Q. 1. ‘Cultural factors affect the meal planning of a family.’ Support this statement with the help of four different examples.
Ans : Cultural factors affect the meal planning of a family this statement is true.
(i) Non vegetarian food is avoided by Brahmins whereas Muslim culture permits to eat it.
(ii) North Indian like to eat chappati where as is south India people like to eat rice and different verities of rice dishes.
(iii) On Diwali Hindus prepare sweets like burfi, laddo etc. where as muslim eat sevian on Id.
(iv) Idli and dosa is special food of southern Indian and Dhokla, Khandvi etc. of western India.
Q. 2. Enumerate six ways by which food can be protected from getting contaminated.
Ans : Food can be protected from getting contaminated in the following ways :
(i) Always wash your hands before and after handling food.
(ii) Tie your hair to avoid shedding them in food.
(iii) You should never lick food while cooking.
(iv) Cooked food should be kept covered.
(v) Dustbins should be always kept convered.
(vi) Kitchen should have adequate ventilation. Window and doors should have wire mesh to avoid the entry of flies and mosquitoes.
Q. 3. Mention four precautions adopted while storing woolen coats.
Ans : Precautions adopted while storing woolen coats are :
(i) They should be dry-cleaned before storing.
(ii) Put napthelene balls or dry neem leaves in coat before storing.
(iii) Put the coat in an air-right zip up bags to protect them from dust.
(iv) Storage space should be clean and dry to avoid mildew formation.
Q. 4. Suggest two ways each of creating rhythm and hamony in a skirt.
Ans : Rhythm can be created in the skirt in the following manner :-
(i) Parallelism - Knife pleats in skirt.
(ii) Repetition - Repeating colours / patterns at intervals.
Harmony can be created by :-
(i) Size of pleats should be according to size of skirt.
(ii) Colours, designs and textures used in skirt should have harmony with other parts and accessories.
Q. 5. Apple juice has been declared adulterated by PFA. Write four possible basis for this declaration.
Ans : Apple juice has been declared adulterated by PFA possibly because of the following things :-(i) If it is stored in rusted tins. (ii) If some unpermitted colour is added to apple juice. (iii) If see unpermitted or excessive amount of preservative is added to apple juice. (iv) If apple juice is prepared from rotten apples.
Q. 6. List four objectives of ICDS. (50 Words) 5
Ans :Objectives of ICDS are :-
(i) Improvement of health and nutritional status of children of 0-6 years of age.
(ii) Laying foundations for psychological, social, and physical development of the child.
(iii) Reduction in the incidence of malnutrition, morbidity, mortality and school dropout rates among children.
(iv) Enhancing capabilities of mothers to look after normal health and nutritional needs of the children.
ICDS is meant for
(i) Children 0-6 years of age.
(ii) Women between 15-40 years of age.
(iii) All pregnant and lactating women.
Q. 7. List two sources other than salary of a person’s money income. How is money income different from psychic income ?
Ans : Two other sources are rent, gifts, bonus, etc.Money income is the income which is coming to a family in the form of money from various sources like wages, salary, rent, etc. Psychic income is the level of satisfaction which one derives from the money income or real income.
Q. 8. Radha is suffering from cough and mild fever for more than one month. She is losing weight. Name the disease she may be suffering from. Write four points you will keep in mind while taking care of her. Also suggest few ground rules to prevent small children getting it.
Ans : Radha is suffering from tuberculosis.
Care (i) She should be isolated from other people.
(ii) Give good nourishment.
(iii) Her nose and throat secretions should be properly disposed off.
(iv) Provide prolonged treatment under doctor ’s supervision.
(i) Small children should be given BCG vaccine.
(ii) They should be isolated from mother.
Q. 9. Elaborate some safeguards against adulteration of food stuffs. Support your answer with adequate reasons.
Ans : Some safeguard against adulteration of food stuff are :— (a) Always buy the food stuffs from reliable shop those have reputation and large sales turnover. You will get fresh food stuff. (b) On e sh ould always buy standard and reliable brands of food for they will be of good quality. (c) Do not buy loose foodstuff because it is easier to adulterate loose food stuff. (d) Always be quality conscious and sure that you are not being cheated by adulteration.
Q. 10. Suggest three modifications in the following menu to make it suitable for a seventy year old. Give reasons for your choice :— Chapati, dal fry, fried rice, spicy potato, boondi raita and salad.
Ans : Salad — This cannot be given because it is hard the old man cannot chew it.
Spicy potato — Give potato with less oil an spices because spices will cause irritation.
Q. 11. Compare the looking after of a new born child by a sibling and by grandparents.
Ans : Sibling :
(i) Six year old is not mature enough to look after the needs of her younger one.
(ii) She can not deal with emergency.
(iii) It is not safe to leave child in her custody as he herself is very small.
