HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Physical Features of India Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

Class 9: HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Physical Features of India Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Physical Features of India Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

171) What are the characteristics of coastal plains of India?
Answer: (i) These are narrow coastal strips, running along the Arabian Sea on the west and Bay of Bengal on the east.
(ii) These are known as western coast and eastern coast of the coastal plains.
(iii) The western coast is sandwiched between the Western Ghats and the Arabian Sea.
(iv) It is a narrow plain and consists of three sections. The northern part of the coast is called the Konkan, the central is called Kannad Plain and the southern part is called the Malabar Coast.
(v) The plains along the Bay of Bengal are wide and level.
(vi) In the northern part it is called Northern Circas, while the southern part is known as Coromandal Coasts.
(vii) Large rivers such as the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri form extensive deltas on the eastern coasts.
(viii) Lake Chilika is also located on the eastern coast. It is the largest saltwater lake of India. 

172) Give main characteristics of the division of Great Peninsular Plateau.
Answer: The Great Peninsular Plateau is the oldest landmass of the Indian subcontinent. It is divided into two parts:
1. The Central Highlands
2. The Deccan Plateau

1. The Central Highlands
(i) These highlands are made up of hard igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(ii) The old Aravalli range borders it in the north-west.
(iii) The Central Highlands further consist of the Malwa Plateau in the west and Chotanagpur region in the east.
(iv) The eastward extension of the Malwa Plateau is known as Bundelkhand and Baghelkand in southern U.P. and northern M.P.
(v) The Malwa Plateau is drained by the southern tributaries of the Yamuna and the Ganga. Damodar river drains the Chotanagpur plateau. 

2. The Deccan Plateau
(i) The Deccan Plateau extends from river Narmada to the Southern tip of the Peninsular India.
(ii) It is one of the oldest earth blocks and is made up of hard igneous and metamorphic socks.
(iii) The Satpura range -northern Mahadev Hills, Maikal range etc. form its northern edge eastern.
(iv) The Western Ghats form its Western edge which is much steeper and higher than the eastern one. The plateau slopes gently towards the east.
(v) The Eastern edge is marked by Eastern Ghats which are broken into small hills by rivers. 

173) What is the significance of Himalayas?
Answer: The Himalayas stand like a mighty mountain wall in the north of India. They separate the Indian subcontinent from rest of Asia. They have vast snow fields and glaciers which are the source of numerous perennial rivers. These rivers provide water for irrigation, navigation and generation of hydel power. The Himalayas act as a climatic barrier. They protect the northern plains, in particular from freezing cold winds. They also stop and deflect the rain bearing winds. Forests provide a suitable habitat for wildlife. They have many wildlife sanctuaries. The Himalayas also have many beautiful hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital and Darjeeling, which attract tourists. 

174) Describe the 'Peninsular Plateau' of India.
Answer:The Peninsular plateau is a tableland and is composed of the old crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks. It was formed due to the breaking and drifting of the Gondwana land. It has broad and shallow valleys and rounded hills. It consists of two broad divisions?Central highlands and Deccan Plateau. The eastward extensions of this plateau are locally known as the Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand. 

175) Describe how the Himalayas were formed.
Answer:(i) The oldest landmass (Peninsular part) was a part of Gondwana land, which included India, Australia, South Africa and Australia.
(ii) Convectional currents split the crust into many pieces, leading to the drifting of the Indo-Australian plate towards the north.
(iii) The northward drift resulted in the collision with the much larger Eurasian plate.
(iv) Due to this collision, the sedimentary rocks accumulated in the Tethys were folded to form the mountain system of western Asia and the Himalayas.
(v) The Himalayas represent a youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and fast flowing rivers. 

176) Contrast the relief of the Himalayan region with that of the Peninsular plateau.
Answer: (i) The Himalayan mountains have been formed by the folding process, while the Peninsular plateau has been formed by the drifting of the Gondwana land.
(ii) The Himalayan mountains are made up of sedimentary rocks, while the plateau contains igneous and metamorphic rocks.
(iii) The Himalayas are located in north India, whereas the plateau region is in south India.
(iv) Mountains have glaciers, which provide rivers that support agriculture in the northern plains. The plateaus are the storehouse of minerals and help in promoting industrialisation in India.
(v) The Himalayas have an average height of about 4,000 metres, while the plateau has an average height of 900 metres. 

