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# Hashing - 1 - Hash Functions Notes | EduRev

## : Hashing - 1 - Hash Functions Notes | EduRev

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1
Hashing - 1
Hash Functions
Sections 5.1 and 5.2
Introduction
? Data items stored in an array of some fixed size.
? Search performed using some part of the data
item – called the key.
? Hash function
?Maps keys to integers (which represent table indices)
?Hash(Key) = Integer
?Evenly distributed index values
?Even if the input data is not evenly distributed
Simple Hash Functions
?Assumptions:
?K:  an unsigned 32-bit integer
?M:  the number of buckets  (the number of
entries in a hash table)
?Goal:
?If a bit is changed in K, all bits are equally likely
to change for Hash(K)
A Simple Hash Function…
?What if
?Hash(K) == K
?What is wrong?
?Values of K may not be evenly distributed
?But Hash(K) needs to be evenly distributed
Another Simple Function
? If
?Hash(K) == K % M
? What is wrong?
? Suppose
?M = 10,
?K = 2, 20, 34, 42,76
? Then K % M = 2, 0, 4, 2, 6,...
?Since 10 is even, all even K are hashed to even
numbers ...
Yet Another Simple Function
?If
?Hash(K) = K % P, with P a prime number
?Suppose
?P = 11
?K = 10, 20, 30, 40
?K % P = 10, 9, 8, 7
?More uniform distribution…
Page 2

1
Hashing - 1
Hash Functions
Sections 5.1 and 5.2
Introduction
? Data items stored in an array of some fixed size.
? Search performed using some part of the data
item – called the key.
? Hash function
?Maps keys to integers (which represent table indices)
?Hash(Key) = Integer
?Evenly distributed index values
?Even if the input data is not evenly distributed
Simple Hash Functions
?Assumptions:
?K:  an unsigned 32-bit integer
?M:  the number of buckets  (the number of
entries in a hash table)
?Goal:
?If a bit is changed in K, all bits are equally likely
to change for Hash(K)
A Simple Hash Function…
?What if
?Hash(K) == K
?What is wrong?
?Values of K may not be evenly distributed
?But Hash(K) needs to be evenly distributed
Another Simple Function
? If
?Hash(K) == K % M
? What is wrong?
? Suppose
?M = 10,
?K = 2, 20, 34, 42,76
? Then K % M = 2, 0, 4, 2, 6,...
?Since 10 is even, all even K are hashed to even
numbers ...
Yet Another Simple Function
?If
?Hash(K) = K % P, with P a prime number
?Suppose
?P = 11
?K = 10, 20, 30, 40
?K % P = 10, 9, 8, 7
?More uniform distribution…
2
Hashing a Sequence of Keys
?K = {K
1
, K
2
, …, K
n
)
?E.g., Hash(“test”) = 98157
?Design Principles
?Use the entire key
?Use the ordering information
Use the Entire Key
unsigned int Hash(const char *Key) {
unsigned int hash = 0;
for (unsigned int j = 0; j < K; j++) {
hash = hash ^ Key[j] //bitwise xor
}
return hash;
}
?Problem:  Hash(“ab”)==Hash(“ba”)
Use the Ordering Information
unsigned int Hash(const char *Key) {
unsigned int hash = 0;
for (unsigned int j = 0; j < K; j++) {
hash = hash ^ Key[j];
hash = hash ^ (j%32);
}
return hash;
}
Better Hash Function
unsigned int Hash(const String& S)
{
unsigned int i;
long unsigned int bigval = S.Element(0); // S[0]
for (i = 1; i < S.Size(); ++i)
bigval = ((bigval & 65535) * 18000) // low16 * magic_number
+ (bigval >> 16) // high16
+ S[i];
bigval = ((bigval & 65535) * 18000) + (bigval >> 16);
// bigval = low16 * magic_number + high16
return bigval & 65535; // return low16
}
```
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