Q. 19. How is the consumer cheated by variation in prices ?
Ans : Prices of commodities is higher at some shops due to the following reasons.
(i) Th e shopkeeper is making higher percentage profit.
(ii) If the showroom is very big, then the price will be high to cover up all advertisement maintenance and sales promotional costs.
(iii) Consumer has to pay more if the shop is air conditioned and computers are being used for billing.
(iv) Goods cost more if a lot of middle man are involved in the sale-purchase process.
Q. 20. What colours should be used in a dress according to the season and occasion ?
Ans : Effect of season on the colour of dress — In summer, light and cool colours should be used like green, blue, white, light purple, etc.
In winter dark and warm colours are preferred. Warm colours are red, orange and yellow.
Occasion — The colour of the dress should be appropriate to the occasion. Dark and bright colours should be worn in parties and festivals, etc. to have cheerful atmosphere. Formal social occasion demand a use of light dull colours in dressing. On serious occasion, one should wear such colours that give a look of seriousness.
Q. 21. Which four points would you keep in mind while buying clothes for a six month old child ?
Ans : Points to be kept in a mind while buying clothes for a six month old child are :—
(i) Clothes should be loose and comfortable.
(ii) They should be made of soft and absorbable cloth so that they do not irritate the tender and soft skin of the child.
(iii) These clothes are to be washed quite often hence they should be easily washable and dried easily.
(iv) Infant’s clothes should have openings on the front so that they are not used head long.
(v) Instead of buttons there should be ties and fastners as they will not hurt tender skin.
Q.22. What are the qualities for readymade garment for high income group ?
Ans : (i) The item is of classic design that will not go out of style and it could be used for a long time. (ii) Fine points in workmanship, material and design are particularly satisfying and are related to the use of the garment. (iii) The prestige value of owing the best is important to every individual.
Q. 23. Write three points you will keep in mind while storing cotton sarees. Give reasonsPoints to be kept in mind while storing cotton sarees.
(i) Remove starch from the sarees before storing.
If starch is there, insect will attack on the sarees.
(ii) Wrap them in newspaper as the ink of newspaper is insect repellant. Add naphthalene balls to prevent insect attact.
(iii) Silk should be packed in polythenes or newspaper sheets and then kept in boxes/suitcases.
(iv) Put naphthalene balls/tobacco leaves/neem leaves to safeguard clothing.
Q. 24. Elaborate various ways of expressing size on the label of a readymade garment.
Ans : Various ways of expressing size on the lable of a readymade garment are :—
(i) Size — Small (S), Medium (M), Lage (L), Extra Large (XL)
(ii) Age — 1-2 years, 6-7 yrs.
(iii) On Measurement
(a) Collar size (15” , 16”)
(b) Round chest (36,38,40)
(c) Length (100 cm, 105 cm)
Q. 25. What is Cognition ? When does cognition start in children ? How does it proceed from infancy to adolescence and finally to adulthood ?
Ans. It can be defined as the development of the thinking and organising systems of the brain. It involves languages, mental imagery, thinking, reasoning, problem solving and memory development.
Cognition is not the process by which the information is acquired, but is based on the mental activity involved in understanding the environment one lives in.
Cognition also includes all the mental activities, required for the acquisition, processing, organizing and application of knowledge.
According to Jean Piaget all children are born with schemes (called Schema) operating at birth. He called these schemes as Reflexes. Infants use these reflexes to adapt and adjust in their environment. As infant grow, these schemes/reflexes get replaced by more constructive and meaningful ones. Hence you can say that cognition starts at birth.
As the child grows, he starts acquiring and adding on new information. The process of adding and incorporating more schema/ schemes to the already existing ones is called Assimilation.
Adaption is re-organising or re-arranging of the already existing schemes by the growing child. Sucking at mother’s breast at birth is a reflex. The infant learns to adapt this reflex to drink milk from a feeding bottle.
The new schemes and mental plans keep adding on to one already present and acquired by the child. The new information replaces or modifies the already existing schemes. The sucking reflex having been adapted to the milk bottle can now be shifted to the use of a ‘sipper’.
Hence the child learns to accommodate a sipper for a bottle.
The process of achieving balance between adaptation and assimilation of various schemes is called Equilibrium.
Assimilation and adaptation of cognitive processes go on simultaneously and alternately all through life.
Cognitive development leads to ‘social cognition’.
An infant is totally unaware of his social environment.
A mother is the only one in his social environment: By the time the child is 6 months, he starts recognising the mother. A slightly older child starts missing and demanding social interaction with mother. Recognition of family members and others follows hereafter.
