Q. 19. What should a consumer do to avoid malpractice in weight and measurement ?
(i) The fruit and vegetable vendor should not be allowed to weigh by stone in place of standard weights.
(ii) In case of weighing scale, ensure that the needle is at zero.
(iii) Check the weights and ensure that the weights are not hollow or with false bottom.
(iv) The shopkeeper should not be allowed to weigh the goods along with packing.
(v) Befor e pur ch asin g packed goods, ch eck th e weight on the label.
(vi) If the consumer feels that the shopkeeper is using malpractices in weights and measures, he should immediately lodge a complaint with Weight and Measure Bureau.
Q. 20. Discuss the effect of colour on personality.
Ans : Colour of the dress reflects the personality of the wearer. Colour of the dress reflects the individual’s interest. Selection of the colour should aim at enhancing the personality of the wearer. Colours express varies moods like —
Orange — reflects lively, cheerful and joyous personality.
Green — friendly, peaceful and pleasant.
White — Clean and pure
Black — dignified, old and sophisticated.
Q. 21. Make a list of factors affecting the selection of clothes. Explain any two.
Ans : Various factors affecting the selection of clothes are :—
(i) Availability of money. (ii) Fashion and latest trends. (iii) Climate factors. (iv) Suitability to figure. (v) Suitability to occasion. (vi) Personality Expression. (vii) Maintenance and upkeep of clothing. (viii) Future purchase based on present stock. (ix) Selection based on occupation/activity. (x) Clothing selection and age. (xi) Clothing and Activity.
(a) Personality Expression —Your body build and personality determine the type of clothing that will look best on you. One way to decide on the type of clothes that express your personality in the best way is to remember the dress that got you most compliments. This type is the best suited for your personality, your complexion and your body size.
(b) Maintenance and upkeep of clothing — One should buy clothing that is easy to maintain and the one that will look nice and fresh for a relatively long period.
Now-a-days, we get fabrics with special finishes like shrink resistant, stain resistant, moth resistant, etc. Clothing made with these fabrics will be easy to maintain.
Q. 22. Which four points would keep in mind while purchasing a readymade dress for your two year old niece ?
(i) The fabric should be soft and comfortable.
(ii) The seam should be flat so that it can withstand many launderings.
(iii) A dress should have enough hem so that it can be let down to lengthen the dress for a growing child.
(iv) Placket should be long to allow easy and convenient getting in and out of the garment.
Q. 23. Write four precautions you will take while storing your woollen garments.
(i) Repair work if needed should be done before storing.
(ii) Put them in airtight zip-up garment bags to protect them from dust.
(iii) Dry-clean/hand wash using mild detergent before storing.
(iv) If you are putting woollens flat, sprinkle moth balls between layers of woollen clothing. (v) Storage space should be clean and dry to avoid mildew formation. Put insect repellant like neem leaves, naphthalene balls, etc., to keep insects away.
Q. 24. Present the precautions to be kept in mind while removing unknown stains.
Ans : Points to be kept in mind while removing unknown stains are :
(i) Try to recognize the stains.
(ii) Wash with soap and cold water.
(iii) Wash with soap and hot water.
(iv) Expose the stain to sunlight for bleaching it.
(v) Treat the stain with an alkaline solution.
(vi) Treat the stain with acidic solution.
(vii) Treat it with a bleach if the stain persists.
Q. 25. Write Short note on (1) Sensory motor stage (2) Pre-Operational Stage (3) Concrete Operation Stage (4) Formal Operational Stage.
Ans. (1) Sensory Motor Stage : This is the first stage of cognitive development. It spans from birth to 2 years. Cognition during this period is based on sensory and motor activities and is without the use of language/ symbols. Children of this age have very little knowledge of the world around them. Sensory and motor experiences start an understanding of the things in their environment.
The child starts accumulating these experiences and developing memory (object permanence). A 7-8 month old baby has a little memory. Some language development takes place by the time the child is 2 years old.