177) How do different physiographic regions of India complement each other?
Answer: (i) Each region complements the other and makes the country richer in its natural resources.
(ii) The northern mountains are the major source of water and forest wealth.
(iii) The northern plains are the granaries of the country. They provided abase for early civilisations.
(iv) The plateau is a storehouse of minerals, which has played a crucial role in the industrialisation of the country.
(v) The coastal regions and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. Thus, the diverse physical features of the land have immense future possibilities of development. 

178) State the differences between the island groups of India.
Answer: Andaman and Nicobar Islands
(i) They are located in the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) They were formed by volcanic eruptions.
(iii) They are bigger in size and are more numerous and scattered.
(iv) These islands lie close to the equator and experience equatorial climate. It has thick forest cover and a great diversity of flaura and fauna.
(v) Port Blair is the capital of Andaman and Nicobar Islands. 

Lakshadweep Islands
(i) They are found in the Arabian Sea.
(ii) They are formed by coral polyps.
(iii) Kavaratti is the administrative headquarters of Lakshadweep.
(iv) They are smaller in size that of a ring or horse shoe shape. They are called atolls.
(v) These island groups have great diversity in flaura and fauna and the Pitti island, which is uninhabited, has a bird sanctuary. 

179) Prepare a short note on the 'Indian Desert'.
Answer: (i) The Indian desert, Thar lies to the western margins of the Aravalis.
(ii) It has plenty of sand dunes.
(iii) This region receives very less rainfall, even less than 25 cm in a year.
(iv) It has arid climate with low vegetation cover.
(v) Streams appear in the rainy season only. Luni is the only large river in this region.
(vi) Barchans (crescent-shaped dunes) cover larger areas. 

180) Write a few lines on Deccan Trap of the Peninsular Plateau. What do you know about the distinct features of the peninsular plateau called the Deccan Trap?
Answer: (i) The black soil area in the peninsular plateau is called the Deccan Trap.
(ii) This is formed by volcanic activities, so the rocks are igneous.
(iii) These rocks have been denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of the black soil.
(iv) The Aravalis lie on the western and north-western margins of the peninsular plateau.
(v) These are highly eroded hills and are found as broken hills. 

181) Differentiate between Western Ghats and Eastern Ghats.
Answer: Western Ghats                
(i) They lie parallel to the western coast.
(ii) They are continuous and can be crossed through passes only.
(iii) Their average height is between 900-1600 metres.
(iv) The highest peak is Anainudi (2,695 metres).
(v) The Western Ghats mark the western edge of the Deccan Plateau. 

Eastern Ghats
(i) They stretch from the Mahanadi valley to the Nilgiris in the south.
(ii) They are discontinuous and irregular and are dissected by rivers.
(iii) Their average height is 600 metres.
(iv) The highest peak is Mahendragiri (1,501 metres).
(v) The Eastern Ghats mark the eastern edge of the Deccan Plateau.

182) Classify the Northern Plains on the basis of the variations in the relief features.
Answer: (i) Bhabar: The rivers after descending from the mountains deposit pebbles in a narrow belt lying parallel to the slopes of the Shiwaliks. This is known as bhabar.
(ii) Terai: To the south of Bhabar belt, the rivers and stream re-emerge and create a wet, swampy and marshy region known as the Terai. This was a thickly forested area but was later on cleared for cultivation.
(iii) Bhangar: The largest part of the northern plain is formed of older alluvium. They lie above the flood plains of the rivers and present a terrace-like feature. The soil in this region contains kankar modules in them. This part is known as bhangar.
(iv) Khadar: The newer younger deposits of the floodplains are called khadar. They are renewed almost every year and are therefore fertile. They are ideal for cultivation. 

183) Give five features of the Deccan Trap.
Answer: (i) The Deccan Plateau is a triangular landmass that lies to the south of the river Narmada.
(ii) The Satpura range flanks its broad base in the north while the Mahadev, the Kaimur hills and the Maikal range form its eastward extension.
(iii) It is higher in the west and slopes gently eastwards.
(iv) Its north-east extension is locally known as the Meghalaya and Karbi-Anglong plateau and North Cachar Hills . It is separated by a fault from the Chota Nagpur plateau.
(v) Three prominent hill ranges from the west to east are the Garo, Khasiand Jaintia hills. 

184) How does India have great physical variations?
Answer:The land of India displays great physical variants such as:
(i) The Peninsular Plateau constitutes one of the ancient landmasses on the earth's surface. It was supposed to be one of the most stable land blocks.
(ii) The Himalayas and the Northern Plains are the most recent landforms, but the Himalayas are the most unstable zone.
(iii) The Himalaya represent a very youthful topography with high peaks, deep valleys and perennial rivers.
(iv) The Northern Plains are formed by alluvial deposits.
(v) The Peninsular Plateau is composed of igneous and metamorphic rocks. Therefore, geologically we find great physical variation in India due to certain changes formed by various tectonic movements inside the Earth. 