Cognition develops with age. As adult, one takes many things about the world for granted, e.g. human beings have five sense organs, sun is a source of natural light or a bukcet filled with water weighs more than an empty one. But these facts are matter of leaning for young children. As the child grows, he starts learning the basic facts and reaches a stage of abstract thinking which is a characteristics of adolescents and adults
Q.26. What is a Protein? What are its functions ?
Ans. ‘Proteins’ come from the Greek word Proteo meaning “to take the first place”. proteinds are complex organic compounds with nitrogen as the integral part.
Protein are made up of small units called amino acids.
Functions of Proteins : Proteins are essential for the growth of new cells in the body. They are also responsible for the maintenance of old and worn out tissues.
The globin protein is an essential pan of the connective tissue and haemoglobin. The supply of oxygen to the body cells is regulated by haemoglobin. The antibodies providing immunity are proteins in nature. They are responsible for building body’s immune system.
Hormones are responsible for the various vital activities of the body. Hormones are also proteins in nature.
Enzymes and coenzymes responsible for the digestion of food are proteins in origin.
Like lipids and carbohydrates the proteins are capable of giving energy for work. Each gram of proteins gives 4 calories. Major part of protein should be used for constructive activities and not for supplying energy.
Fats and oils, sugar and jaggery, fruits, roots and other vegetables contain very little or no proteins.
Recommended Dietary Allowances : Proteins are lost through urine, faces, sweat, skin etc. This is also called “Endogenous loss”. Among adults the protein intake should be equal to this loss in order to be in a state of nitrogen equilibrium.
The ICMR (Indian Council of Medical Research) recommends an intake of 1 gm protein/kg body weight for all adults, e.g. if you are 60 kg, you will need 60 gm of proteins.
Infants grow fast and require 1.6 gms–2.0 gms protein/kg body weight.
An additional intake of 15 gms to 25 gms of protein is recommended for the pregnant and lactating mothers.
Q.27. Write a short note on Iodine deficiency ?
Ans. Iodine is required in small amount for the normal functioning of the thyroid gland. This gland produces a hormone called ‘thyroxin’. This hormone is responsible for the metabolism of carbohydrates.
Deficiencies of iodine which causes Goitre, bring about, (i) changes in structure and size of gland and (ii) changes in the quality of hormone secreted and the resultant manifestations.
It is easy to detect thyroid enlargement. Observe the swelling in middle of neck while swallowing food and water. It will move up in case goitre is there.
Goitre rarely occurs near the coastal areas because seafood is rich in iodine.
Causes of Goitre
Inability of the gland to produce sufficient thyroxin hormone for metabolism. Diminished secretions lower the basal metabolic rate (BMR).
Consumption of food and water with low iodine content stimulates thyroid activity. Increased thyroid activity leads to the enlargement of the gland.
Cabbage, cauliflower and turnips contain goitrogenic factors that interfere with the absorption of iodine-thus causing deficiency.
Goitre may manifest as a result of (i) under activity or (ii) over activity of the thyroid gland.
Recommended Dietary Allowances
100 Ug - 150 Ug of iodine are required daily.
Pregnancy, lactation and periods of rapid growth (in childhood and adolescence) demands higher iodine intakes.
These can be met by taking sea salt and seafoods.
Iodized salt can be used as a prophylactic measure in areas deficient in iodine. Sodium and potassium iodates are used for iodizing the salt.
Q.28. What is work ethic? What can be done for strong work ethics ?
Ans. Work Ethic is a standard of conduct of job performance and is dependent upon the individual’s concept of good and bad, right and wrong.
In order to be successful in a job, one must inculcate the following habits which contribute for strong work ethics.
(i) Have respect for the job undertaken.
(ii) Observe punctuality and regularity towards the job.
(iii) Stick to the job and seat during the work hours.
(iv) Know the job well.
(v) Use polite and respectful language with coworkers.
(vi) Be systematic and methodical.
(vii) Update your knowledge by taking up special courses if need be.
(viii) Manage and apply your resources properly.
(ix) Maintain good team spirit.
Q.29. Discuss the prelinguistic stage development of a child.
Ans. This is the primary stage of language development. This stage is for 13 to 14 months. In this stage child cries, babbles, and learns to express through gestures.
(a) Crying : After birth child knows only crying. This is a natural process and reflex action. Along with crying certain body reactions also takes place like redening of face, increase in pulse rate, closing of fists etc. One month old child cries differently for different reasons. He cries differently when he is hungry and cries in a different manner when he is in pain. Mother is able to recognise the cry whether he is crying due to hunger or pain The child makes different sounds when in pain along with crying. As the child grows crying becomes less. Too much of crying is harmful for the baby. It has a bad effect on the health of the baby.