(2) Pre-Operational Stage : This period extends from ‘Toddler to Early childhood’– 2-7 years. Use of language/ symbols shows better cognition among these children. It paves way for memory and imagination.
However the child’s thinking is non-logical. He/she does not understand the viewpoint of others. They can only consider their own viewpoint. This means the children are ego-centric. The children often attribute feelings and intentions to objects e.g. a child reporting that the table hit him. Pre-operational children cannot account for more than one attribute e.g. the child cannot accept that his mother is also the aunt of Teesta.
(3) Concrete Operational Stage : Children between 8-12 years go through concrete operational stage. During this period children learn about numbers, length, liquids, volume, mass, weight and area. Development of these aspects brings about operational thinking. Children can now understand the viewpoint of others besides their own.Hence, they become less egocentric. These children can grade things (seriation). They also understand that fruits like apples and bananas are foods (This is called classinclusion). A concrete operational child develops an understanding that the capacity to hold water remains the same even when the shape of the container changes (this is called mastering conservation.) Similarly the child will understand that the amount of plasticine remains the same when turned into a ball or a cube. Children develop the ability of comparisons (called relational thinking). They use words like brighter, darker and lighter while comparing the different attributes.
(4) Formal Operational Stage : There is a marked improvement in learning, knowledge and mental development. This stage extends upto late adolescence. Intelligence is demonstrated through logical use of anguage and symbols. These adolescents demonstrate capabilities that were absent during the concrete operational stage. The teenagers in the formal operational stage are capable of :
thinking Thinking systematically
Reason out imaginary situations.
Q.26. What is Carbohydrates ? What are its functions ?
Ans. Carbohydrates are complex organic compounds made of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen. The proportion of hydrogen to oxygen is the same as that in water (H20).
Carbohydrates constitute the bulk of most diets. The carbohydrates constitute 60% to 90% of the total diet.
They are often referred to as saccharides.
Functions of Carbohydrates : Carbohydrates give 4 calories of energy/gm. All carbohydrates have to be converted into glucose for giving energy. Hence sugars give energy sooner than the startches.
Intake of cellulose and roughage help in the evacuation of waste from body. Hence, carbohydrates perform the regulatory functions in the body.
Carbohydrates, in particular the sugars improve the taste of foods. Sweets and desserts enjoy a special place in menu planning.
Some B-complex vitamins are synthesised in the gastro-intestinal tract by the intenstinal flora. These bacteria derive energy from carbohydrates for this purpose.
Carbohydrates are essential for the metabolism of fats. Pyruvic acid, a midway product of carbohydrate metabolism, is essential for completing the oxidation of fats.
Carbohydrates form bulk of the diet and thus have considerable satiety value.
Carbohydrates should be taken in sufficient amounts to meet the calorie needs. If there is less carbohydrate in the diet, the proteins will be utilized for energy instead of repairing old tissues and synthesizing new ones.
Carbohydrates taken in adequate amounts have a protein sparing action.
Q.27. What are the contributions of Pulses, Legumes and Nuts in Our body ?
Ans. The protein content of pulses is qualitatively and quantitatively better than that of the cereals. Pulses lack the aminoacid, methionine. Red grams even lack tryptophan. When pulses are eaten with cereals, the biological value improves. The protein content of soyabeans is 40% and is the highest among all pulses.
Pulses are particularly rich in vitamins like thiamine and folic acid. Chinese use soyabeans in a variety of sauces and pastes used in their preparations. Addition of small amounts of soyabeans in diets can be of immense value because of their high protein content. Pulses are deficient in vitamin C.
Sprouting of pulses improves the vitamin-C content. Sprouting also changes the texture, improves digestibility and availability of iron and B-group vitamins.
Nuts and Oil Seeds are equally rich in fat and protein contents. Protein isolates (after the removal of oil from nuts and seeds) are being used for different therapeutic preparations these days. Protein isolates form part of important diet suppliments for sick and undernourished individuals.
This group provides proteins for maintenance and building purposes. But for nuts this group provides cheaper proteins.
Q.28. Discuss briefly the properties of cotton fibres and its use and care.
