HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

131) Explain briefly the factors that led to the enclosures in England.

Answer:The factors that led to the Enclosure Movement in England were the increase in prices of wool in the international market and the increased demand for food grains in England. (i) Increase   in   Prices   of  Wool In   the 16th century, the price of wool in the international market went up so the rich farmers wanted to expand wool production to earn higher profits. They were eager to improve their sheep breeds and keen on controlling large areas of land in compact blocks to allow improved breeding. So, they started building hedges around their holdings to separate their property from that of others. (ii) Increased   Demand   for   Grain In   the 16th century, the population of England expanded rapidly; more people were living in the cities and working in the factories. As urban population grew, demand for food grains increased and food grain prices rose. Because of the war with France, trade was  disrupted and import of grain from Europe declined. Prices of food grains increased rapidly in England. This encouraged land-owners to enclose land and enlarge areas under grain cultivation, leading to the second Enclosure Movement.  

132) State the different ways in which new technology dramatically increased wheat production in the USA.

Answer:The dramatic expansion in American wheat production was due to use of new technology. To break the sod and turn the soil over, a variety of new ploughs were devised locally, some of them 12 ft long. Their front rested on small wheels and they were hitched onto six yokes of oxen or horses. (ii) By the early 20th century, farmers in the great plains were breaking the ground with tractors and disk ploughs for wheat cultivation. (iii) Before the 1830s, the grain used to harvested with a cradle or sickle. But the mechanical reaper invented by Cyrus McCormick in 1831, could cut in 1 day as much as 5 men could cut with cradles and 16 men with sickles. (iv) By  the  early  20th  century,   big  farmers used   combined   harvester,   power   driven machinery to plough vast areas of land for wheat production.                
The Indian farmers were reluctant to grow opium because of the following reasons (i)The crop had to be grown on the best land, on the fields that lay near the villages and were well mannered. On this, the farmers usually produced pulses. If they planted opium on this land, then pulses could not be grown there or they would have to be grown on inferior land where harvests were poorer and uncertain. (ii) Many cultivators owned no land. To cultivate opium they had to pay rent and lease land from landlords and the rent charged on good lands near the villages was very high.  (iii) The cultivation of opium was a difficult process.    The plant was delicate and cultivators had to     spend long hours, in nurturing it. This meant that they did not have enough time to care for other crops. (iv) The price which the government paid to the cultivators for the opium they produced was very low. It was unprofitable for the cultivators to grow opium at that price.  

133) Why were the Indian farmers reluctant to grow opium? Or Why were the Indian cultivators unwilling to grow opium? How did the British react to it? Or Why were the farmers in India not willing to grow opium? Explain any five reasons.

Answer:Overuse and overexplokation of the soil for cultivation by machinery turned the soil into dust, ultimately leading to dust storms. The years of 1930 saw black blizzard rolled in and rose like waves of muddy water. These blizzard were upto 7000 to 8000 ft high and occurred frequently, almost everyday. These suffocated the people and cattle leading to their death and clogged the machines and the tractors and damaged them beyond repair. The Bread Basket had turned into a Dust Bowl. From this experience we learn that we should not overuse and overexploit our resources because it leads to ecological damage and environmental imbalance. To avoid that we should have respect for nature and ecology for a better future.  

134)  What lessons can we draw from the conversion of the countryside in the USA from a Bread Basket to a Dust Bowl?

Answer:In the late 18th century, the East India Company was buying tea and silk from China for sale in England. As tea became a popular English drink, trade in tea became important, moving upto 30 million pounds in value. This created a problem because England at this time produced nothing that could be sold in China. The Chinese were suspicious of foreign goods and Chinese rulers did not allow foreign goods to enter China, so payment could be made only in silver coins or bullion which was unacceptable to the British because it would impoverish the nation. The British therefore started an illegal trade in opium with Chinese merchants. The profit from opium trade could be used to buy tea and silk from China. The British needed more and more opium to export to China and therefore they insisted that Indian farmers should grow opium to fulfil the opium demand from China.  

135) Write a paragraph on why the British insisted on farmers growing opium in India.

Answer:Till the 1780s, white American settlements were confined to a small narrow strip of coastal land in the West. There were various native American groups, several of them were Nomadic, some were settled. They lived by hunting, gathering, fishing and cultivating corn, beans, tobacco and pumpkin. By the early 20th century, white Americans had moved Westward and establsihed control up to the West coast, displacing the local tribes. The American Indians were first driven beyond the river Mississippi and then further West. Numerous wars were waged in which Indians were massacred and many of their villages burnt. The Indians resisted, won many wars but I ultimately were forced to sign up treaties, give  up their land and move Westward. As the  Indians retreated, the white Americans  powered in.

136) Briefly discuss the relationship of white American settlers and American Indians in the context of Westward expansion of white Americans.

