastoralists in the Modern World Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9
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