Ans. Physical Properties : Cotton fibres are short ranging from 1/2" to 2" and are cylindrical. The width is measured in microns and it is 16-20 microns. Ripe cotton fibre is flat and shows natural twists when viewed under a microscope. The twists gives strength to the fibre and make it easier to spin into long fibres. The twists are called “convolutions”. It is low in lustre.
The cotton fibres vary in colour, i.e. white to cream.
Cotton wrinkles easily. Cottons are generally given suitable treatment to overcome wrinkling.
It absorbs a fair amount of moisture. Hence cottons absorb perspiration thereby giving a cooling effect. It is this property that makes cotton suitable for summer months in tropical countries.
It has low elasticity.
The cotton fabric is made shrink resistant because it has tendency to shrink.
Cotton fibres are 25% stronger when wet. Hence they do not require gentle care.
Thermal Properties : It is a good conductor of heat.
It can withstand high temperature. It can be boiled in water for considerable time without much damage.
It gets scorched with hot ironing.
Chemical Properties : Cotton does not get affected by mild alkalis. Hence most soaps and detergents can be used without the fear of damage. Strong alkalis change the nature of the fibre.
Hydrochloric acid (HCl) and sulphuric acid (H2SO4) weaken the cotton fibre.
Hard water has a tendency to discolour the fibre.
Cotton fibres dye better when they have undergone mercerisation.
Biological Properties : Silver fish lives on cellulose and hence is capable of damaging the cotton. It is a common practice not to starch cottons before putting away for long periods.
Cotton gets spoilt by mildew during hot and humid weather conditions.
Use and Care of Cotton : Cottons can withstand rough handling and most detergents. Coloured clothes are better dried in shade to avoid discolouration. Ironing while moist ensures the removal of all wrinkles. Starched cottons give good finish.
Q.29. Discuss the linguistic stage of a child.
Ans. (a) Comprehension : Comprehension is the ability to understand other’s language and gestures. Though the child is not able to speak but is able to understand what people say to a great extent. Six months old understands meaning of ‘No’ and stops immediately whatever he is doing. When mother says ‘come’ he pushes himself towards his mother. 8 to 10 months old is able to understand instructions from his mother. He is able to understand elder’s anger, happiness, and fear and starts responding accordingly. His facial gestures also corresponds with elder’s gestures.
(b) Vocabulary : As the child grows their vocabulary increases. The vocabulary of child is of two types
(i) General (ii) Specific. (i) General vocabulary : General vocabulary is used in common situations like ‘Good’, ‘bad’, ‘beautiful’ food’, ‘Dada’, ‘Nana’ ete. Child learns those words which are useful for him. He learns to use Nouns first and then pronuns. He learns to use repetitive sounds first like ‘Mama’ ‘Da-da’ etc. Eighteen months old learns to use adjectives like ‘good’, ‘bad’ etc. 2 years old starts using verbs and pronouns. Around 200 to 300 words he is able to learn. Mostly he uses the word ‘I’.
(ii) Specific vocabulary : Three years old start learning specific vocabulary e.g., names of different colours, coins, flowers etc. Adolescents learn to use secret language also.
(c) Sentence making : Eighteen months old expresses himself by using two words e.g., “Mama-Dada”, “PapaToffee” etc. Three year old starts making small sentences.
Four year old make sentences comprising of seven words.
Grammar is also almost correct. Intelligent children make correct and long sentences.
(d) Pronunciation : In the beginning , the pronunciation of the child is not clear but gradually it becomes clearer. 3 year old has reasonably clear pronunciation. Individual difference is always found in the language development of the child. Language is learnt by imitation. Child learns to pronounce as the people around him speak. If they speak ‘wrong’ language or ‘bad’ language the child also learns the same. Sometimes they miss certain alphabet or they may pronounce wrongly, e.g., “Lakhnow’ is pronounce as “Nakhlaw” “Bazar” as “Bazzi”. Sometimes people speak child like language and the child picks up and even if he grows up don’t leave it. e.g., “shu-shu’ for urine, “mum-mum’ for water etc.Parents should always try to speak in a clear tone to the child and discourage him to speak child like language after a certain age.