Answer:From the late 19th century, there was a dramatic expansion of wheat propduction in USA. The growing urban population and export market encouraged the farmers to produce more wheat. President Wilson encouraged the farmer by saying 'Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war'. By the early 20th century, the landscape of USA had transformed radically. White Americans  had  moved  Westward  and established control upto the West coast by displacing local tribes. They wanted to make the entire landscape into different agricultural belts. They also wanted to dominate the world market in agricultural produce. After the 1860s, the settlers swept into the Great plain across the Mississippi river. In subsequent decades the region became a major wheat producing area. The spread of railways made it easy to transport grain from the wheat producing region to after regions. By the early 20th century the demand became ever higher and dunig the First world war the world market boomed. As Russian supplie of wheat were cut off, the USA had to feed Europe. In 1910, about 45 million acres of land in the USA was under wheat production, with in 1919 it expanded to 74 million acres. The introduction of new technology helped farmers in the great plains to increase the production of wheat to meet the demand of world market. In this way the USA became the bread basket of the world.  

137) How did the USA become the bread basket of the world? Explain. Or "Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war". Who said these? What led to dramatic expansion of wheat production in the USA? Or Explain any three causes for dramatic expansion of wheat production in the USA from the late 19th century.

Answer:In the late 18th century, the English East India Company was buying tea and silk from China for sale in England. As tea became a popular English d rink the tea import increased largely. But this created a problem. England at that time produced nothing that could be sold in China. Buying tea with silver coin created loss of treasure from Britain. The Britisher searched a commodity which they could sell in China. Opium was such a commodity. The Chinese were aware of the dangers of opium addiction. The Emperor of China had forbidden its production and sale except for medicinal purpose. But European merchants began an illegal trade in opium. When the British conquered Bengal, they made a determined effort to produce opium in Bengal. Unwilling cultivators were made to produce opium through a system of advances. Large number of poor peasants of Bengal and Bihar started to produce opium. They got very low prices for their product. By 1773, the British Government in Bengal had established a monopoly to trade in opium. As China became a country of opium addicts, British trade in tea flourished. The returns from opium sale financed the tea purchases in China.    

139) Who among the following became the President of USA in 1800? (a) Thomas Jefferson (b) Abraham Lincoln (c) George Washington (d)Woodrow Wilson

Answer:(a) Thomas Jefferson  

140) Match the following List I List II A. Bushel 1. An English currency B. Shilling 2. A measure of weight C. Million 3. A measure of capacity D. Maund 4. 10 lakh Codes A B C D A B C D (a) 3 1 4 2 (b) 4 3 2 1 (c) 2 3 4 1 (d) 3 2 4 1

Answer: (a)  

141) Name some crops which India under British colonial rule produced for the world market.

Answer:The crops which India produced for the world market were indigo, opium, sugarcane, jute, wheat and several others.  

142) What were the occupations of native Americans?

Answer: Native Americans lived by hunting, gathering, fishing; others cultivated corn, beans, tobacco and pumpkin. 

143) Give one way in which enclosures affected the poor farmers.

Answer:With 'enclosures' the poor farmers lost their customary rights to graze their cattle.  

144) What commodities was East India Company buying from China for sale in England?

Answer:Tea and silk were the two commodities which East India Company was buying from China for sale in England.  

145) Why had the Chinese banned the production and sale of opium?

Answer:Except for medicinal purposes the Chinese Emperor had banned the production and sale of opium because of its addictive properties.  

146)   Why was the war between Britain and China (1837-1842) called the Opium War?

Answer: The war was called the Opium War because the primary cause of war was the British illegal trade in   opium.       

147) The cultivation of opium was a ........ process. (Difficult/Easy)

Answer:Difficult   

148) The British rule was gradually established in India after the Battle of ........ (Plassey/Buxer).

Answer:Plassey 

149) The Great Agrarian Depression of the .... ruined wheat farmers everywhere. (a) 1930s (b) 1940s (c) 1920s (d) 1950s

Answer: (a) 1930s  

150) Why in the 1930s America's dream of land of plenty turned into a nightmare?

Answer:In the 1930s, America's dream of land of plenty turned into a nightmare due to terrifying dust storms.  

151) Strip cultivation was practiced by........ (peasants/tribals) in England.

Answer: Peasants  

152) Who gained most from enclosures in England?

Answer: Rich landowners gained most from enclosures in England.  

153) Why did the rioters destroy the threshing machines during the 1830s in England?

Answer:The threshing machines deprived workmen of their livelihood, thus the rioters destroyed the threshing machines during the 1830s in England.  

154) How did Britain react when Lin Ze-Xu announced that canton was closed to foreign trade?

Answer:When Lin Ze-Xu announced that canton was closed to foreign trade, Britain declared war Defeated in the Opium War (1837-42) the Chinese were forced to accept the humiliating terms of the British.  

