NEET  >  Hardy Weinberg Principle & Algebraic Equations

# Hardy Weinberg Principle & Algebraic Equations Video Lecture - Biology Class 12 - NEET

## Biology Class 12

157 videos|398 docs|239 tests

## FAQs on Hardy Weinberg Principle & Algebraic Equations Video Lecture - Biology Class 12 - NEET

 1. What is the Hardy-Weinberg principle? Ans. The Hardy-Weinberg principle, also known as the Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium or law, is a fundamental concept in population genetics. It states that the frequency of alleles and genotypes in a population will remain constant over generations if certain assumptions are met, such as no mutation, migration, selection, random mating, and large population size.
 2. What are the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle? Ans. The assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle are: 1. No mutation: The genetic material does not change through new mutations. 2. No migration: There is no gene flow into or out of the population. 3. Random mating: Individuals in the population mate randomly, without any preference for specific traits. 4. No natural selection: All genotypes have equal fitness and do not experience differential survival or reproductive success. 5. Large population size: The population is large enough to prevent genetic drift, which is the random change in allele frequencies due to sampling effects.
 3. How can the Hardy-Weinberg equation be used to calculate allele frequencies? Ans. The Hardy-Weinberg equation allows us to calculate allele frequencies in a population. The equation is p^2 + 2pq + q^2 = 1, where p represents the frequency of one allele and q represents the frequency of the other allele. By knowing the genotype frequencies, we can solve for the allele frequencies by taking the square root of the homozygous dominant genotype frequency (p^2) and homozygous recessive genotype frequency (q^2).
 4. What happens if the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle are not met in a population? Ans. If the assumptions of the Hardy-Weinberg principle are not met in a population, the genetic equilibrium is disrupted, and the allele frequencies may change over generations. Factors such as mutation, migration, natural selection, non-random mating, and genetic drift can cause deviations from the expected equilibrium. These deviations can lead to changes in the genetic makeup of the population, potentially resulting in evolution.
 5. How is the Hardy-Weinberg principle useful in studying genetic variation? Ans. The Hardy-Weinberg principle provides a baseline expectation for the distribution of alleles and genotypes in a population, assuming certain conditions. By comparing observed frequencies with the expected frequencies under the principle, scientists can identify deviations and investigate the factors contributing to genetic variation. This principle helps in understanding the forces of evolution, estimating allele frequencies, studying genetic diseases, and assessing the impact of various evolutionary factors on populations.

## Biology Class 12

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