(b) Cooing : The baby making other sounds also other than crying. 3 months old babies voice apparatus starts getting matured. So certain sounds are made automatically by his sound box; and some he creates himself These sounds he makes while yawning, sneezing or when happy. As the baby grows he makes the sounds for a longer period. Whenever any body talks to the baby he responds by trying to make sounds. 5 to 6 month old child turns his head towards the person who is talking to him.
(c) Babbling : 5 to 6 month old starts, making babbling sounds. This is a sort of play for the child. By doing this the child feels happy. Sound apparatus become strong and the child starts making sound like ‘Ma-Ma’ ‘Na Na’ ‘DaDa’, ‘Pa-Pa’ etc. These sounds actually doesn’t mean anything but parents feel very happy and start taking them with their meaning. Gradually with the encouragement of parents, the baby actually starts understanding their meaning. This is the point when language interaction start between parents and the child.
(d) Gestures : Third stage is of using gestures. Child uses his whole body. Babies use their face, arms, legs etc. to communicate with others. When elder people talk to a child they use their facial gesture liberally along with. the language, but children use mainly gestures to communicate e.g., if they want to go to some body they throw their arms and push their body towards that person.
When angry he pushes the bottle aside, smiles to sees his mother and throw his hands and feet in the air to expresses his happiness. As he learns the use of words the use of gestures becomes less.
Q.30. What are the importance of meal planning ?
Ans. Nutritional requirement of each member of a family can be met with proper meal planning only, otherwise a meal served may be adequate for one member and inadequate for the other, e.g., the meal may be adequate for an adolescent but indigestible for the old. Therefore, a good meal plan takes care of the nutritional requirements of the members of all age groups.
A housewife can save on time, money and energy by meal planning.
Fuel is also saved by meal planning, e.g., if boiled potatoes are required in the morning and boiled calocasa (arvi) for dinner, lots of fuel can be saved by boiling them together.
Variety can be added in the diet by meal planning.
While planning meals for a week, a housewife can add variety to food by selecting different foods for each day.
By meal planning, budget of the family can also be controlled. While planning for a week the housewife can add costly foodstuffs like cheese, dry fruits etc. on one day and cheap seasonal fruits and vegetables on the rest of the days. In this way the total expenditure of the week will be in accordance with the budget.
Food can be made attractive and tasty. By adding variety to the taste, colour, texture and cooking methods monotony in food is broken and the members relish the food a lot.
By planning meals leftovers can be used properly, e.g., leftover dal and dry vegetable at dinner can be used in paranthas and petties in breakfast.
A Personal likes and dislikes of the family members can be taken care of in meal planning by including foods of their preferences in one meal or the other. A person does not relish a food, however nutritious it may be if it is not to his liking.
Since meal planning is made by keeping in mind the day as a single unit, hence it is never happens that we eat a lot in one meal and don’t feel hungry at all for the second meal. Also, if one meal is deficient nutritionally, it is compensated in the second meal so that a balanced meal can be prepared for a day.
Q.31. How a cheque is dishonoured ?
Ans. Cheque which cannot be encashed by the bank is called dishonoured cheque. This can be because of the following reasons :
1. The cheque is stale.
2. The cheque is mutilated.
3. The cheque is post dated.
4. Insufficient funds in the account of the person issuing the cheque.
5. Difference in amount in both words, figures mentioned on the cheque.
6. If there is any over writing or cutting without attestation by the issuing person.
7. If the signature of the person issuing the cheque differs from his specimen signatures
Q.32. What is the difference between Soaps and Detergents ?
Ans. Difference between Soaps and Detergent
1. Soaps are made from fat and alkali by saponification method.
2. They are cheap.
3. They are suitable for delicate clothes.
4. They clean better in hot water.
5. They don’t produce lather with hard water and are not able to clean the cloth.
6. Lot of water is needed to remove soap from the cloth.
Detergents 1. They are carbonic compounds which are not alkaline.
2. They are costly.
3. They are suitable for delicate clothes.
4. They clean both in hot as well as in cold water.
5. They clean the cloth even in hard water.
6. They are removed very easily and with lesser quantity of water.
Q.33. How do your improve the intelligence of children?
Ans : For training children to have better intellectual capabilities one of the most important thing to do is to overcome their environmental poverty. The children especially during the initial years of their life should be brought in an atmosphere of dense environmental stimulations. They should be given exposure to as much objects and events as possible in their environment. This will make him harness his abilities to the most to develop needed competencies to cope up with the diverse skills and abilities that these environmental factor will demand of him. Apart from this a proper training should also be imparted to the children to develop the necessary skills before their critical period for learning such abilities is over.