155)  Match the following

List I
List II
A.Enclosure movement
1.Invented the first mechanical reaper
B. Cyrus Mc Cormack
2.Black bizzard
C. The Great Plains
3. Travelling traders
D. Pykars
4. A major item of export to China from India
E. Opium
5. A movement to divide and enclose land into compact blocks to improve cultivation

Codes  

      A  B  C  D E              

(a)  5  1   2  3  4
(b) 4  2   1   3  5
(c)  5  2  1   3  4
(d) 3  2  5  4   1

Answer: (a)  

156)   What was putting up a fence around a piece of land called?

Answer:Putting up a fence around a piece of land was called  enclosures.    

157) Why peasants protested against the threshing machines?

Answer:The threshing machines deprived the workers of their livelihood, so the peasants protested against this.  

158) Write two causes of the Great Agrarian depression of 1930.

Answer: Over production and subsequent fall of agricultural prices are two causes of the Great Agrarian depression of 1930.  

159)  Imagine that you were asked by the Emperor of China to prepare a leaflet for young people about the harmful effects of opium. Find out about the effect of opium on the human body Design your leaflet and give it an eye-catching title.

Answer: Do it yourself. Try to talk to some experienced doctors about the harmful effects. 

160) Read Sources C and D and answer the following. Source C One peasant who lost his rights to common land after the enclosures wrote to the local lord: 'Should a poor man take one of your sheep from the common, his life would be forfeited by law. But should You take the common from a hundred poor men's sheep, the law gives no redress. The poor man is liable to be hung for taking from You what would not supply you with a meal and You would do nothing illegal by depriving him of his subsistence; ...What should be the inference of the poor ...when the laws are not accessible to the injured poor and the government gives them no redress? Source D In contrast many writers emphasized the advantages of enclosures. There can be no question of the superior profit to the farmer of enclosures rather than open fields. In one case he is in chains; he can make no changes in soil or prices, he is like a horse in team, he must ioq along with the rest.. ?John Middleton, an 18th century writer (a) What is the peasant trying to say in Source C? (b) What is John Middleton arguing? (c) Re-read from Section 1.1 to 1.4 and summarise the two sides of the argument for and against open fields. Which argument do you sympathise with?

Answer:(a) He is trying to say that the law is one-sided, only favouring the rich farmers, who have taken over the commons. A poor man can be hanged for stealing one sheep, whereas the rich landlords have taken over the common land in which the poor were earlier grazing their large numbers of sheep. The rich farmers were not being penalised for taking over the commons, although they deprived the poor men's sheep of fodder. He was protesting against the unjust laws. (b) John Middleton is arguing in favour of the rich farmers. He says that before the law regarding enclosures was enacted, the farmer could not make improvements in the soil, as other people were also using the same land. Now, when it is enclosed, he can make whatever changes he desires to improve the agricultural yield and thus increase his profits. (c) The main argument for open fields is that they are open to all for doing whatever they wanted, thus benefiting everybody. The main argument against open fields is that the land could not be improved for increasing the yield by anyone who wanted to do it He would have to abide by the majority opinion of all who were using the land. I would definitely sympathise with the people who wanted open fields, as they benefited everyone equally, without giving excess profit to one person at the expense of all other users.    

161) Draw a timeline from 1650 to 1930 showing the significant agricultural changes which you have read about in this chapter. 

Answer: Timeline of Agricultural Changes

Year
Changes in England
Year
Year Changes in America
1650 1660 1800 1810 1820 1830   1850
Enclosures promoting sheep rearing started Farmers begin growing turnip and clover to increase soil fertility Farm labourers started to be taken on part-time  wages Introduction of threshing machines Grain prices start falling after rising for 25 years Captain Swing Movement Six Million acres enclosed of grain production
1820 1830 1860 1900 1910 1920 1930  
Agriculture starts in Mississipi valley Cyrus McCormick invents mechanical reaper Agriculture starts in Great plains Use of combined harvester started John Deere invents mechanical plough 74 million acres under wheat cultivation Persistent drought and Agrarian depression


162) Fill in the following table with the events outlined in this chapter. Remember, there could be more than one change in a country.   

Answer: 

  • Country
    Change Which Occurred
    Who Lost
    Who Won

163) On the arrows in the map indicate the commodities that flowed from one country to another.  

HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Arrow indicates movement of commodities and the direction. In this triangular trade what England import from India and in what form did it come back to India. What were the effects of the triangular trade on India and China?

Answer: The comodities flowing are as given below (i) From India to China?Opium (ii) From China to England?Tea and silk (iii) From India to England?Sugarcane, cotton, jute, wheat and several other crops (iv) From England to India?Manufactured goods 

164)   Mark the different agricultural belts in the USA in 1920.   

Answer: 

HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

165) How did white Americans intercede America and then turn the green lands into Bread Basket of the world?

Answer: (i) The urban population in the US was growing and the export market was becoming even bigger. (ii) As the demand increased, wheat prices rose encouraging farmers to produce wheat. (iii) American settlers laid down railway lines, that made it easier to transport grain for wheat growing regions for the export to European countries. (iv) During World War, many countries lost their production, so US fed Europe. (v) US President rightly said, "Plant more wheat, wheat will win the war."

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Peasants and Farmers Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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