Q.30. What are the importance of breast milk ?
Ans. 1. Breast feeding by mother to infants is an old Indian tradition. After giving birth to a child, a clear yellow coloured liquid called colostrum is secreted for 3-4 days from mother’s breasts. Mostly mothers don’t feed this milk to the infants. But this milk is very useful for infants :
(i) Colostrum contains sufficient nutrient and has vital qualities.
(ii) 1t contains large amount of anti-bodies and white blood cells to protect the child against infections.
(iii) Colostrum also has some growth inducing nutrients.
Hence breast feeding for the infant becomes very important from the very first day of its birth.
After 3-4 days of infant’s birth mother’s breast start secreting milk. It is the best for infant because :
2. Mother’s milk is the most nutritive and balanced food for an infant. It has all the required nutrients in adequate amounts and proportion for the infant.
No doubt mother’s milk has lesser amount of nutrient than animal’s milk like cow’s milk, goat’s milk, buffalo’s milk etc., but still it is the best for an infant as it is in accordance with its nutritional requirements.
3. Mother’s milk is suitable for the delicate digestive system of an infant. Lacto albumin protein present in it is easily digestible.
4. In the beginning mother’s milk is light to suit that the delicate digestive system of the infant. But with the growth of the organs of an infant, it also starts getting thicker and more in quantity.
5. Breast milk is free from contamination as the infant gets it directly from mother’s breast.
6. It is safe, easily available and free from any adulteration.
7. Mother’s milk is neither hot or cold. The infant gets it at the appropriate temperature.
8. Mother’s milk is economical as mother does not spend additional money on feeding the infant.
9. It protects the infant against infections and food allergies.
10. It also provides emotional satisfaction to both the mother and the child. The infant feels secure during breast feeding by the mother.
Mother’s milk is not suitable for the infant in certain circumstances like :
(i) If the mother is suffering from some serious disease like T.B., Cancer, heart problem, anaemia etc.
(ii) Pregnancy of mother.
(iii) Lower nutritional status of the mother.
(iv) Inability of child to breast feeding like, weakness in infants, mouth disability etc.
Q.31. What are the aims of insurance policy ?
Ans. A policy holder takes up an insurance policy because of following aims :
1. Family protection : The main aim of life insurance is to provide economic protection to the family of the policy holder especially in case of untimely death.
2. Economic Help in Old Age : The money earned in this scheme can be reinvested in old age or after retirement. The interest thus earned makes policy holder economically sound.
3. For education or Marriage of Children : The money invested in this scheme helps the policy holder in the higher education and marriage of children at a later date.
4. For property tax : The money received after the death of policy holder helps in paying property tax.
5. Relief in Income Tax : The policy holder gets rebate in income tax on the payment of premium amounts.
Q.32. The same fire which melts butter hardens steel! Explain this phenomenon in the content of the frustration and stress resolution in personality development with examples.
Ans : The vulnerability of an individual on a stressful situation depends not merely on the nature of the stress.
It is rather determined by the interaction of the magnitude and nature of stress and the individual’s ability to cope. In a frustration related situation, if an individual mobilizes all his resources to cope up effectively with the situation he may come out stronger to live another day. On the other hand, if instead of mobilzing his resources he acquires an attitude of helplessness he may succumb for all time to come.
People of weak personality who usually adopt an escapist tendency by resorting more to ego-defense reactions in face of frustrating situations end up developing mental disorder and deficiencies. A student who fails may start blaming the teacher for partiality and parents for disturbing him during the exams. He ends up developing a rebellious attitude by saying that he will not study any more because his teachers are dishonest and the whole system is imperfect. Later this boy may end up as an unemployed and a destructive youth. On the
other hand, if the boy says that he will work still harder in order to improve his performance may go on getting better results. Later he may end up as a bright and successful youth. So if one develops a soft and vulnerable personality he will melt like a butter and his personality may get deformed and degenerated. On the other hand if he develops a resilient and strong personality he many go on improving himself and may end up as a healthy and growing individual.