(iv) She may not attend school herself and become school dropout.
(i) They have love and affection, so will take more care of child.
(ii) It is safe to leave the child with them.
(iii) Child learn positive traits regarding society culture and religion.
(iv) Child remains disciplined under grandparents control.
Q. 12. Ram is blind student in your class. What points will you keep in mind to help him to adjust in the class?
(i) Make him sit in the front row of the class.
(ii) Help him walk up and down the stairs.
(iii) Record question answer for him so that he can learn by listening to the tape.
(iv) Be friendly and help him gain self-confidence.
(v) We can help him to overcome the feeling of inadequacy by showing love and affection.
(vi) He should be trained in music and handicraft to make him self-reliant.
Q. 13. What is cognitive development and what are stages of cognitive development ?
Ans : Cognitive development refers to the ability of the child to think and find solution to problems. It is the understanding of similarity and difference among various objects.
According to Piaget, there are four stages of cognitive development :—
1. Sensory motor stage — Birth to two years. The child in this stage is egocentric which means he just considers his viewpoint and cannot understand the viewpoint of others.
2. Pre-operational stage — (2-7 yrs.)— Child still remains egocentric; he is unable to appreciate the feelings of others. He cannot take two attributes at the same time, e.g., the child cannot imagine that his loving mother can scold also.
3. Concrete operational stage — (7-12 years)
(a) Conservation is mastered — child gains an ability to make judgement on the basis of preception or reason. The child uses stored knowledge to solve problems.
(b) Decline in egocentrism.
(c) Relational thinking — child can compare different objects if they are shown to him. This ability of comparison is known as relational thinking.
4. Formal operational stage — (12-18 years) (i) Hypothetico- deductive reasoning. (ii) Propositional thinking. (iii) Thinking systematically. (iv) Reason out imaginary situations.
Q. 14. Write down the characteristics of a deaf child ?
(i) The child may be dumb besides being deaf.
(ii) The speech defects are common among deaf child.
(iii) These children are low in intelligence because they are incapable of using available opportunities.
(iv) They are incapable of making friends because of their suspicious mind.
(v) A deaf child is often indifferent and stubborn.
(vi) The poor communication causes tremendous socializing problem.
Q. 15. How can we plan nutritional meal within the family budget ?
Ans : We can plan nutritional meal within the family budget if we are little aware of the substitute sources of food which give same nutritive value as the expensive foods. Example, Soyabeans and its preparation can replace meat, chicken, etc., to cut down the budget. Always use seasonal foods, they are cheaper and tastier than off-season foods and convenience foods. Seasonal foods are nutritionally superior to off-season foods. Lemons, oranges are rich-sources of vitamin C. Amla, fresh salad provide all the vitamin C, you need, but at low cost. Experience and awareness as regards different foods will equip us to serve low cost but nourishing meals.
Q. 16. Name the nutrients whose requirement is more in fever and why ?
Ans : The diet in fever should met the requirement of the following nutrients :—
(i) Carbohydrates — The meet the increased demand of energy andto restore glycogen stores in the body, increased amount of carbohydrates should be given to the patient. For this, calorie rich liquid should be given, e.g., fruit juices, glucose water, etc.
(ii) Fats — Fried and fat rich foods should be avoided in fever.
(iii) Proteins — Fever bring about increased catabolism hence increasing protein demand. Milk, dal soup, soft cooked eggs and mutton/kitchen eggs and mutton/chicken broths are good sources of protein for sick person.
(iv) Minerals and Vitamins — Considerable amount of salts like sodium and potassium are lost from the body. Loss of sodium is made up by adding salt to juices, soups. Fruit juices, vegetable soup are good sources of potassium.
Increased amount of vitamin A, ascorbic acid and B-complex should be in the diet because of increased metabolic activities.
(v) Liquids — Two and a half to five litres of liquid per day should be given to a fever patient. Requirement of liquid is more in summer than in winter.
Q. 17. Which four rules of personal hygiene would you observe while working in the kitchen ?
Ans : Rules of personal hygiene to be observed while working in the kitchen are :—
(i) Wash your hands with soap before and after handling food. Always keep your nails trimmed and clean.
(ii) One should tie hair to avoid shedding it in food while working in the kitchen.
(iii) Avoid walking into the kitchen with dirty feet/ shoes and clothes. These can carry millions of baceria that can infect and spoil food.
(iv) Sick individuals should not be allowed in the kitchen. Sick person can spread sickness to the entire family.
Q. 18. What is Endowment Insurance Policy ?
Ans : In Endowment Insurance Policy, the payment of insured amount is made after a fixed period. But in case of death of policy holder before the stipulated period, the full amount of policy is paid to the family members. The rate of premium in this scheme is higher than that of whole life policy.