Class - XI
TIME: 3 Hrs.
General Instructions :
Read the below instructions very carefully and follow them strictly.
(i) Answer all the questions. Some questions have an internal choice. Marks are indicated against each question. This question paper comprises six sections.
(ii) Section A: Question numbers 1 to 16 are objective type questions carrying 1 mark and should be answered in one word or one sentence each (Attempt any 15).
(iii) Section B: Question numbers 17 to 19 are Case-Based/Source-Based having Multiple Choice questions carrying 3 marks each. Each question has 4 sub-parts. Attempt any three sub-parts from each question.
(iv) Section C: Answer to questions 20 to 23 carrying 3 marks each should not exceed 100 words each.
(v) Section D: Answer to questions 24 to 26 carrying 8 marks each should not exceed 350 words each.
(vi) Section E: Question number 27 to 29 are Source-based questions carrying 5 marks each.
(vii) Section F: Question number 30 is a Map question that includes the identification and location of significant test items. Attach the map with the answer book.
Attempt any 15 questions. [1 mark each]
Q.1. Which of these factors were responsible for the decline of Roman Civilization.
(a) Slaves Revolts
(b) Mounting military and bureaucratic costs
(c) Spread of Christianity
(d) All of these
(A) a and c
(B) only b
(C) b and c
(D) only d
Q.2. State whether the statement is true or false:
Cotton weavers destroyed power looms as they found their jobs threatened by new machines.
Q.3. Who is regarded as the father of Humanism in world History.
Q.4. Which one of these was not a famous city of Roman Empire?
Q.5. Identify the thinker who wrote this: India was a country that was destroyed by a non-country that is the East India Company
(a) Miyake Setsurei
(b) Liang Qichao
(c) Ueki Emori
(d) Fukuzawa Yukichi
Q.6. Why were the canals built in the 18th century?
(a) To beautify the cities
(b) To transport coal to cities
(c) To use the excess money available
(d) all of the above
Q.7. Look at the figure given below and name it,
Ans: Statue of Emperor Constantine
Q.8. What defines the “Identity” of the USA?
(a) A nation of tribes
(b) A nation of blacks
(c) The democratic script
(d) A nation of diversity
Q.9. Identify the Incorrect statement about the Meiji constitution and correct it.
(a) The Meiji constitution was based on a restricted franchise.
(b) The Parliament of Japan was known as the Diet.
(c) The Prime Minister was the commander of the forces.
Q.10. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R):
Assertion (A): The earliest inhabitants of North America did not attempt extensive agriculture and since they did not produce a surplus.
Reason (R): Due to unsuitable climatic conditions,
(a) Both A and R are correct, but R is the correct explanation of A.
(b) Both A and R are correct but R is not the correct explanation of A
(c) A is correct but R is not correct.
(d) R is correct but A is not correct.
Q.11. Who is unanimously regarded as the founder of modern China?
(a) Chiang Kai-Shek
(b) Murasaki Shikibu
(c) Fukuzawa Yukichi
(d) Sun Yat-sen
Q.12. Who was Chiang-Kai-Shek? What did he tell women?
Ans: Chiang- Kai- Shek was the leader of the Guomindang. He told women to cultivate the virtues of chastity, appearance, speech and work.
Q.13. Given below are two statements, one labelled as Assertion (A) and the other as Reason (R)
Assertion (A): The British and the French came to settle in America in the nineteenth century.
Reason (R): Because to them, the natives of America appeared “Uncivilised”.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but (R) is the correct explanation of (A)
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are correct, but R is not the correct explanation of (A)
(iii) (A) is correct but (R) is not correct.
(iv) (R) is correct but (A) is not correct.
Q.14. Match the following:
Q.15. Identify the In-Correct Statement and correct it:
(a) The serfs had to do forced labour
(b) The serfs could not leave the estate without the lord’s permission.
(c) Serfs could use only their lord's will to grind their flour.
(d) The Serf could decide only to whom a serf merry.
Q.16. The First Opium War was fought between China and ____ in 1842. China was defeated in this war. The war came to an end with the treaty of Nanking.
Expansion of ____ was a cause of urbanisation in Mesopotamia?
[3 marks each]
In this part all questions are compulsory
Q.17. Read the following extract carefully and answer ANY THREE of the following questions by choosing the correct option:
The invention of the railway took the entire process of industrialisation to a second stage in 1801. Richard Trevithick (1771-1833) had devised an engine called the Puffing Devil that pulled trucks around the mine where he worked in Cornwall. In 1814 the railway engineer George Stephenson (1781 - 1848) constructed a locomotive called “The Blucher'' that could pull a weight of 30 tons up-to a Hill at 4 mph. The first railway line connected the cities of Stockton and Darlington in 1825, a distance of 9 miles that was completed in two hours at a speed-up of up to 24 kph (15 mph), and the next railway line connected Liverpool and Manchester in 1830. Within 20 years, speeds of 30 to 50 miles an hour were usual.
