Q. 1. Give four reasons to provide substitute care to an infant.
Ans : Reasons to provide substitute care to an infant are :
(i) Mother is working and grand parents are not there
(ii) Grand parents are there but are very old cannot take care of the child in absence of mother.
(iii) When mother has some urgent work she has to leave the child for short duration.
(iv) Substitute care is also needed when mother is not well and their is no one to look after the child at home.
Q. 2. Useing each of the four elements of art, suggest a suitable shirt and pant for a very tall person.
Ans : The four element of art which are used to construct any garment are:
(i) Line (ii) Form and shape (iii) Colour (iv) Texture Using each of these elements of art we will select suitable shirt and pant for a very tall person in the following way.
(i) Line - We will select horizontal lines in shirt because they create illusion of added width and stability to a lean thin person.
(ii) Form and shape - One should select big checks for the shirt. Length of the shirt should not be very short otherwise tall person will look more taller. When the area is divided into unequal part, it makes pleasing proportion.
(iii) Colour - Select the shirt and pant with advancing colour because they increase the size of the person hence tall person will look little shorter. Contrast can also be selected to decrease the size of the person.
(iv) Texture - Medium textured clothing will be suitable for the tall person.
Q. 3. Define the term ‘acquired immunity’.
Ans : Acquired immunity is of two types i.e., naturally acquired immunity and artificially acquired immunity. Naturally acquired immunity is achieved by actually having the disease.
Artificially acquired immunity is achieved when the weakened or dead germs are introduced into the body and the body is stimulated to produce its won antibodies without actually having the disease.
Q. 4. Plan a balanced lunch for a labourer. List four other factors you would consider in planning this lunch.
Ans : Balanced Lunch for a Labourer : Table Meal Time - Lunch
Menu - Bajra-ki-Roti Potato, Carrot, Vegetable Gur, Lassi
Measurement - 5 - 6 , 1 bowl, 1 Bit, 1 Glass
Ingredients - Bajra Atta Potato, Carrot Onion, Oil, Gur, Curd Other factors to be considered :
(i) Meal should include food items from all food groups.
(ii) Seasonal vegetable should be selected as they are cheaper and nutritious.
(iii) High calorie diet should be given to labourer as he needs more energy to do work.
(iv) Cheap proteins, like soyabean should be included in his diet.
(v) Fibrous food must be added to the diet.
Q. 5. A family’s total monthly income is Rupees ten thousand. List all the points that can possibly influence the expenditure of this family.
Ans : Points that can possibly influence the expenditure of the family with total monthly income of Rupees ten thousand are as follows :-
(i) Size of family - Large family will spend more on food, clothing etc.
(ii) Age of family members - School/ college going children spend more on books, fees, uniform.
(iii) Place of residence - Remote place-spend more on travel between residence and work place.
(iv) Joint family - Expenditure less on rent, electricity due to common electric gadgets like T.V., fridge etc.
(v) Community resources if used will help to save :-
(a) Use of library - save on books.
(b) Use of car pools - save on patrol.
Q. 6. A teenager girl is having milk and potato cutlets for her breakfast. Suggest three modifications in the meal to suit her nutritional needs. Give reasons for your choice.
Ans : A teenager girl is having milk and potato cutlets for breakfast.
Modifications which can be done are :—
Milk — Instead of plain milk give Banana shake or Mango shake.
Give Burger instead of just giving potato Cutlets.
In Potato cutlets — Add Soyabean junks or green peas to the cutlets. Also give buns with butter on it.
(i) Milk with Banana will give much needed nutrients for a growing girl.
(ii) By giving burger she will get carbohydrates from buns, calories from butter and soyabean chunks will give proteins to her.
Q.7. Briefly describe the steps of laundering woollen sweater at home and list some important precautions while washing the garment.
Ans : Before washing woollen sweater they should be dusted by brush. Then wash them by soaking them in lukewarm water with any mild detergent for 10— 15 minutes.
