Q. 21. How the selection of clothes is affected by different occasion ?
Ans : Clothes should be suitable to the occasion. In the selection of clothes, care should be taken about the occasion on which they are to be worn. Expensive clothes like brocade, banarsi with bright and gaudy colours may be used on special occasions like parties and marriages.
Simple clothes of black, white or dull colours are generally used in mourning.
Q. 22. Which ‘Time’ of the day is most suitable for shopping ?
Ans : Shopping is easier and quicker when done in the morning than in the afternoon. It is better in the early days of the week rather than on Saturday and Sunday. If possible, avoid shopping at noon or closing time. Allow enough time so that you do not have to rush through your purchases.
Q. 23. Name the components used to make detergents.
Ans : (i) Surfactants (ii) Foaming Agents. (iii) Active ingredients (iv) Water softeners (v) Anti-corrosive agent (vi) Bleaching agents (vii) Anti-foaming agent (viii) Builders (ix) Perfumes
Q. 24. Give the steps of purifying water at home using a suitable chemical.
Ans : Water can be purified at home by using chlorine tablets in the following way :
(i) Take water in a container / bottel.
(ii) Add the required amount of chlorine tablets in it.
(iii) Leave it for ½hr — 1 hr.
(iv) Filter water in another container, now it is safe for drinking.
Q. 25. List four points to work as a criterion for evaluating the reliability of a cloth shop.
Ans : Reliability of a cloth shop can be evaluated on the basis of folloiwng points :
(i) Fixed price — Shop should have fixed prices for all the items. There should not be any scope for bargaining.
(ii) Quality fabric — Shop should have clothes with proper labels, fast colour and they should also be durable.
(iii) Entertains Complaints — Shopkeeper should attend to the complaints also in proper way.
(iv) Measures accurately — Cloth should be measured properly.
Q.26. What is drug ? How does it affect body ?
Ans : A drug is a chemical substance. When consumed indiscriminately the drug can affect the body functions.
Drugs are used to cure sick persons. Drug is known to be abused or misused when it is consumed by the person not needing it. The ability to tolerate the drug increases with continued use. In due course the individual becomes addicted or dependent on the drug. The drug abuser suffers from withdrawal symptoms once the drug is denied to him. Drugs affect the nervous system in two ways i.e. depress or stimulate the nerves.
In case the adolescent is anxious and agitated, there is a strong psychological need for the individual to feel better. In the absence of help and support to relieve tension, anxiety, the individual may resort to drug abuse.
Various drugs have effect on the behaviour of adolescents and other drug abusers.
Q.27. What are the functions and sources of folic acid ?
Ans. Functions of Folic Acid : It is necessary for the metabolism of proteins.
It helps in the regeneration of red blood cells (RBC), thus preventing anaemia.
Folic acid is needed for the normal functioning of the gastro-intestinal tract. It is readily absorbed in the gastrointestinal tract and is stored in the liver for future use.
Sources of Folic Acid
Glandular meat, particularly liver is rich in folic acid.It is also present in yeast. Milk, meat, poultry and fruits are poor sources of this vitamin. Peas, beans, whole grains, walnuts and peanuts have fair amount of folic acid.
Roots and light green vegetables have negligible amounts of folic acid.
Q.28. How the food preserved by household method ?
Ans. Household methods of preservation are used to preserve small quantities of food for use of the particular family.
(i) Asepsis means removal of conditions that make the food septic and spoilt. It is imperative to safeguard food right from harvesting, transporting, storing, cooking/ processing and upto actual consumption. Good sanitary conditions and hygienic handling of food minimises its exposure to micro-organisms. Cleanliness of kitchen equipment and personal handling of food is of utmost importance. Lower bacterial count in food assures its preservation for a long time.
(ii) Blanching, Cook ing and Sterilisation : Blanching is boiling food in water for a short while to denature the enzymes present in it. This restricts and minimises the enzyme activity and the food can last longer.
Denaturing of enzymes forms the principle of preservation e.g. you blanch peas before freeging them.
Food cooked by dry or wet methods of cooking, kills some of the bacteria only. Sterilisation of food means killing of all enzymes, micro-organisms and their spores.
This can be accomplished by pressure cooking. Do you know what pressure cooking is? Autoclaves are used to sterilise the food at commercial level. The principle underlying sterlisation is removal of all microbes.
(iii) Sanitary and Hygienic handling of food : This is not a method of preservation but an essential practice while handling food. High standard of personal hygiene, sanitation of kitchen and equipment is very important while handling food. Aseptic condition is the bottom line for preserving food.
Q.29. Discuss the Element of Art in Flower Arrangement.
Ans. Line and Form : The basic lines are the circles, triangles and the rectangles. Whereas sphere, cone and cube are some of the basic forms. The lines and forms are generally modified in flower arrangement. The form selected for an arrangement predominantly depends on the type of the plant materials to be used.