It has been found that people who resort more to ego defensive reactions will more likely fall in the ‘butter’ category while people who try to stand up to the frustrating situations by resorting to task-oriented reactions fall in the ‘steel’ category. Based on such similar criterion another distinction has also been made. It divides individuals into type-A and type-B patterns. Type A people are those who are always tense, harsh, alert, hostile, ambitious etc. They don’t realistically appraise the stress situation and therefore overreact to them. They are more prone to coronary diseases. On the other hand, are the less coronary prone diseases people who are usually relaxed, calm, gentle, humorous, friendly, doesn’t mind delay etc. They respond to the stress provoking situation with calm and cool with realistically appraising appropriate responses. This, then, makes them more resilient and help them develop a healthy and growing personality.
Q. 33. Describe the prevention of accidents at home and neighbourhood.
Ans. (a) Safety measures to prevent falls :
1. Keep things at proper place after using them (especially toys, broom, maps etc.)
2. Floors should be kept dry and clean - Highly polished floors can be a very serious hazard.
3. Stairs should be kept well lighted and provided with hand railing. It should be climbed slowly and one step at a time.
4. Do not allow children to fly kites on roof tops.
(b) Safety measures to avoid fire
1. Match boxes, burning stoves and open flames should be kept out of reach of children.
2. Never bane a flame or wick lamp in the room when going for sleep.
3. After using the gas close the gas appliance, as well as the stop cork of the gas cylinder. 4. Do not wear synthetic garments white cooking.
( c) Safety me sures to prevent poisoning, suffocation and chocking
1. All the containers of poisonous substances must be neatly labelled and kept where young children not reach. 2. The bottles of medicines should never be thrown out where children play.
3. The containers of inflammable articles, insecticides, and fertilizers should be kept properly packed and out of reach of children.
(d) Safety measures to prevent cuts and electric shocks
1. Electrical appliances when connected with electricity should be kept out of reach of children.
2. Home use articles like knife etc. must be used carefully and place away from children.
(e) Safety measures to prevent dirty surroundings and buildings
1. Clean the surroundings and buildings with phenyl and other antiseptics to prevent spread of diseases.
2. Children should not be allowed to play in dirt.
Education plays a great role in prevention of accidents. If a person have. knowledge to handle machine he can prevent himself from accidents. He know bad effects of drugs and also avoid alcohol and drugs.
Q.34. Discuss the prevention of accidents at school and work place.
Ans. 1. Provisions of proper light and ventilation :
The effect of working environment on health includes lighting and airflow. These conditions cause physical and mental stress on worker and major cause of accidents.
2. Provisions of proper work space : Working place or teaching class rooms should not be over crowded to get best results and prevent from risk of injuries.
3. Provision of good buildings : Buildings must be in good conditions chances of accidents are more in old and poorly designed buildings.
4. Heavy machines : Health problems are always more to the people who are working on heavy machines as they create more noise. If two or more persons working on single machine. There may lack of co-ordination among them and this will cause accidents.
5. Provision of good site and surrounding of work place : The school or work place must be surrounded by unpolluted atmosphere to prevent communicable diseases and other health problems.
6. Provision of pure water and proper sanitary disposals : There should be provision of pure. water supply in the schools· and work places and facilities of clean and well lighted sanitary system to prevent accidents and diseases.
7. Heavy Vechicular Traffic : Most of the workers and students come from far distances. Heavy traffic vehicles onroads are also a major cause of accidents. To protect accidents on roads proper traffic rules are followed and traffic police can also help in controlling the road accidents.
8. Use of Dangerous chemicals : In most of factories dangerous chemicals are used which cause harm to the workers working in them. In school laboratories also same dangerous chemicals are used for experiments.
Accidents are very frequent while working with chemicals.
Best way to ‘protect yourself from these accidents are (i) Use protective measures like gloves, aprons etc. (ii) Work with chemicals, under complete super visions of the teacher etc.