They should be rubbed gently by hands. Rinse them in enough water, remove extra water by pressing between hands. Do not squeeze them. Otherwise it will loose its shape. Let it dry flat, never hang woollen sweater otherwise it will stretch. Never dry it in sunlight as it will fade out. Finally do steam press on it.
Q. 8. Write some specific needs of a partially blind child. In what ways are his needs different form a totally blind children ?In what ways an educational institution and you can help in educating him ?
Ans : Specific needs of a partially blind child are need to be loved, need for emotional security, need for independence. As he is partially blind and not totally blind, he can study with other students and does not need braille system of education. He might face difficulty in seeing the blackboard or reading a book with small letters. Grey boards and books with bold letters should be provided.
Educational Needs — Make him seat on the first seat. Help him walk up and down the stairs. Organise extra co— curricular activities. be friendly towards him and help him gain self— confidence.
Q. 9. List four characteristics of a fabric that makes it suitable for rainy season.
Ans : Blended polestars like terrycot is most suitable for rainy season.
(i) It does not get crushed.
(ii) It dries up very fast.
(iii) Colours are permanent so they do not bleed out.
(iv) It provides better water absorbency.
Q. 10. Your sister wants to invest some money and you have suggested post office. Present your arguments to convince her that this is right investment.
Ans : (i) Mode of operation of its accounts is very simple.
(ii) Money is safe in all schemes of Post Office.
(iii) Rate of interest is high in all of its schemes. In many of its schemes money gets doubled in 6 to 7 years.
(iv) In many of its schemes people of invester get 20% income tax rebate. Some of these schemes are NSS, NSC.
Q. 11. Differentiate between soap and detergent.
Ans : Soap :
1. They are salts of fatty acid and made by combination of fats and alkalis.
2. These are costlier than detergents.
3. Soaps are inactive in hard water and more quantity is used.
4. Washing with soaps is very tedious.
5. This is not suitable for all the kinds of fabrics.
6. Rinsing is not very easy when soaps are used.
1. They are organic compounds which are made by both saturated and unsaturated hydrocarbons.
2. There are comparatively cheaper.
3. Detergents are active in hard water also and the quantity used need not be increased.
4. Washing with detergents is very simple and comfortable.
5. As it is not alkaline, so it is found to be suitable for most of the fabrics.
6. Rinsing is quite easy when detergent are used.
Advantage of soap in laundry — they make the penetration of water into the fabric easier.
Disadvantage — form less foam, leaves soap scum on clothes.
Advantages of detergents — can be used both in hard and soft water, forms lot of foam.
Disadvantage — It requires more water for rinsing.
Q. 12. The pulse you purchased leaves too much of colour on washing. What could be the reason? How will you test it? What health hazards can be caused if you use such a pulse?
Ans : Pulse purchased may be adulterated with metanil yellow. To test the presence of matanil yellow in arhar dal, chana dal, moong dal, etc., add concentrated HCI to the liquid extract of the sample. Magenta red colour shows the presence of metanil yellow.
Health hazards — It causes degeneration of reproductive organs, stomach problems, liver and kidney damage.
Q. 13. Give four suggestion of investment to your sister who wants to save income tax.
Ans : (i) National Saving Scheme (N.S.S.) of Post Office — High rate of interest is given. Saves income tax. There is liquidity as money can be withdrawn when desired.
(ii) National Saving Certificate (N.S.C.) of Post Office — Money gets alsmost doubled in six years.
Loans can be taken if there is need.
(iii) Life Insurance Corporation (L.I.C.) — High rate of interest is given. LIC is a safe method of investment. Loans can be taken if there is a need.
It provides security against death, disability and other misfortunes.
(iv) Public Provident Fund (P.P.F.) — High rate of interest is given. After 5 years, one can take back certain percentage of money and interest. Loan can be taken in case of need.
Q. 14. Differentiate between Diarrhoea and Dysentery.
Ans : Diarhoea :
Cause — Contaminated water and food, unhygienic condition, worms in stomach.
Symptoms — Frequent passing of stools accompanied by stomachache. The child feels weak and thirsty, sometimes vomiting is also there.
Treatment — ORS should be given.