In 1830, the use of canals revealed several problems. The congestion of vessels made movements slow on certain stages of canals; and Frost, flood or drought limited the time of their use. The Railways now appeared as a convenient alternative. About 6,000 miles of railway was opened in Britain between 1830 and 1850, most of it into short bursts.
1. Which incident took the entire process of industrialization to a second stage?
(i) The invention of the flying shuttle.
(ii) The invention of the steam engine.
(iii) The invention of the water frame.
(iv) The invention of the railways.
2. What was the “Puffing Devil''?
(i) An Engine
(ii) An Aeroplane
(iii) A railway track
(iv) None of these.
3. What problems did the use of canals reveal in the 1830s?
(i) The congestion of vessels made movement slow on certain stretches of canals.
(ii) Frost, flood or drought limited the time of use of canals.
(iii) Both (i) and (ii).
(iv) None of these
4. What do you think, when did the first phase of the industrial revolution occur?
(ii) After 1850
(iii) After 1720
Q.18. Read the following extract carefully and answer ANY THREE of the following questions by choosing the correct option:
Mesopotamians valued city life in which people of many communities and cultures live side by side. After cities were destroyed in war they recorded them in poetry.
The most ignorant reminder to us of the pride Mesopotamians took in their City comes at the end of Gilgamesh Epic, which was written on twelve tablets. Gilgamesh is said to have ruled the city of Uruk sometime after Enmerkar. A great hero who subdued people far and wide, he got a shock when his heroic friend died. He then set out to find the secret of immorality, crossing the water that surrounds the world. After a heroic attempt Gilgamesh failed and returned to Uruk. There he consoled himself by walking along the city wall, back and forth. He admired the foundation made of fired bricks that he had put into place. It is on the city wall of Uruk that the long tail of heroism and endeavour fizzles out. Gilgamesh does not say that even he would die his sons would outlive him, as a tribal hero would have done. He takes consolidation in the city that his people had built.
(A) How did Mesopotamians recall their cities?
(i) They recall them in their painting.
(ii) They recall them in their songs.
(iii) They recall them in their poetry.
(iv) They recall them in their stories.
(B) Who wrote the Gilgamesh Epic?
(iii) A great hero
(iv) An unknown poet.
(C) Choose the correct option:
Assertion(A): He set out to find the secret of immortality.
Reason (R): He takes consolation in the city that his people had built.
(i) Both (A) and (R) are correct and (R) is the correct explanation of (A).
(ii) Both (A) and (R) are correct but (R) is not the correct explanation of (A).
(iii) (A) is incorrect but (R) is correct.
(iv) (R) is incorrect but (A) is correct.
(D) Consider the following statement:
(a) While moving narratives can be transmitted orally.
(b) Science requires written text that generations of scholars can read and build upon.
(i) Both (a) and (b) are correct
(ii) Only (b) is correct.
Q.19. Read the following extract carefully and answer ANY THREE of the following questions by choosing the correct option:
Factory managers considered child labour to be important training for future factory work. The evidence from British factory records reveals that about half of the factory workers had started work when they were less than 10 years old and 28% when they were under 14. Women may well have gained increased financial Independence and self-esteem from their jobs but this was more than offset by the humiliating terms of work they endured, the children they lost at birth or in early childhood and the squalid urban slums that industrial work compelled them to live in.
1. Why child labour is considered important for factory work.
(i) Training them for future factory work.
(ii) They are easily available.
(iii) More efficient in work.
(iv) All of these.
2. According to the extracts, at what age, half of the factory workers had started working in factories.
(i) Less than 10 years.
(ii) Less than 20 years
(iii) Less than 18 years
(iv) Less than 16 years.
3. What do you think, why did industrialists in Britain prefer to employ women and children?
(i) Women and children would be less agitated about their poor working conditions.
(ii) They would work for lower wages than men.
(iii) Both (i) and (ii).
(iv) None of these.
4. As per evidence from British factory records 28% of factory workers are;
(i) Less than 10 years’ old
(ii) Less than 14 years’ old
(iii) Less than 18 years’ old
(iv) Less than 20 years’ old
[3 marks each]
In this part all questions are compulsory.
Q.20. Write a short note on Sufism.