185) Mountain ranges in the eastern part of India, forming its boundary with Myanmar are collectively called: 
(a) Himachal Pradesh 
(b) Uttarakhand 
(c) Purvanchal 
(d) Himalayas
Answer:

186) The highest peak in the Eastern Ghats is: 
(a) Anaimudi 
(b) Khasi 
(c) Mahendragiri 
(d) Dodabetta
Answer:  C  

187) The newer younger deposits of flood plains are called: 
(a) Bhabar 
(b) Bhangar 
(c) Khadar 
(d) Terai
Answer:  C  

188) Lakshadweep Islands are formed by: 
(a) Coral polyps 
(b) Volcanic eruption 
(c) Metamorphic rocks 
(d) Earthquake

Answer:  A  

189) The north-east extension of the Deccan plateau is locally known as: 
(a) Karbi-Anglong plateau 
(b) Kaimur plateau 
(c) Chota Nagpur plateau 
(d) Malwa plateau
Answer:  A  

190) The eastward extension of the Central Highlands are known as: 
(a) Chota Nagpur plateau 
(b) Bundelkhand and Baghelkhand 
(c) Maikal range and Mahadev hills 
(d) Aravali range           
Answer:  A  

191) What is the significance of the Himalayas to India?
Answer: (i) The Himalayas lie on the northern border of India like a physical barrier. They separate India from Central Asia.
(ii) They have huge over of snow and glaciers which are the sources for a number of perennial rivers of India. These rivers helped in the formation of northern plains of India, therefore provide water for irrigation, navigation and for generating hydel-power.
(iii) The Himalayas also act as climatic barriers, since they protect the northern plains in winters from the freezing cold winds blowing from Central Asia. They are also able to stop and deflect the rain bearing southern-west monsoon winds towards northern plains of India.
(iv) Forests in the foothills of Himalayas provide habitat for a number of wild animals, birds, insects etc.
(v) In Himadari, there are a number of beautiful hill stations like Shimla, Mussoorie, Nainital, Darjeeling.
(vi) Besides, these mountains also provide a natural protection to India from any kind of invasion from outside. 

192) How Northern Plains of India are formed?
Answer: (i) The northern plains have been formed by the interplay of the three major river systems?the Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra along with their tributaries.
(ii) The deposition ofallumium in a vast basin lying at the foothills of the Himalayas over millions of years, formed this fertile plain.
(iii) With a rich soil cover, combined with adequate water supply and favourable climate, it is agriculturally a very productive part of India.  

193) Why is the black soil area in the peninsular part called Deccan Trap?
Answer: (i) This black soil area of peninsular plateau is of volcanic origin, hence the rocks are igneous.
(ii) Actually these rocks have denuded over time and are responsible for the formation of black soil.
(iii) Due to continuous flow of lava, an extensive lava plateau has been formed, which is called Deccan Trap.  

194) How were Andaman and Nicobar Islands formed?
Answer:  (i) It is believed that these islands are an elevated portion of submarine mountains in the Bay of Bengal.
(ii) They are located on a submerged or submarine hill range and are probably formed by the volcanic eruptions.
(iii) Some of the volcanic mountains are still active over here. They are larger in size and are known for their variety of flora and fauna.  

195) Which are the coral islands of India?
Answer:(i) Lakshdweep are the coral islands of India as they are formed by coral deposits.
(ii) Such islands are formed by the deposition of skeletons of microscopic species, called coral polyps on the seabed.
(iii) They live only in shallow warm waters. Many of these islands are  in ring shape or horse shoe shape, called atolls.                  
These islands are located in the warm water of Arabian Sea. 

196) What is the contribution of India's unique physical features to India's natural resources? 
Answer: (i) The mountains are the major source of water and forest wealth.
(ii) The northern plains are the granaries of the country, feeding the whole country
(iii) These rivers have provided the base for early civilisation and had also given birth to the early Indus Valley Civilisation.
(iv) The plateau region is a storehouse of minerals, which has played a crucial role in the industrialisation of the country.
(v) The coastal regions and island groups provide sites for fishing and port activities. Thus, the diverse physical features of the land have immense future possibilities of development.

The document HOTS Questions & Answers (Part-2): Physical Features of India Notes | Study Social Studies (SST) Class 9 - Class 9 is a part of the Class 9 Course Social Studies (SST) Class 9.
All you need of Class 9 at this link: Class 9

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