Texture : The surfar and the structure of plant materials determine their texture. Some flowers may be identified as delicate (sweet peas), coarse (zinnias) and velvety (roses). Unity in texture of the plant material, flowers and the container is essential. Zinnias could be arranged in a stone/ceramic container while sweet peas will look pretty in a bonechina vase.
Colour : Harmonious selection of colours must be emphasised for any arrangement. An arrangement must have a dominant colour for creating an emphasis. Usually light coloured flowers look best at the upper part of an arrangement, whereas the dark coloured flowers should be placed at the bottom, where they create a solid, wellbalanced foundation. Very dark flowers do not usually make an effective focal centre.
Q.30. Write a short note on Tuberculosis.
Ans. Cause : It is caused by micro-bacterium. This germ is destroyed by sun’s rays. It is also destroyed in milk if it is boiled for ten minutes. These microbes can remain alive in any climate for 6 months.
Type of Tuberculosis :
(i) Pulmonary T.B.
(ii) Non-pulmonary T.B.
Pulmonary T.B. : Patient suffers from the pain in the chest. The patient feels fatigue, starts loosing weight, blood often discharges with cough.
Non-pulmonary T.B. It affects the lymph glands, joints and bones of forehead. The patient suffers from fever.
Spread : Germs of this disease are found in the cough of the patient. They are spread by coughing of the patient, its excreta and spitting. Flies and infected animals also spread this disease. Infected milk can also cause it.
Children may get T.B. from parents also. Polluted environment and weak health can also cause T.B.
Incubation Period : It is a chronic disease and may remain for years.
Symptoms : There are three stages of this disease :
(i) Normal T.B. (First stage)
(ii) Severe (Second stage)
(iii) Very severe (Third stage)
Main Symptoms :
(i) Weakness and fatigue.
(ii) Unwillingness for work.
(iii) Weight loss.
(iv) Loss of appetite.
(v) Light fever.
(vi) Less menstrual flow in ladies.
(vii) Blood clots in cough.
(viii) Sweating during night.
(ix) Slow heartbeat.
(x) Pain in throat and chest.
(xii) The patient becomes so weak that its bones are visible.
(i) The patient should be kept separate from other children.
(ii) Information should be given to the health officer.
(iii) Houses should be well ventilated.
(iv) People should be made aware about this disease through media.
(v) B.C.G. vaccine should be given to children within one month of their birth.
(vi) Excreta of the patient should be burnt.
(i) Give complete rest to the patient.
(ii) Patient should be kept in a well ventilated room having sunlight.
(iii) Balanced and nutritious food should be given to the patient.
(iv) Doctor should be consulted.
(v) Streptomycin injections should be administered with the consultation of the doctor.
(vi) Extra doses of Vitamin A and D, should be given to the patient.
Q.31. What should be the meal planning a person suffering from fever ?
Ans. Small amount of food should be given to the patient at short intervals. High calorie and high protein diet Should be given to the fever patient. He should not be forced to eat in acute fever because either he is unable to eat or there is a loss of appetite. But for patients of chronic fevers, care should be taken in planning meals.
The patient must be given full diet by all possible means, otherwise he will become weak.
The diet of a patient should be liquid, semi-liquid or soft according to his condition. Apart from this, it should be easily digestible. Sometimes excessive use or liquids leads to aversions and nausea in the patient., Soft foods are easily digestible to such patients. Low fibre diet without spices may be given to the patient.
Foods allowed : Soup, juice, milk, tea, coffee, barley water, whey water, lemon water, glucose, honey, porridge, cornflakes, sago, bread, rice, biscuits, curd,’ cream, custard, pudding foods, egg, etc.
Foods not allowed. Flour with bran, whole pulses and cereals, all fruits (juices can ,be given), fried and spicy foods, nuts, sticky foods fibrous vegetables, pastries, sweets etc.
Q.32. What are the points that should be kept in mind before dividing the quantity of clothing required for the government ?
Ans. What is the width of cloth. Often cloth with more width, inspite of being a bit more expensive, turn out to be cheaper than the one with lesser width. By making an exact estimate of cloth required for a specific garment, some better quality cloth can be afforded in the same budget by avoiding wastage of cloth.
It is important to know about the margins and ease in the garments in case of growing children.
Additional cloth should be purchased in case of cloth with a tendency of developing holes around the stitching or slipping seams or seams getting turned.
The shrinkage of the cloth should also be kept in mind.
Cloth should be purchased in accordance to the design.Cloth with large prints should be stitched in such a way that the outfit gives a balanced look. In such cases, some cloth is wasted in cutting.
More cloth may be required according to design of the garment, for example, in a full sleeves blouse, more cloth is required as compared to short sleeves blouse.Additional cloth should be purchased for gathers, pleats, pockets, collars and other trimmings. Therefore, a thorough knowledge of design is essential before purchase of cloth.
Q.33 What are the various problems of measuring intelligence by means of intelligence tests?