Dysentery : Cause — Due to Entamoeba histolytica and Bacillus bacteria.
Symptoms — The child will have ‘gripping’ stomach pain and pass frequent stools. Sometimes the stools may be accompanied by traces of mucus and blood.
Treatment — ORS should be given.
Q. 15. Meena is a working woman, she has to select a creche for her 6 month old child. What points she should keep in mind before selecting the creche ?
Ans : Before selecting a creche, Meena should look for following facilities :
(i) Clean and well ventilated hall.
(ii) Clean toilet for children.
(iii) Enough playing material for children.
(iv) Clean and hygienic kitchen with facility for providing hot food.
(v) One Ayah on 10 to 15 children.
(vi) One trained lady who can teach children in a play way method and inculcate good habits.
(vii) Emphasis on toilet training.
(viii) Medical facilities should be there, which can be given in case of emergency. (ix) If possible, once in a moth, visit of the doctor shoud be there.
Q. 16. Plan a day’s diet for your family, for Father.
Ans : General Information
No. of Members — 2 Adults 2 Children / Icome Group — High Middle-Class / Activity — Sedentary / Habits — Non-Vegetarian
Food Allowances for Adult Man
Gereals — 400 gm. / Pulses — 55 gm. / Green-leafy Vegetables — 100 gm. / Roots and Tubers —75 g. / Fruits — 30 gm. / Milk — 100 gm. / Fat and Oil — 40 gm. / Meat and Fish — 30 gm. / Eggs — 30 gm. / Sugar and Jaggery — 30 gm.
Q. 17. Briefly give the qualities of drinking water.
Ans : The qualities of drinking water are listed below :
(i) It should be free of harmful bacteria.
(ii) Drinking water should be clear, one does not like drinking water which is dirty.
(iii) It should be free from all undesirable chemical substaces.
(iv) It should have no objectionable taste or odour.
(v) It should be pleasant to taste.
(vi) It should be fit for use in foods and beverages.
(viii) Water should be neutral having 7 pH value.
Q. 18. What are the different methods of supplementing family income ?
Ans : There are two ways of supplementing family income, these are :—
(i) Increasing family income .
(ii) Cutting down expenditure.
Increasing family income
1. Adopting income-generating activities — Family members can effectively utilize their potentials in supplementing the faily income. Example, a family member can take up income-generating activity like making pickles to supplement income.
2. Part-time job — In part-time job one has to work for fixed hours and is paid accordingly. For example, educated family members can take tuitions, undertake the typing work in some office, work for some hours in a shop etc. are some of the parttime job which help increasing family income.
3. Overtime — In every Goverment, Non-Government offices when the work is not completed in time, the employees are made to work overtime for which they are paid extra money. In this way, one may supplement his income.
4. Increase in real income — The co-ordinated participation of the family members in doing the household chores, can bring about significant increase in family income.
5. Judicious investment — Every househoulder must save money each month to build up some reserve for a secured future.
Cut in Expendituer — In supplementing family income, cut in expenditure has the same importance as the increase in income.
1. Judicious and economical spending can be helpful in cutting down expenses.
2. Appropriate spending also leads to cut in expenditure.
3. Expenditure can be curtailed by making use of government facilities and services.
Q. 19. What are the aims of Life Insurance ?
Ans : A policy holder takes up an insurance policy because of the following aims :
(i) Family protection — The main aim is to provide economic protection to the family of the policy holder especially in case of untimely death.
(ii) Economic help in old age — The money earned in this makes policy holder economically sound.
(iii) For education or marriage of children — The money invested in this scheme helps in the higher education and marriage of children at a latter date.
(iv) For property tax — The money received after the death of policy holder helps in paying property tax.
(v) Relief in Income tax — The policy holder gets rebate in income tax on the payments of premium amounts.
Q. 20. When can consumer file a complaint ?
Ans : The complaint can be filed in any of the following situations :—
— If any defect in goods is found.
— If any deficiency in services rendered is found.
— If loss or damage occurs due to any unfair or restrictive trade practices.
— In case if seller has charged extra price, i.e, more than the maximum retail price.