Ans: The Sufis were Muslim saints who sought to achieve the union of soul with God through love and devotion. They sought a deeper and more personal knowledge of God through asceticism (rahmaniya) and mysticism. They sought to renounce the world (Zuhd) and rely on God alone (tawakkul). Bayazid Bastami, an Iranian Sufi, was the first to teach the importance of submerging the self (fana) in God. Sufis used musical concerts (Sama) to induce ecstasy and stimulate emotions of love and passion.
Sufism is open to all regardless of religious affiliation, status and gender. By making religion more personal and less institutional, Sufism gained popularity and posed a challenge to orthodox Islam.
Q.21. What was the contribution of Mesopotamia in the fields of Mathematics and time division?
Ans: The scholarly tradition of time reckoning and mathematics has been the greatest legacy of the Mesopotamians. There are tablets with multiplication and division tables, square and square roots and even tables of compound interest. The year was divided into 12 months according to the revolution of the moon around the earth. The month was divided into four weeks, a day into 24 hours and the hour into 60 minutes. They also observed the solar and lunar eclipses and noted their occurrence according to year, month and day. There are also records about the observed positions of stars and constellations in the night sky. These divisions were adopted by the successors of Alexander and from there transmitted to the Roman world, then to Islam and then to medieval Europe.
Q.22. Differentiate between the Roman and the Iranian Empire?
Ans: Roman and the Iranian Empire:
(i) There was great rivalry between the Roman Empire and the Iranian Empire from the early seventh century B.C. down to 630s.
(ii) While the Mediterranean was the heart of the Roman Empire, (it stretched on both sides of the sea), the Empire of Iran dominated the area south of the Caspian Sea up to eastern Arabia and at times part of Afghanistan. They were separated only by a narrow strip of land running along the River Euphrates.
(iii) There were major differences between the Roman and the Iranian empires. While the Roman Empire was culturally more diversified, a mosaic of cultures and territories were bound together by a common system of government and a single ruler. In contrast, the Iranian empire was ruled by Parthians and then Sasanians ruled over a large Iranian population.
Q.23. “The emperor, the aristocracy and the army were the three main players in the political history of the Roman Empire”. Explain.
Ans: The success of the individual emperors depended on their control over the army. When armies were divided it usually resulted in a civil war. The first two centuries were on the whole free from danger of civil war and in this sense, the empire was stable. Augustus retained all outward forms of the Republic. The senate and the army provided him the stamp of legitimacy. The aristocracy (wealthiest families) exercised their power through oligarchical rule i.e. the senate. It was the single most important centre of authority. The functioning was controlled by the emperor through his officials. Unlike the Greeks, the Romans had a professional army. It was the largest single organised body in the empire. When the army was divided the result was usually a civil war.
[8 marks each]
In this part all questions are compulsory
Q.24. Compare the Venetian idea of good government with those in contemporary France.
Ans: There lies a huge difference between the Venetian and the French governments. The best way to describe the Venetian Government is ‘Venice über alles’, meaning ‘Venice above all’. This statement proves that Venice had a more just and efficient government as compared to any other European governments in contemporary times. On the other hand, the 15th century French government has been referred to as ’Feudal barbarism’ by Napoleon Bonaparte.
The Venetian administration was mostly controlled by the Great Council. It comprised some of the prominent members of the city. The state to these patricians was a mere extension of their family and individual interests. These people realised that only the efficient administration of the state could ensure the effective functioning of the trading, which was the primary source of revenue of the land.
People of the lesser ranks such as the merchants, doctors and lawyers also had an important role to play in the state. They served as the ambassadors and diplomats. The lower ranks also had important rights and obligations. Thus, the administration of Venice was a participative practice. The government made all efforts to fulfil the needs of the poor. Provisions were made for the supply of food, conducting great ceremonies and celebrations, and assurance of a legal system with justice for all.
The French government stood polls apart from the Venetian style of governance. It was based on the system of Feudalism. Feudalism was a social and economic system that existed in France, England and Italy during the 9th and 15th century. Here, the agricultural production was based on the relation between lords and peasants. The lords owned huge lands, and the peasants had to cultivate their own lands as well as the lords’ land. In return for the services rendered by the peasants, the lords provided military protection to them. The lords also extended judicial control over the peasants and the settlement. This practise was highly exploitative. The worst sufferers were the serfs, who were devoid of all rights. The serf had extreme low status in the society. The word of the master was the law. He could not raise a voice against the master. Legal rights also did not exist for either of him.
Why was the history of the Australian native people left out of history books?