Ans : Intelligence has been defined variously by many authors. Some authors emphasize the role of mechanical skills, others the role of verbal and comprehensive skills, some other the role of quantitative skills, and so on and so forth. It is due to the disagreement over the conceptual definition of intelligence that it has become difficult to measure intelligence in a way that it satisfies the aspirations of every expert on the psychology of intelligence. To obviate this difficulty, psychologist sought to desire intelligence as the ability for problemsolving behaviour. But still the problem of measuring intelligence remained as this definition could not solve the question of the composition of the intelligence test.
For instance, if one seeks to measure people’s intelligence by Raven’s Progressive Matrices test than he is testing only his ability for comprehension of figures. And there may be a subject who has low ability for comprehending figure but high ability on other dimensions of intelligence.
So, he will register a low score on the Raven’s Test despite the fact that he is a man with a high IQ.
Q. 34. What are the effects of exercise on skeletal system ?
Ans. As a result of exercise, bones have to be moved to various positions. These movements are made possible due to the provision of joints in the body. Therefore, during exercise the joints have to bear a lot of stress, which puts a lot of strain on its ligaments that exert a binding force and the cartilages, which are the paddings in between the bones. This strain is borne by the ligaments and cartilages upto a certain limit but when the strain exceeds a limit these get injured. Excessive strain can also cause fracture of a bone. Due to injury of ligaments or cartilages or both ligament and cartilages, malfunctioning of the joint takes place. It leads to pain and swelling in the area. If this malfunctioning is allowed to continue for a long time, it can lead to a deformity of the joint.
Effects of Regular Exercise : The effects of regular exercise over considerable period of time can enumerated as under :
1. Our bones become healthy and stronger and can tolerate greater strain.
2. In the growing stage of our life, our bones become slightly longer and their shape may also undergo a change.
3. Regular exercise helps in maintaining the flexibility of ligaments and cartilages which helps in maintaining proper functioning of the joints.
4. Through regular exercise, some postural defects of the body may be removed or minimized.
Q. 35. What are the effects of exercise on muscular system ?
Ans. As has been explained earlier, the energy for muscular contraction is obtained from the high-energy nutrients in the blood. These nutrients, as a result of some complex chemical reactions inside the muscle fibre, release energy during exercise for muscular contraction and some of the heat also raises the temperature of the body. As a result of exercise, the blood supply to the muscles also increases in order to meet the additional demand of the high energy nutrients.
In addition to this phenomenon, other symptoms may appear in the muscular system, particularly in the case of untrained subjects.
1. Muscular pain may occur in some individuals during exercise. This occurs mainly due to inadequate blood supply to the contracting muscle which results in the non-clearance of the waste products of chemical changes.
2. Fluid may collect in muscles during activity and result in swelling. This swelling further hinders the function of muscles.
3. Soreness or lameness may occur during exercise due to the rupture of some muscle fibres or sheath of the fibres.
Effects of Regular Exercise : As a result of regular exercise over a considerable period of time, the following changes occur in the muscular system which are of a lasting nature :
1. The muscles become strong due to the gain in strength of the individual muscle fibres.
2. The muscle fibres shorten in length and increase in thickness. Because of this, the body appears muscular.
3. Muscles become more elastic and can perform work with greater speed.
4. As a result of gain in strength, the muscles can give better protection to some organs of our body.
5. Muscles develop muscle tone or a state of readiness for doing work. This acts as a safety measure in case of emergencies and makes a person less susceptible to injuries.
6. Muscles develop endurance.
7. The deposition of fat in between the muscle fibres decreases, reducing chances of obesity.
Q. 36. What are the functions of blood ?
Ans. Blood plays a key role in the functioning of our body. It performs the following functions :
1. Transport of oxygen from the lungs to the tissues and carbon dioxide from the tissues to the lungs.
2. It carries food material absorbed from the intestines to the tissue cells for growth, energy and repair purposes.
3. It carries the waste products of cellular activity and carries them to kidneys, and intestines etc. for excretion.
4. It carries hormones, vitamins and essential chemicals to the places of need.
5. Helps in maintaining water balance in the body.
6. It helps in regulation of body temperature because of the presence of water in it.
7. Blood acts as a defensive mechanism due to the bacteria fighting qualities of white blood cells.
8. Due to the property of coagulation, it guards against haemorrhage or blood loss.
Blood is a red coloured fluid composed of two parts – the plasma and different types of cells that remain suspended in the plasma. The composition of blood is as follows : A. Cells
(i) Red blood cells that act as carriers of oxygen.
(ii) White blood cells that fight bacteria.
(iii) Platelets or Thrombocytes that help in formation of blood clots.
(ii) Mineral salts such as Sodium, Calcium, Potassium, Magnesium and Phosphorus etc.
(iii) Proteins such as Albumin, Fibrinogen etc.
(vi) Other bodies.