Q. 34. What should be the environment for Leisure activities ?
(a) Surface of play fields : It includes artificial turf or natural grass. The interest in artificial turf continues because of the advantage of having a uniform and constant playing surfaces. Relative merits of artificial turf versus natural turf is a matter of the fact about the various types
of artificial turf. When astroturf and other type of artificial turfs were first introduced which was said about their importance in the prevention of injuries.
(b) Conditions of the playfields : We have to lay great stress on the condition of the field-not only the game field which is often reserved for weekends, but particularly the practice fields. However, a little rudimentary care and common sense will accomplish the greater part of the same objectives. Each sport has its individual field requirements. A fine, natural turf may well be preferable to artificial turf.
(c) Centralized facilities : The concept of centralized facilities suggests that particularly in urban areas, courts and fields must be provided. Sports equipment must be available in the grounds for play.
(d) Coaching facilities : Well qualified coaches and sports trainer must be present for good training. This will develop healthy environment among the athletes and also prevent players from injuries. Players learn rules and regulation of games and sports.
(e) Education : Now new trends in education are taking place. School systems are seeking partner for many of their operations. This trend is generated in part by economics in part by philosophy and in part by all attempt to reach out of the community where real life experiences can be offered. This includes creating recreational atmosphere of learning. Knowledge about play is very much needed to enjoy that play.
(f) Usual spectators : Players are always encouraged by spectators. Sports environment is largely influenced by spectators. It will create sports culture in the society and healthy relations are developed with in the society.
Spectator oriented physical education leads to development of good and healthy sports environment.
(g) Balanced competition : Competitive athletics does have a real responsibility with regard to equalization of the competitors. The youngster is regulated not only according to age but according to size also so that the 50 kg 14 year old player does not compete with the 40 kg 12 year old player. This will create interest in others to compete and make participants mentally strong. Healthy competition environment promotes leisure activities. (h) Equipments : Athletic equipment has a great deal to do with developing environment for leisure activities. Good equipments are must for play. Certain items of equipment will add to the ability of the player and so are very desirable from the stand points of both coach and player.
(i) The parents attitude : The attitude of parents may make the difference between success or failure. In children as well as in adults it will be necessary to exert a certain amount of discipline and firmness. Parents can help in giving relaxation training, explaining the cause of tension, special instructions for change of daily activities and habit forming exercises.
Q. 35. What are the essential Elements of Healthful Environment ?
Ans. We have many dangerous enemies to worry about, enemies are too small to be seen without the aid of a powerful microscope. These are the enemies we call germs. They are with us wherever we go, whether we live in a city or in the country. Many germs are relatively harmless to the human body, others are vicious and deadly. Disease they cause, such as polio, small pox and AIDS are among the most serious known to man.
Germs are all around us, in the air we breathe and often in the water we drink. They find their way into our food, usually because of poor method of handling.
Education is very important to a person if he is to live healthy life. But education in the art of home-making is even more important for a young women, for into her hands has been committed the every future of human race. Every girl should be given thorough training in the principles of health, child care and home skills. Every day we need sunshine, fresh air, fresh water, clean surroundings and good friends and neighbours for healthy living.
Q. 36. What are the effect of Impure Air ?
Ans. We all breathe in air, we can feel and even-smell the air and say whether it is fresh or state. Different gases in the atmosphere are found in a definite ratio or proportions. There is cycling of the gases between the living organisms and atmosphere. It is due to organisms
that oxygen and Carbon dioxide are found in a balanced state in the atmosphere.
Harmful effects of impure air
1. Swelling in the lungs of man when any irritating substance enters the lungs.
2. The secretion of mucus increases due to which respiratory tracks are blocked and man coughs regularly.
3. Cough cause much pressure on the trachea of lungs as a result of which the lining membranes of alveoli burst.
4. Less surface is left for exchange of gases.
5. Irritation in eyes.
6. Lead interferes with the development of red blood cells, causes lung disease like asthma and cancer.
7. Low productivity in plants and loss of chlorophyll in plants.
Q. 37. What are the effects of radiations ?
Ans. Due to atomic explosions, testing— of nuclear devices and use of radio isotopes in industry and medicine.
The possibility of spread of radiation due to ‘radio active material is increasing in modem times.
Effects of radiations : Radiation can have both shot term and long term effects on the living organism depending upon the amount and length of exposure.
(i) This may lead to genetic/birth defects, cancer of body parts including leukemia (blood cancer).
(ii) Over exposure to X-rays may lead to cancer.
Pregnant females are advised not to get X-ray done for any diagnosis