Ans: They did not foresee that in the 19th -20th centuries nearly 50 percent of the natives would die due to various reasons like exposure to germs, loss of their land and resources and in battles against the settlers. The experience of settling Brazil with Portuguese convicts had been abandoned when their violent behaviour provoked angry retaliations from the natives. The British adopted the same policy in American colonies until they became independent. Then they continued it in Australia. Most of the early settlers had been convicts who had been deported from England at the end of their jail term and were allowed to live as free people on the condition that they would not go back to England. With no recourse they felt no hesitation about expelling the natives from their lands. And thus, there was no mention about the Australian natives in the history books.
Q.25. Compare the effects of the coming of the railways in different countries in the world.
Ans: The impact of Railways in different countries of the world varied greatly. It should be kept in mind that the world at this time i.e. in the 19th century was divided among the ‘Imperialist powers’ i.e. Britain, France, Holland, Portugal and Spain and the countries dominated by them were their colonies (like India, China) or settler colonies (like Australia). The effect of railways in imperial countries was positive. The railways apart from revolutionising transport spearheaded the industrial revolution in these countries. Railways provided better, cheaper, faster, easy all-weather-friendly mode of transportation. It had a multiplier effect on other industries as well. They used large amounts of coal and iron, boosted activity in the construction and public works department, provided employment, accelerated trade and commerce and the process of capitalism.
On the other hand, the coming of railways in India resulted in further colonisation and underdevelopment of the economy of the colonies like India. They ushered in commercial and not industrial revolution that enabled the colonists to better tap the markets in the interiors of the country for both finished goods and raw materials and food stuffs to feed their machines and operatives.
While railway construction in Britain encouraged steel and machine industry and capital investment in India these backward and forward linkages were reaped by Britain and not India. It was the British steel manufacturers i.e. rail, engines and wagons and other machinery that benefited, and British capitalist gained. Thus, expansion of railways in India could be seen as a kind of subsidy to British industries or as Tilak put it “it was like decorating another’s wife”.
Why did Renaissance appear in Italy first? What changes did it bring about in the contemporary life of the people?
Ans. Renaissance first appeared in Italy because of the following reasons:
(i) Fall of Constantinople: The learned Christian scholars due to fear of being persecuted by the Turks, fled to Italy and brought good literary ideas with them that helped them to share knowledge.
(ii) Decline of Feudalism: It helped in emergence of new towns and cities based on trade and commerce.
(iii) Geographical location of Italy: As Italy was situated halfway between Europe and the Middle East, the Italian cities became centres of prosperous trade and commerce.
Changes brought about by Renaissance included:
(i) The old age thinking of religious superstitions was given up and Humanism was encouraged.
(ii) New ideas and a rational outlook with scientific beliefs were adopted.
(iii) It inspired the contemporary artists and writers and philosophers to write about ‘man’ and his accomplishments.
(iv) Many new universities were established that taught humanism.
(v) With the coming of the printing press education and knowledge spread quickly.
Q.26. Describe in detail the effects of the Industrial Revolution on Britain.
Ans. The industrial Revolution deeply affected all aspects of public life in England. It transformed Britain an agriculture-dominated country into an industrial country. Following were the major effects of the Industrial Revolution:
(i) It made England one of the largest industrial nations. She established her trade relations with other countries and with increased exports her national income increased.
(ii) The machines invented during this period could not be installed at home so innumerable factories were set up in the country. Consequently, cottage industries almost ended.
(iii) The industrial revolution contributed to the establishment of large towns such as Manchester, Lancashire,Birmingham.
(iv) Invention of machines resulted in the sufficient production of goods. As these were cheaper, more and more people began to buy them.
(v) One of the worst effects was the elimination of the home industries. As a single machine could do the work of many people, people who rendered manual labour were left unemployed.
(vi) The industrial revolution forced small farmers to sell their land and work in the factories. Thus, the number of land less labour increased.
Comment on any points of difference between the native peoples of South and North America.
Ans. The words ‘Natives of America’ refer to the original population of America as existing in the pre-Columbian era. The natives of South America belonged to different cultural groups. Domestication of animals was practiced by the South American natives. Llamas and alpacas were domesticated for the purpose of transportation and food. The natives here were well-versed with agriculture. They produced potatoes, beans and chillies. The abundance or surplus production of cereals encouraged the beginning of settled and permanent agricultural societies in South America. Over time, these permanent agricultural societies led to the emergence of powerful monarchical systems in South and Central America under the Aztecs, Mayans and Incas.
However, the life of the natives in North America was not the same as the natives in South America. They lived in small bands. Population was distributed among different environmental zones of North America. The North American natives basically followed a nomadic lifestyle and moved from one place to another in search of cereals, vegetables and meat. The nomadic lifestyle of the people of North America prevented them from establishing any kingdoms or empire. There was, thus, no territory that they could declare to be their own. This also prevented them from forming a collective identity. With no bond among the members of tribes of North America, they easily succumbed to the European powers without much resistance.