Q. 35. What should be done to avoid accidents in Sports ?
Ans. (i) Ground conditions : Games should be played in good grounds. Uneven playgrounds having stones or pebbles have greater possibility of accidents. This may prove dangerous to the player.
(ii) Condition of equipments : If any sports equipment is not in working order. It should not be used. Information regarding the repair of sports equipment should be given to physical education teacher or coach. (iii) Safety instruments : Games and sports are dangerous activities. Most of these activities needs precautions from accidents. The suggested safety instruments should be properly used. Safety equipments like mattresses, pads, gloves etc. are very helpful.
(iv) Attention : A player should pay full attention in the game while playing it. He should be constantly watchful. This will reduce chances of accidents.
(v) Drugs : Drugs makes muscles weak and exerts over burden on the organs. Loss of concentration and control on body will be there due to drugs. Muscular coordination becomes poor, reaction time increases, judgement of distance becomes less accurate by continues drug intake which will be the major cause of accidents.
(vi) Fatigue : The position of complete fatigue is when the muscles losses the power of contraction or pulling is reduced in it. The player should avoid excessive fatigue because in such conditions, there is more danger of getting hurt.
(vii) Laws : Rules and regulations are very much helpful in prevention of sports injuries and accidents.
Psychological pressure on players can be countered by laws. Laws bound the players to play with in limits. One should play according to laws and with good feelings. It should also be expected from other players that they too would behave in the same manner.
(viii) Preparatory activities : Physiological and psychological warming up before performing sports activity can also reduce accidents. Before doing the activities which require sufficient strains and pull of the muscles the body should be warmed up well.
(ix) Sportsman’s kit : The kit of sportsman does effect his performance in games. For playing a game comfortably and in a balanced manner one should be very conscious about the selection of the equipment to be used by him and particular dress for that activity to reduce accidents.
Q. 36. What is the role of individual in improvement of environment for health promotion and prevention ?
Ans. An individual can inform, motivates and helps peoples to adopt and maintain healthy practices and life style that promotes healthier living. He can discuss argue and motivate people to change their behaviour. Following way can be adopted for improvement.
(i) Information by lectures : It is an effective way of educating the community. The choice of the subject must related directly to the interest and need of the group.
Lecture can be made effective by combining the audiovisual / aids such as films and charts, models, specimens and flesh cards etc.
(ii) Motivating people to change their habits and ways of living : Many present day problems of community health require change in human behaviour viz. out-door defection, physical inactivity, family planning, smoking alcoholism, drug addiction’s, deforestation etc. Mere information is not sufficient for e.g. the knowledge that tobacco and alcohol are harmful to health does not in itself ensure that people will give them up. After information motivation must be developed in them by a process of change of behaviour.
(iii) Comprehension : We must know the level of understanding, education and literacy of people to whom the teaching it directed. We should always communicate in the language people understand and never use words which are strange and new to the people.
(iv) Scientific approach : Health facts must be truthful and based on scientific knowledge. For e.g increased CO2 (Carbon dioxide) levels in the atmosphere can cause global warming. The communicating media must be attractive and acceptable.
(v) Individual can take help of leaders : We learn best from the people. Whom we respect, therefore approach the community through the local leaders such as school teachers. The political / social workers and doctors etc. for reforestation and other programmes.
(vi) Reinforcement : Repetition of. a programme at frequent intervals is extremely useful. For e.g. celebrating vanmahotsava enthusiastically and other similar mass plantation programmes.
(vii) Organising group discussions : It is considered to be an effective method of health teaching. It is a two way communication i.e. people learn by exchanging their views and experiences. This method is useful where the groups have common interests and similar problems. For an effective group discussion the good as well as bad points of the solution should be thoroughly and honestly discussed.
(viii) Reforestation : Planting trees in place of cut down forests is known as reforestation. A reforestation programme may include the following.
(a) Growing of at least three new plants for every single tree that has been cut.
(b) Enforcement of strict environmentally. against falling of trees.
(c) Practising silviculture, the cultivation of forest trees, as it provides wood for industries and also increase area under the forest cover.