[5 marks each]
In this part all questions are compulsory.
Q.27. Read the passage carefully and answer the questions that follow:
This woman’s head was sculpted in white marble at Uruk before 3000 BCE. The eyes and eyebrows would probably have taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays, respectively. There is a groove along the top of the head, perhaps for an ornament. This is a world-famous piece of sculpture, admired for the delicate modelling of the woman’s mouth, chin and cheeks. And it was modelled in a hard stone that would have been imported from a distance.
(i) Where was the woman’s head sculpture discovered? What was it called? How old was this?
(ii) What were its unique characteristics?
(iii) Why is it a world-famous sculpture? Which qualities of this sculpture made him so famous?
Ans: (i) This woman’s head was sculpted in white marble at Uruk. It was called the Warka Head. It was 3000 BCE old.
(ii) Warka Head had some unique characteristics. These were;
(a) The eyes and eyebrows would probably have taken lapis lazuli (blue) and shell (white) and bitumen (black) inlays
(b) There is a groove along the top of the head, perhaps for an ornament.
(iii) The Warka Head was admired for the delicate modelling of the woman’s mouth, chin and cheeks.
Q.28. Read the source carefully and answer the questions that follow.
In towns, instead of services, people paid tax to the lords who owned the land on which the town stood. Towns offered the prospect of paid work and freedom from the lord’s control, for young people from peasant families. ‘Town Air makes free’ was a popular saying. Many serfs craving to be free ran away and hid in towns.
If a serf could stay for one year and one day without his lord discovering him, he would become a free man. Many people in towns were free peasants or escaped serfs who provided unskilled labour. Shopkeepers and merchants were numerous. Later, there was a need for individuals with specialised skills, like bankers and lawyers. The bigger towns had populations of about 30,000. They could be said to have formed a ‘fourth’ order.
The basis of economic organisation was the guild. Each craft or industry was organised into a guild, an association which controlled the quality of the product, its price and its sale. The ‘guild-hall’ was a feature of every town; it was a building for ceremonial functions, and where the heads of all the guilds met formally. Guards patrolled the town walls and musicians were called to play at feasts and in civic processions, and innkeepers looked after travellers.
(i) What was ‘guildhall’?
(ii) What was the population of the big towns?
(iii) Why were guilds important?
Ans: (i) The ‘guild-hall’ was a feature of every town; it was a building for ceremonial functions, and where the heads of all the guilds met formally.
(ii) About 30,0001
(iii) The basis of economic organisation was the guild. Each craft or industry was organised into a guild, an association which controlled the quality of the product, its price and its sale.
Q.29. Read the passage and answer the questions that follow:
Late Antiquity is the term now used to describe the final, fascinating period in the evolution and break-up of the Roman Empire and refers broadly to the fourth to seventh centuries. The fourth century itself was one of considerable ferment, both cultural and economic. At the cultural level, the period saw momentous developments in religious life, with the emperor Constantine deciding to make Christianity the official religion, and with the rise of Islam in the seventh century. But there were equally important changes in the structure of the state that began with the emperor Diocletian (284- 305), and it may be best to start with these.
Overexpansion had led Diocletian to ‘cut back’ by abandoning territories with little strategic or economic value. Diocletian also fortified the frontiers, reorganised provincial boundaries, and separated civilian from military functions, granting greater autonomy to the military commanders (duces), who now became a more powerful group.
Constantine consolidated some of these changes and added others of his own. His chief innovations were in the monetary sphere, where he introduced a new denomination, the solidus, a coin of 4½ gm of pure gold that would, in fact, outlast the Roman Empire itself. Solidi were minted on a very large scale and their circulation ran into millions.
(i) How long did the Diocletian regime continue?
(ii) What does Late Antiquity mean?
(iii) Mention the innovation of Constantine.
Ans: (i) The Diocletian regime continued from 284-305.
(ii) Late antiquity’ is the term used to describe the final, fascinating period in the evolution and break-up of the Roman Empire and refers broadly to the fourth to seventh centuries.(iii) Constantine did innovation in the monetary sphere. He introduced a new denomination, the solidus, a coin of 4½ gm of pure gold that would, in fact, outlast the Roman Empire itself. Solidi were minted on a very large scale and their circulation ran into millions.
Q.30. (i) On the given map of Britain, mark the centres of cotton textiles.
Ans: On the given map of Britain, following centres of cotton textiles are marked.
(ii) Identify the three important centres of iron and coal and name them.
Ans: The three important centres of iron and coal are;
(c) Forest of Dean